Brihati, Bṛhatī: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Brihati means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Bṛhatī can be transliterated into English as Brhati or Brihati, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Bṛhatī (बृहती):—One of the sixty-eight Rasauṣadhi, very powerful drugs known to be useful in alchemical processes related to mercury (rasa), according to Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara (chapter 9).

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Bṛhatī (बृहती):—A Sanskrit word referring to “Indian barberry” and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is also known by the Sanskrit names Vṛhatī or Siṃhī and in Hindi it is known as Barhaṇṭā or Birhaṭṭā. Its official botanical name is Solanum violaceum (common synonyms: Solanum chinense, Solanum indicum or Solanum anguivi) and is commonly referred to in English as “Indian Nightshade”, “Asian nightshade” and “Poison berry”.

This plant (Bṛhatī) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is mentioned being part of the Daśamūla, the Pañcamūla, Bṛhatīdvaya, Bṛhatyādigaṇa and the Haridrādvaya groups of medicinal drugs.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Bṛhatī (बृहती).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—It is also known as Vārttāka as it bears fruits like those of brinjal. It is bitter, pungent, hot and alleviates kapha, vāta and disorders of grahaṇī.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Bṛhatī (बृहती) is the Sanskrit name for a medicinal plant identified with Solanum indicum var. lividum (synonym of Solanum anguivi or ‘forest bitterberry’ or ‘African eggplant’) from the Solanaceae or “nightshades” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.23-25 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. Bṛhatī is commonly known in Hindi as Baṛī-katerī or Van-bhantā; in Bengali as Byākurā; in Marathi as Dorlī; in Gujurati as Ubhī-riṅgaṇī; in Telugu as Tellamulākā; and in Tamil as Papparāmūllī.

Bṛhatī is mentioned as having fourteen synonyms: Mahatikrāntā, Vārtākī, Siṃhakākulī, Rāṣṭrikā, Sthalakaṇṭā, Bhaṇṭākī, Mahoṭikā, Bahupatrī, Kaṇṭatanu, Kaṇṭālu, Kaṭphalā, Ḍoralī and Vanavṛntākī.

Properties and characteristics: “Bṛhatī is pungent, bitter and hot in potency. It controls vāta and relieves fever. It cures aversion to food and improper digestive metabolism (āma-doṣa). It is used successfully in cough, asthma and cardiac disorders”.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Bṛhatī (बृहती) refers to a type of vegetable which is prescribed for dried vegetables (karcarī), according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—There is another section namely Karcarī-prakaraṇa deal with the properties of dried vegetables. Cirbhiṭa (cucumber), kāravallī (bitter gourd) bṛhatī and śuṣkavārtāka (brinjal) are the vegetables that are prescribed for this.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Bṛhatī (बृहती) refers to the medicinal plant known as Solanum indicum, Pl., and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Bṛhatī. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Bṛhatī (बृहती) (one of the pāñcamūlikā) refers to the medicinal plant Solanum indicum L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Bṛhatī] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Bṛhatī (बृहती) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Solanum anguivi Lam.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning bṛhatī] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bṛhatī (बृहती) refers to a plant of which the flowers are used in the worship of Śiva, in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.15. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Firmly resolved in her desire to secure Śiva as her husband, she [viz., Satī] propitiated him in her own house with the permission of her mother. [...] On the Caturdaśī day in the bright half of Āṣāḍha (June-July) wearing a black cloth, she worshipped Rudra with Bṛhatī flowers (kusuma)”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Bṛhatī (बृहती).—Mother of Cākṣuṣamanu. Two sons, Śiṣṭhi, and Bhavya were born to Dhruva by his wife Śambhu. Succhāyā the wife of Śiṣṭhi gave birth to five sons, Ripu, Ripuñjaya, Vipra, Vṛkala and Vṛkatejas. These sons were sinless. Bṛhatī was the wife of Ripu. Cākṣuṣa Manu was born to Ripu and Bṛhatī. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Chapter 13).

2) Bṛhatī (बृहती).—One of the seven horses of the Sun. The seven horses of Sun are, Gāyatrī, Bṛhatī, Uṣṇik, Jagatī, Tṛṣṭup, Anuṣṭup and Paṅkti. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 2, Chapter 8).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Bṛhatī (बृहती).—The mother of Yogeśvara.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 32.

1b) Poetic metre;1 a horse of the Sun's chariot.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 21. 41; Matsya-purāṇa 125. 47; Vāyu-purāṇa 51. 65.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 22. 72; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 5.

1c) Wife of Ripu and mother of Cākṣuṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 102; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 13. 2.

1d) A daughter of Bṛhaduktha-Śaineya and wife of Pūru; had three sons and a daughter, Śvetā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 255; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 246.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Bṛhatī (बृहती) is the wife of Ripu: one of the five sons of Chāyā and Sṛṣṭi, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Dhruva had four sons—Sṛṣṭi, Dhanya, Harya and Śaṃbhu; they all were Vaiṣṇavas. Chāyā gave birth to five sons of Sṛṣṭi; they were Ripu, Ripuṃjaya, Vipra, Vṛṣala and Vṛkatejas. Bṛhatī the wife of Ripu gave birth to Cakṣuṣa. Puṣkariṇī gave birth to Cākṣuṣa Manu, the son of Cakṣuṣa.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Bṛhatī (बृहती) refers to a class of rhythm-type (chandas) containing nine syllables in a pāda (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. There are twenty-six classes of chandas and out of them arise the various syllabic meters (vṛtta), composed of four pādas, defining the pattern of alternating light and heavy syllables.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Bṛhatī (बृहती).—A Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरि-ष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी (purastādbṛhatī, upari-ṣṭādbṛhatī, nyaṅkusāriṇī) or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्व-बृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा (urobṛhatī, ūrdhva-bṛhatī viṣṭārabṛhatī, pipīlikamadhyamā) and विषमपदा (viṣamapadā). For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Bṛhatī (बृहती) is one of the twenty-six varieties of Sanskrit metres (chandas) mentioned in the Chandaśśāstra 1.15-19. There are 26 Vedic metres starting with 1 to 26 letters in each pāda. It is a common belief that the classical metres are developed from these 26 metres. Generally a metre has a specific name according to it’s number of syllables (akṣara). But sometimes the same stanza is called by the name of another metre from the point of view of the pādas.

Bṛhatī is one of the seven prominent metres mentioned by Piṅgala as being associated with the Devatā (deity): Bṛhaspati, Svara (note): Madhyama, Colour: black and Gotra (family): Āṅgirasa.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Bṛhatī (बृहती) refers to a type of fruit and is used in oblation offerings, according to verse 25.137-141a of the 8th-century Īśvarasaṃhitā. Accordingly, “... they [eg., bṛhatī] are already cooked, filling the cooking vessels (sthālī) and dishes (śarāva) are to be kept in all broad frying vessels (ambarīṣa). They are to be placed on vessels (pātra) smeared with (within) ghee (ghṛta), are hot and are to be spread out there. They which are heated and made greasy with powdered peppers, jīraka and ghee are to be stirred again and again with ladle. They are to be kept in vessels covered with clothes etc”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Bṛhatī.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘nine’. Note: bṛhatī is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bṛhatī (बृहती).—A plant, called also riṅgaṇī, Prickly nightshade. 2 A plant, called also ḍōralī, Sola- num macrorhizon. 3 Applied with polite covertness, from the notion of amplitude or broad expanse, to the Posteriors, and, by some not overparticular, to the Anus.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Bṛhatī (बृहती) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Sv. Oppert. 4667. Ii, 4754.

2) Bṛhatī (बृहती):—a
—[commentary] on the Mīmāṃsāsūtra, by Prabhākara Guru. Hall. p. 180.

3) Bṛhatī (बृहती):—Sv. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 58.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bṛhatī (बृहती):—[from bṛhat > bṛṃh] a f. See sub voce

2) [from bṛṃh] b f. [from] bṛkat Name of a [particular] metre of 36 ([originally] 8+ 8+12+8) syllables or (later) any metre containing 36 syllables (ifc. (tīka) mfn.), [Ṛg-veda; Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a symbolical expression for the number 36 [???]

4) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) Name of [particular] bricks forming part of the sacrificial fire-altar, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Śulba-sūtra]

5) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Solanum (-dvaya n. two species of it), [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Suśruta]

6) [v.s. ...] a part of the body between the breast and backbone, [Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] ([dual number]) heaven and earth, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

8) [v.s. ...] speech (a sense inferred from certain passages)

9) [v.s. ...] a mantle, wrapper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] a place containing water, reservoir, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] the lute of Nārada or Viśvā-vasu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of two works.

13) [v.s. ...] Name of sub voce women, [Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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