Kushtha, Kuṣṭha: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kushtha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kuṣṭha can be transliterated into English as Kustha or Kushtha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to “leprosy” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the bodily (śārīra) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (e.g., kuṣṭha) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to “leprosy” and other skin diseases. The word is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā and the Suśrutasaṃhitā. It is said to be of eighteen types:

  1. Carmākhya,
  2. Vicarikā,
  3. Śatāru,
  4. Visphoṭa,
  5. Pāmā,
  6. Carmadala
  7. Dadru,
  8. Vipādikā,
  9. Alasaka
  10. Kiṭima,
  11. Ekakuṣṭha,
  12. Kākaṇa,
  13. Sidhma,
  14. Puṇḍarīka,
  15. Ṛṣyajihva,
  16. Maṇḍala,
  17. Uḍumbara,
  18. Kapāla.


2) Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) is a Sanskrit word referring to Saussurea lappa, a species of thistle from the Asteraceae (daisy) family of flowering plants. In English, the plant is known as “costus” or “kuth”. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is a robust perennial plant, growing up to 2 meters in height. It grows throughout the Kashmir between 2500 - 4000 meter altitude. Its leaves are membranous with bluish-purple flowers in the axillary and terminal heads. The fruits are compressed, surved achenes, having a penetrating characteristic odour.

This plant (Kuṣṭha) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to “leprosy”, mentioned in verse 4.18 and 5.12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Erysipelas, urticaria, leprosy [viz., kuṣṭha] itching of the eyes, jaundice, and fever as well as cough, dyspnea, palpitation of the heart, freckles of the face, and swellings of the skin (result) from (suppressed) vomiting. A gargle, an inhalant, a fast, after one has eaten pungent (food)—its ejection, gymnastics, a bloodletting, and a purgative (are) commended in this case”.

Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to “disease of skin”. Medicinal formulations in the management of this condition include 79 references of Vatsanābha usages. Guṭikā is maximum (48) dosage form in the management of Kuṣṭha. Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to “leprosy” (and other skin diseases) and is dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha (chapter 6) written by Hastiruci.—In kuṣṭha-hara-yoga (Leprosy alleviating formulation) instead of Hiṅgu (Asafoetida) and Kṣīra (Milk), Snuhi kṣīra (Latex of Euphorbia neriifolia) is mentioned in few manuscripts.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to the medicinal plant known as Saussurea lappa, and is employed in the treatment of poison (viṣa), such as that resulting from maṇḍali (viperine snake-bites) and maṇḍaliviṣa, according to the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The third chapter covers maṇḍali (viperine) snake treatment. [...] Vegānusāra-cikitsā (stage wise treatment), specific symptoms and treatment of 16 types of maṇḍali snakes are explained here. E.g.: In rakta-maṇḍali bite, bleeding from nose and mouth, foul smell, deep enmity, hatred, fainting etc. will be seen. When these are the symptoms, curd, trikaṭu (three pungents), saindhava (rock salt), butter, honey and Kuṣṭha (Saussurea lappa) should be mixed and used internally. Management of complications in maṇḍali viṣa also has been explained. Management of complications in maṇḍaliviṣa also has been explained. [...]

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) or Kuṇṭha refers to the medicinal plant Saussurea lappa C.B.Cl., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Kuṣṭha] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

1) Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to “leprosy/skin disease” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kuṣṭha] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

2) Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kuṣṭha] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Kuṣṭha, a type of herb found in Ayurvedic texts. (Saussurea lappa)

Source: Academia.edu: Description of some of the Plants mentioned in Sanskrit Literature

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke):—Kuṣṭha is hot in potency, pungent, sweet in taste, increases semen, bitter, easily digestable, cures gout, herpes, cough, leprosy and other diseases and mitigates Vāta and Kapha. Synonyms: Rogāhvaya, Vāpya, Pāribhavya and Utpala.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kuṣṭha).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ).—n (S) Leprosy. 2 Costus Arabicus.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ).—[Uṇ.2.2]

1) Leprosy (of which there are 18 varieties); गलत्कुष्ठाभिभूताय च (galatkuṣṭhābhibhūtāya ca) Bh.1.9.

2) A sort of poison.

3) A kind of tree; Costus specious, see कोष्ठ (koṣṭha); Rām.2.94.24.

4) (-m.) cavity of the loin.

-ṣṭhā The mouth or opening of a basket.

Derivable forms: kuṣṭhaḥ (कुष्ठः), kuṣṭham (कुष्ठम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ).—n.

(-ṣṭhaṃ) 1. Leprosy, of which eighteen varieties are enumerated, seven great or severe, and eleven of minor importance. 2. A plant, a kind of costus, (Costus speciosus:) 3. A sort of poison. E. kuṣ to extract, and ktham Unadi affix, or ku bad, ill and stha being, staying.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ).—m. and n. 1. A plant, Costus speciosus, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 94, 23. 2. i. e. kuṣ + tha, Leprosy, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 89.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ).—[masculine] [Name] of [several] plants (also [neuter]); [feminine] kuṣṭhā point, beak, hind-claw; [neuter] leprosy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ):—mn. ([from] 1. ku + stha, [Pāṇini 8-3, 97]) the plant Costus speciosus or arabicus (used as a remedy for the disease called takman), [Atharva-veda; Kauśika-sūtra 35; Rāmāyaṇa ii, 94, 23; Suśruta]

2) the plant Saussurea auriculata

3) m. (= kakundara) cavity of the loin [Comm.; but perhaps = kuṣṭhikā] [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxv, 6]

4) Kuṣṭhā (कुष्ठा):—[from kuṣṭha] f. the prominent part of anything, mouth or opening (of a basket), [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa xxi; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra] [commentator or commentary] on [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

5) [v.s. ...] = kuṣṭhikā (taken as measure equal to ‘one-twelfth’), [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā iii, 7, 7]

6) Kuṣṭha (कुष्ठ):—n. leprosy (of which eighteen varieties are enumerated, id est. seven severe and eleven less so), [Suśruta; Bhartṛhari i, 89; Kathāsaritsāgara]

7) a sort of poison, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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