Historical Elements in the Matsya Purana

by Chaitali Kadia | 2021 | 91,183 words

This page relates ‘Puru dynasty’ of the study on the historical elements of the Matsya-purana: one of the eighteen Mahapuranas which are Sanskrit texts that have preserved the cultural heritage, philosophy, religion, geography, etc of ancient India. This Matsyapurana was originally written in 20,000 verses and deals with topics such as architecture, ancient history, polity, religion and philosophy.

Janamejaya (First) was the son of Yayāti’s youngest son Puru. He had a son named Prācītavta (Pracīnavanta) who settled the Pracī (East) direction. Manasyu was the son of Prācītvata. Manasuyu’s son was king Vītāuyudha (Abhaya). His son became the king named Dhundhu. Dhundhu had a son named Bahuvidha (Bahuvidya, elsewhere Bahugava) and his son was Sanyāti. Sanyāti’s son was Rahanvarca and his son was Bhadrāśva (Raudrāśva). From the womb of Apsarā Ghṛtā (Ghṛtācī, elsewhere Miśrakeśī), Bhadraśva gave birth to ten sons. They were Auceyu (Ṛcheyu in many Purāṇas), Hṛṣeyu, Kakṣeyu, Saneyu, Dhṛteyu, Vineyu, Śreṣṭh Sthaleyu, Dharmeyu, Sannateyu and Puṇyeyu. The wife’s name of Auceyu was Jvalanā, who was the daughter of Nāgarāja (King of Snake) Taksaka.

From her womb Anciyu gave birth to son King Ratināra (It is often in everywhere as Matināra but in the Bhāgavata that is Rantibhāra). Rantināra gave birth to a lot of son from his wife Manasvinī among them Amūrtaraya and Trivana were the main. Rantināra’s third child was a daughter named Gaurī who was very beautiful and became ___ mother of Māndhātā. Ilinā was the daughter of Yamarāja. She gave birth to a child from Trivana named Ailina who was great in Brahmavāda . By the connection of Ailina (Ailika, Transu or Jansu), Upadānavīgave birth to four sons named Ṛṣyanta, Duṣyanta, Pravīra and Anagha. Among them the second son Dusyanta gave birth to Bharata from the womb of Śakuntalā. Bharata became the Cakravartī king later. By the name of Bharat his lineages were called as Bhārata.[1]

In the past, all the sons of Bharata were destroyed. This great destruction of his son took place due to the anger of the mother. Seeing this, the Marudganas brought bharadvāja, son of Bṛhaspati and dedicated him in the hands of Bharata. Bṛhaspati left his son in the forest and left.[2] All the earlier sacrifices made for the birth of a son had become Vitatha (fruitless), so Bharadvāja became famous by the name of Vitatha. That Bharadvāja also produced both Brāhmana and Kṣatriya son on the earth, who became famous by the name Dvyāmuṣyayaṇa and Kaulīna.[3] Mahāyaśasvī Bhuvamanyu was the son of Vitatha. Bhuvamanyu had four sons Bṛhatkṣatra, Mahāvīrya, Nara and Garga. They were as same powerful as Vāyu and all. Nara’s son was Sankrti. Sankṛti had two sons named Mahāyaśasvī Gurudhī and Rantideva. They were born from the womb of Satkṛti. Śibi were originated by Garga as his son. Their lineages were famous by the name Garga and Śaivya. Śibi had two sons Urukṣava and Āhāryatanaya. Wife of Urukṣava, Viśalā gave birth to three sons named Tryaruṇa, Puṣkari and Kavi. All these are called Urukṣavas and finally they all were attained Brahmanism . In the descendants of Kāvya (Bhārgava Gotra , Pravara ) these three are called Maharṣi . Thus people born in the lineage of Garga, Sankṛti and Kavi were Brahmins with Kṣatriyans. Angirā gotriya Bṛhatkṣetra also ruled this prosperous land. Bṛhatkṣetra had a son named Hasti. He settled a town named Hastinapur in the past. Hasti had three supremely brilliant sons named Ajamidha, Dvimīda and Purumīda. Ajamidha had three wives, who originated in Kurukula. They were famous as Nālinī, Dhūminī and Keśinī. Ajamidha gave birth to many sons from their womb who were equal, majestic, glorious and righteous of all the Gods. A son named Kanva was born from the wombof Keśinī of Ajmidha. He had a son named Medhātithi. Kānvāyana Brahmins (Ṛgveda Saṃhita –8/55/4, Brahmanotpatti Mārtanda , Bhāgavata 12/1/49) originated from him. Originated from him. King Brhadanu was bron as a son of Ajamidha frm the womb of Bhūminī (Dhūminī). Bṛhadanu’s son was Bṛhanta and Brhanta’s son was Bṛhanmanā. Bṛhanmanā’s son was famous as Bṛhaddhanu. Bṛhaddhanu’s son was Bṛhadisu and his son was named Jayadratha. Jayadratha originated Aśvajita as his son and Aśvajita’s son was Senājita. Senājita had two sons, Dṛdaratha and king Vatsāvartaka. Among them the lineages of Vatsāvartaka were famous as Parivatsaka. Pṛthusena was the son of Rucirāśva. From Pṛthusena Paura and from Paura Nīpa was born. Nīpa had hundred glorious sons. They were all kings and became famous as Nīpa. Kāvaya gave birth to a son named Samara who was a descendant of these Nīpas. Samar had three sons named Pāra, Sampāra and Sadasca, who were full of all qualities and famous on the world. Pṛthu was born from Pāra and Sukṛti was the son of Pṛthu. From him, a son named Vibhrāja was born with all the qualities. Vibhrāja’s son was Mahāyaśavī and mighty Anuha, who was the son-in-law of Śukadevajī and husband of Kṛtvī. Anuha’s son was king Brahmadatta. His son was Yugadatta and his son was Viṣvaksena. As a result of his virtuous action, king Vibhrāja himself took birth again as Viṣvaksena. The son of Viṣvaksena was Udakasena.

His son was Bhattata. He established Bhattanagara (a town near Suleman mountain), where king Śaśidhvaja (Kalki Purāṇa A. 21-22) was famous and this son was Janamejaya (Second). In order to protect this Janamejaya, Ugrāyudha killed all the Nīpa king.[4] From Dhūminī’s womb, Ajamidha gave birth a son named Yavīnara. His son was Dhṛtimāna and his son was called Satyadhṛti. Satyadhṛti’s son was glorious, who adorned on the world as a monarch. In that vast dynasty he had a son named Mahāpaurava. King Rukmaratha was the son of Mahāpaurava. Rukmaratha’s son was Supārśva. From Supārśva, Sumati was originated as his son. Sumati had a son named Sannatimāna. Sannatimāna’s son was great king Kṛta who became a disciple of Mahātma Hiranyanābha (Kouthuma) Kauśalya. Ugrāyudha was the son of this Kṛta who expanded the Paurava dynasty. He was the person who killed the father of Pṛthu, Pāñcāla king Nīla. Ugrāyudha had a son named Kṣema. From Kṣema Sunītha and from Sunītha, Nṛpanjaya was born. From Nṛpanjaya Viratha was born as his son. These all kings were famous as Paurava.[5] King Nīla was born from the womb of Nīlinī, wife of Ajamidha. Nīla’s fiery austerity resulted the bron of Suśānti. Susānti gave birth to Purujānu and from him Pṛthu was born. Pṛthu’s son was Bhadrāśva. Mudgala, Jaya, king Bṛhadiṣu, Javinara and Kapila–these five were the son of Bhadrāśva. The countries ruled by these five became famous as Pāñcāla . They were the protectors of Pāñcāla . Mudgal’s sons, who were two-born with Ksatriyans , became famous as Maudgalya. They joined in favour of the two pronged Angira arising in the tribe of Kanva and Mudgala. Mahāyaśasvi Bṛahmistha was born as the son of Mudgal. He had a son named Indrasena and his son was Vindhyāśva. It is heard that the twin children were born from Menakā’s womb buy children were born from Menakā’s womb by connection with Vidhyāśva. One of them was Rājarṣi Divodāsa and the other was Yaśasvinī Ahalayā. Ahalayā gave birth to Śatānanda by connection with Gautama. Śatananda’s son was a great scholar Satyadhrti, a great archer.[6]

The eldest son of Divodāsa was Mitrayu. Thereafter, Maitrāyana was born and then Maitreya. All these sons (Yayāti’s brother) were Yati’s supporters and were called Bhārgava . King Caidyavara was the son of Maitreya. From Caidyavara, scholar Sudāsa was born. Once the dynasty was destroyed, Ajamidha was born as the son of Sudāsa. He had another name Somaka. Somaka’s son was Jantu. After his death Ajamidha Somaka gave birth to hundred sons. Ajamidha had a wife name Dhūminī who was going to raise sons. Dhūminī gave birth to a son named Ṛkṣa, who was the eldest of his hundred brothers and whose body was colored Dhoom-Varṇa . Ṛkṣa gave birth to Sanvaraṇa and from him Kuru was born, who encroached Prayāga and imagined it as a pilgrimage of Kurukṣetra . King kuru kept plowing this Kurukṣetra in his hands for many years.[7]

Sudhanvā, Jahnu, Parīkṣita and Prajana–these were the four most beloved sons of Kuru. The son of Sudhanvā was king Cyavana, who was superior to the scholar. Cyavana had a son named Kṛmi, who was born of Ṛkṣa. Kṛmi’s son was great warrior Caidyoparica. He gave birth to seven sons by the connection with Girikā. The first of these was Mahārathī Magadharāja, who became famous by the name Bṛhadratha. After that the second Pratyaśravā, third Kuśa, the fourth Harīvāhana, the fifth became famous by the name Yajus and the sixth was Matsya. The seventh child was a girl named Kālī. Bṛhadratha’s son became known as Kuśāgra. Kuśāgra’s son was the mighty Vṛṣabha. The son of Vṛṣabha was king Punyavān. From Punyavān Punya and from him king Satyadhṛti was born. His son was Dhanuṣa and Dhanuṣa’s son was Sarva. Sarva’s son became Sambhava and from him Bṛhadratha was born. The son of Bṛhadratha was born in the form of two pieces, which were joined by a demon named Jarā. Due to the additionof Jarā, he became known as Jarāsandha. Mahābali Jarāsandha was the winner of all the kings and Kṣatriyas of his time. Jarāsandha’s son was a glorious Sahadeva. Sahadeva’s son were Laksmivān and Somavit. Due to ruling Magadha. Jahnu gave birth to a son named Bhūpāla Suratha. His son was Vidūratha. The son of Vidūratha was Sārvabhauma. From Sārvavauma Jayatsena was originated. Jayatsena’s son was Rucira. Rucira’s son was Bhouma and his son was Tvaritāyu. Akrodhana was the son of Tvaritāyee and his son was Devātithi. Devātithi had only one son named Dakṣa. From Dakṣa Bhīmsen was originated. His son was (Puruvaṃsī ) Dilipa and Dilipa’s son was Pratipa. Pratīpa had three sons named Devāpi, Śantanu and Bāhlīka. Bāhlīka had seven sons who were all kings in the country Bāhlīka (Balkha). Devāpi was blamed by the people. Therefore, he became a monk after leaving the royal seat.[8]

Prince Devāpi was a leprosy patient, so the people died not respect him. Śāntanu became king after Devāpi went to forest. Śāntanu accepted Jahnu’s daughter, Gangā as his wife and gave birth to a Kumāra named Devadratha who was also famous by the name Bhīṣma. Śāntanu’s another wife Dāśa’s daughter Kāli (Satyavatī) gave birth to a son named Vicitravīrya. Vicitravīrya was died and that situation he had no child. So for protect the dynasty Maharṣi Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana Vyāsadeva produced three sons from the womb of two wives of Vicitravīrya by the Niyoga system. The princes are Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Pāndu and Vidura (Dāsi’s son). Dhṛtarāṣṭra originated hundred sons from Gāndhāri. Among them Duryodhana was eldest and dearest of his father. Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Gāndhāri had also a girl-child named Duhśalā. Similarly, Pāndu had two wives named Kunti and Mādri. Due to sage’s curse Pāndu was unable to produce child. So the two wives of Pāndu gave birth five sons by the blessing of Gods. Kunti gave birth to Yudhisthira by connection with Dharmarāja, Vṛkodara (Bhimsen) by the Vāyu and Indrasriche mighty Dhananjaya (Arjuna) by Indra. Similarly, Mādri produced Nakula and Sahadeva by the connection with Aśvinī Kumars. By the connectionof these five Pandavas five sons were born from Draupadī’s womb. Among them, Draupadī gave birth to the eldest son Prativindhya by the connection with Yudhisthira, Śrutasena by Bhimsen, Śrutakirti by Arjuna. The fourth son was born from Sahadeva. His name was Śrutakarma and fifth son was born named Śatānika from Nakula. These five were called Draupadeya that is sons of Draupadī. Apart from these the Pāndavas also had six other Mahārathi sons. By Bhimsena’s connection a son named Ghatotkaca was born from the womb of a demon named Hidimbā. His second wife Kāśī had given birth to a son named Sarvaga. Sahadeva’s wife, Madrarāja Kumārī gave birth to Suhotra. Nakula produced a son named Niramitra from the womb of daughter of Cedirāja Kareṇumatī. By the Arjuna Subhadrā gave birth to a son named Abhimanyu who was a great warrior in the Mahābhārata . Devakī gave birth to a son named Youdheya from Yudhisthira. Abhimanyu’s son was Pariksita. Pariksita’s son was janamejaya (Third).[9]

Janamejaya produced a son named Śatānīka. Śatānīka had a son named Adhisīmakṛṣṇa.[10] Adhisīmakṛṣṇa’s son was Vivakṣu. After being submerged (shedding) by Gangā leaving Hastināpura Vivakṣu went to Kauśāmbi . He had great eight sons. Among them Bhūri was the eldest and Bhūri’s son was Citraratha. From Citraratha Śucidrava, from Śucidrava Vṛṣṇimān and from Vṛṣṇimān holy king Suṣena was born. Suṣena had a son named Sunītha. From Sunītha nrpacaksu was originated. Sukhīvala was the son of Nṛpacakṣu. Sukhīvala had a son named Pariṣṇava and Pariṣṇava’s son was Sutapa. Sutapa’s son was Medhāvīand Medhāvī’s son was Puranjaya. His son was Urva and Urva’s son was Tigmātmā. From Tigmātmā Bṛhadratha and from Bṛhadratha Vasudāmā was born. Vasudāma produced a son name Śatānīka and his son was Udayana. Udayana’s son was Vahīnara. Vahīnara had a son named Dandapāṇi. Dandapāṇi’s son was Niramitra and Niramitra gave birth to a son named Kṣemaka.[11]

Footnotes and references:


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 49/1–11


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 49/14, 15


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 49/32, 33


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 49/35–59


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 49/70–75, 77–79


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 50/1–9


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 50/13–17, 19, 20


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch.50/65, 66


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 50/41, 42, 44–57


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch.50/65, 66


Matsya Purāṇa, Ch. 50/78–87

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