Ardraka, Ārdraka: 20 definitions


Ardraka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) refers to “wet ginger” and is classified as a ‘heavy foodstuff’ as opposed to śuṇṭhi (dry ginger), according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Heavy food should [viz., ārdraka] to be eaten only until one is half satisfied. Light food [viz., śuṇṭhi] can be eaten until the full satisfaction is obtained. A man whose digestive fire is weak, should abandon heavy food.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) (one of the tryuṣaṇa) refers to the medicinal plant Zingiber officinale Roxb., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Ārdraka] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Zingiber officinale Roxb. (Ārdraka) is known as Śṛṅgavera (or Śuṇṭhī, Viśvabheṣaja, Viśva, Nāgara) according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Zingiber officinale Rosc. (fresh)” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning ārdraka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) is the Sanskrit name for a medicinal plant identified with Zingiber officinale Rosc. or “ginger root” from the Zingiberaceae or “ginger” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.27-29 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.—Note: Śuṇṭhi is dried and specially prepared form of Ārdraka by removing the outer scales of the rhizome. The major part of the oil of ginger remains in these scales and is obtained from the Śuṇṭhī/Ārdraka with scales.—Ārdraka is commonly known in Hindi as Adraka; in Bengali as Adā; in Marathi as Alen; in Gujarati as Adu; in Telugu as Allamū; and in Tamil as Injī.

Ārdraka is mentioned as having fifteen synonyms: Gulmamūla, Mūlaja, Kandala, Vara, Śṛṅgabera (Śṛṅgavera), Mahīja, Saikateṣṭa, Anūpaja, Apākaśāka, Ārdrākhya, Rāhucchatra, Suśāka, Śārṅga, Ārdraśāka and Sacchāka.

Properties and characteristics: “Ārdraka is pungent (kaṭu), hot (uṣṇa), cardiac tonic. Its vipāka is cooling (śīta) and light (laghu). It is digestive stimulant and appetizer and it relieves oedema and the diseases due to vitiated kapha. It is gooed for the throat disorders”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) refers to “undried ginger”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Ārdraka is mentioned as a spice (verses 494, 760). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक).—The father of Dhṛti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 124.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: A Metallurgical Study of Nāga Bhasma

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) refers to the medicinal plant known as Zingiber officinale Linn., and is used is in the metallurgical process for creating nāgabhasma, (Śodhana step):—Raw nāga (crude Lead-600 g) was subjected to śodhana by melting and pouring into a container of cūrṇodaka (lime water, strength 4.3 g/l) seven times. [...] The śodhana of Manaḥśilā (chemical composition As2S2) was done by subjecting it to seven bhāvanās (levigation) in Ārdraka (Zingiber officinale Linn.) svarasa.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Yoga Magazine: 2005

Ayurveda calls ginger 'the universal remedy'. It is from the Zingiberaceae family and its botanical name is Zingiber Officinale. In Sanskrit it is called ardhrakam (Ārdraka, or, Śuṇṭhī) and in Hindi adrakh. It was widely used by ancient Indian and Chinese medicine. Both the Moghul emperor Akbar and Confucius ate fresh ginger with every meal as a digestive and carminative. It contains a volatile oil.

Crushed fresh ginger can be rubbed on the forehead for the relief of headaches. It can be chewed for sore throats and lost voices. Ginger candy is used for throat lozenges. In India, ginger juice is the equivalent to mustard plaster, applied to children's chests when they suffer from colds and bronchitis. Sliced ginger, with the skin removed, in heated milk removes rheumatic pains, dyspepsia, wind, etc. Contemporary medicine considers ginger a potent antidote to motion sickness, as well as being anti-cholesterol and an anti-coagulant.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) in Sanskrit or Adda in Prakrit refers to the plant Zingiber officinale Roscoe. This plant is classifed as ananta-kāya, or “plants that are inhabited by an infinite number of living organisms”, and therefore are abhakṣya (forbidden to consume) according to both Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246) and Hemacandra (in his Yogaśāstra 3.44-46). Those plants which are classified as ananta-kāyas (e.g., ārdraka) seem to be chosen because of certain morphological peculiarities such as the possession of bulbs or rhizomes orthe habit of periodically shedding their leaves; and in general theyare characterized by possibilities of vegetative reproduction.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Ardraka in India is the name of a plant defined with Zingiber officinale in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Amomum angustifolium Salisb., nom. illeg. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Bull. Bot. Survey India (1972)
· Verhandelingen van het bataviaasch genootschap van kunsten en wetenschappen (1790)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Fl. Sichuanica (1992)
· Cytologia (1998)
· Nucleus (1984)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Ardraka, for example pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, extract dosage, side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ārdraka (आर्द्रक).—m S Ginger in the undried state, green ginger.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ārdraka (आर्द्रक).—m Green ginger.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक).—a. (- f.) [आर्द्रा-वुन् (ārdrā-vun)] Born under the constellation Ārdrā; cf. P.IV.3.28.

-kam Ginger in its undried state, wet ginger (Mar. āleṃ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक).—n.

(-kaṃ) Ginger in the undried state. E. ārdra moist, and vun aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ārdraka (आर्द्रक):—[from ārdra] mf(ikā)n. wet, moist, [Bhāvaprakāśa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

2) [v.s. ...] born under the constellation Ārdrā, [Pāṇini 4-3, 28]

3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a king, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] n. ([and f(ikā). , [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]]) ginger in its undried state, [Suśruta]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. Ginger.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ārdraka (आर्द्रक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Allaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ardraka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ārdraka (ಆರ್ದ್ರಕ):—

1) [noun] = ಆರ್ದ್ರ [ardra]2.

2) [noun] an apparatus for dampening; a device that dampens; a damper.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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