Samudra, Sāmudra: 18 definitions

Introduction

Samudra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Sāmudra (सामुद्र, “oceanic”):—One of the six types of habitats (deśa).—These geographical habitats are divided according to their bhūtas. Jāṅgala has a predominance of Kapha and Pitta. Skilled physicians should account for the nature of the habitat when treating a patient. The word is used throughout Ayurvedic (India medicine) literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

2) Sāmudra (सामुद्र) refers to “fish found in seas and marine water”. It is also known as sāmudramatsya. In the science of Āyurveda (ancient Indian healthcare), the meat of a fish (matsya) is used and prepared in balanced diets. Sāmudra fish decrease gases and are useful for the eyes. The Dhanvantarinighaṇṭu is a 10th-century medicinal thesaurus (nighaṇṭu) containing characteristics and synonyms of various herbal plants and minerals.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

1) Sāmudra (सामुद्र) refers to one of the six varieties of “salt” according to Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra II.15.16 (also Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna I.88-89), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—We cannot see any reference to the salt in Ṛgveda. But most of the non-Ṛgvedic Saṃhitas, Brāhmaṇas and Upaniṣads refer to salt in the name of lavaṇa or saindhava. [...] Kauṭilya (Arthaśāstra II.15.16) mentions six varieties of salt [viz., Sāmudra].

Sāmudra (sea-salt) refers to “castor-oil” and is mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., āranāla gruel]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., sāmudra (sea-salt)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

2) Sāmudra (सामुद्र) or Sāmudramatsya refers to “fish found in sea” and are classified as “aquatic” (apcara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as aquatic (apcara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The properties of [viz., fish found in sea (sāmudra-matsya)], are also well detailed herein.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Samudra (समुद्र) refers to classification of a temple/buidling (prāsāda), according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 63. The temple is mentioned being part of the group named Nāgara, which contains twenty different Prāsādas (temples/buildings). The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Samudra (समुद्र).—Gave śankha to Pṛthu; the lavaṇa samudra encircles Jambūdvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 15. 19: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 15. 13.

1b) Agni at Viśvasya (Viśvavyaca, Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa) located in Brahmasthāna.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 29. 22: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 12. 24.

1c) 1,000×1,000×10 crores.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 97.

1d) The seven seas; source of the waters;1 lord of rivers;2 southern ocean sacred to Pitṛs;3 rise as the moon waxes and go down as the moon wanes as also at moon rising and setting every day; the rise is estimated to be about 115 inches in height;4 the residence of the Lord.5

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 2. 34. Vāyu-purāṇa 27. 26: 56. 57.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 8. 6.
  • 3) Ib. 22. 39.
  • 4) Ib. 123. 32-4.
  • 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 97. 22.

2) Sāmudra (सामुद्र).—See samudra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 128, 131-5.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Sāmudra (सामुद्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.47, IX.44.11) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sāmudra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Samudra (समुद्र) is the Sanskrit name for a deity to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (eg., to Samudra).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayana

Samudra is the name of a mahāsiddha, of which eighty-four in total are recognized in Vajrayāna (tantric buddhism). His title is “the pearl diver”. He lived somewhere between the 8th and the 12th century AD.

These mahāsiddhas (eg., Samudra) are defined according to the Abhayadatta Sri (possibly Abhayākaragupta) tradition. Its textual origin traces to the 11th century caturāsiti-siddha-pravṛtti, or “the lives of the eighty-four siddhas”, of which only Tibetan translations remains. Samudra (and other Mahāsiddhas) are the ancient propounders of the textual tradition of tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Samudra (“ocean”) is one of the exogamous septs (divisions) among the Kurubas (a tribe of South India). The Kurubas are sub-divided into clans or gumpus, each having a headman or guru called a gaudu, who gives his name to the clan. And the clans are again sub-divided into gotras or septs (viz., Samudra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Samudra.—(EI 10), an epithet of Śiva. Note: samudra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Samudra.—(EI 16), same as sapta-ambhodhi; name of a mahā- dāna; also means 4 (rarely 7). Note: samudra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

samudra (समुद्र).—a (S sa for saha With, mudrā Seal.) Sealed or stamped.11

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samudra (समुद्र).—m (S) A sea or an ocean. Pr. samudrāsa dukhaṇēṃ śimpīnta auṣadha. 2 Used figuratively of anything illimitable, unfathomable, incomprehensible; also for any vast collection or aggregation (as of the Deity, of human life, of language, science, perfections, powers, virtues). It thus forms some useful compounds; as bhavasamudra, saṃsāra- samudra, brahmajñānasamudra, māyāsamudra, guṇasamudra, śabdasamudra. samudrākhālacā Lying along the seashore. samudrācēṃ arghya samudrāsa Used where of gifts received a portion is given back to the donor. samudrācēṃ mīṭha ḍōṅgarācē avaḷē (miḷaṇēṃ) Said of the meeting or coming together of distant or very different persons, or things, or matters. sātā samudrāñcyā palīkaḍē Beyond the seven seas, i. e. exceedingly remote (extra flammantia maenia mundi). sātā &c. ṭhēvaṇēṃ To hold as exceedingly precious: also to place beyond the reach of harm; or to take extremely great care of. samudrānta jāūna or paḍūna kōraḍā or sukā, also samudrānta kōraḍā or sukā Used of an unlucky wight whom no affluence of advantages and facilities can benefit. 2 Used also of one who, wallowing in iniquity, lays claim to innocence and purity. samudrānta suī pāhaṇēṃ or śōdhaṇēṃ To look for a needle in a bundle of hay.

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sāmudra (सामुद्र).—a (S) Relating to the sea, marine, oceanic.

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sāmudra (सामुद्र).—n S A spot or mark on the body.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

samudra (समुद्र).—m A sea or an ocean. a Sealed.

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sāmudra (सामुद्र).—a Marine, oceanic. n A mark on the body.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samudra (समुद्र).—a. Sealed, bearing a seal, stamped; समुद्रो लेखः (samudro lekhaḥ); समुद्रे नाप्नुयात् किंचिद्यदि तस्मान्न संहरेत् (samudre nāpnuyāt kiṃcidyadi tasmānna saṃharet) Ms.8.188.

-draḥ 1 The sea, ocean.

2) An epithet of Śiva.

3) The number 'four'.

4) Name of an immensely high number; शतं खर्वसहस्राणां समुद्रमभिधीयते । शतं समुद्रसाहस्रं महौघमिति विश्रुतम् (śataṃ kharvasahasrāṇāṃ samudramabhidhīyate | śataṃ samudrasāhasraṃ mahaughamiti viśrutam) || Rām.6.28. 37.

5) A particular configuration of stars and planets.

-drā 1 The plant zedoary.

2) The Śamī tree.

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Sāmudra (सामुद्र).—a. (-drī f.) [समुद्रे भवः अण् (samudre bhavaḥ aṇ)] Sea-born, marine, as in सामुद्रं लवणम् (sāmudraṃ lavaṇam).

-draḥ A mariner, voyager; a sea-faring merchant; कोट्यापरान्ताः सामुद्रा रत्नान्युपहरन्तु ते (koṭyāparāntāḥ sāmudrā ratnānyupaharantu te) Rām.2.82.8.

-dram 1 Sea-salt.

2) The cuttle-fish bone.

3) A mark or spot on the body.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Samudra (समुद्र).—(1) name of a Buddhist convert: Divyāvadāna 376.19 ff.; (2) name of another convert, in a vaguely similar story: Avadāna-śataka ii.61.4 ff.; (3) name of a nāga king: Mahā-Māyūrī 246.16.

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Samudrā (समुद्रा).—name of a rākṣasī: Mahā-Māyūrī 241.31.

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Sāmudra (सामुद्र).—v.l. °drika, subst. (so [Boehtlingk and Roth]) or adj., (having to do with) chiromancy (in Sanskrit as subst., and perhaps so here): °dra-(v.l. °drika-)-jñānavidhijñaś ca naimittikas Lalitavistara 268.4 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samudra (समुद्र).—mfn.

(-draḥ-drā-draṃ) Sealed, stamped. m.

(-draḥ) A sea, an ocean. E. sam before undi to be wet, and rak aff.; or sa for saha with, and mudrā a seal; also thence signifying a limit, (i. e. bounded by continents,) or a jewel, (the receptacle of gems,) or sam with, udra an otter; or sa with, muda pleasure, or sam together, uda water, and to give or have, aff. ka, &c.

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Sāmudra (सामुद्र).—mfn.

(-draḥ-drī-draṃ) Marine, sea-born, &c. n.

(-draṃ) 1. A spot or mark on the body. 2. Sea-salt. 3. Cuttle-fish-bone. m.

(-draḥ) A mariner, a voyager. E. samudra the sea, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samudra (समुद्र).—i. e. I. sam-und + ra, m. A sea, the ocean, [Pañcatantra] 157, 25; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 68, 6. Ii. sa-mudra (cf. mudrā), adj. Sealed, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 188.

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Sāmudra (सामुद्र).—i. e. samudra + a, I. adj. Marine, sea-born. Ii. m. A mariner, a voyager. Iii. n. 1. Seasalt. 2. Cuttle-fish bone. 3. (i. e. sa -mudra + a, see mudrā), A spot or mark on the body (cf. the next).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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