Niyoga: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Niyoga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Niyog.

In Hinduism

Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra

Niyoga (नियोग) refers to “command” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Niyoga (नियोग).—An obligatory order or command, such as that of a preceptor, as contrasted with स्वभाव (svabhāva); cf धातोः परः अकारोऽकशब्दो वा नियोगतःकर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति (dhātoḥ paraḥ akāro'kaśabdo vā niyogataḥkartāraṃ bruvankṛtsaṃjñaśca bhavati) ......... स्वभावतः कर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति (svabhāvataḥ kartāraṃ bruvankṛtsaṃjñaśca bhavati) etc. M. Bh. on P. III. 4.67 Vart. 8 where Kaiyata explains नियोग (niyoga) as आचार्यनियोग (ācāryaniyoga).

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Niyoga (नियोग).—During the Vedic period there prevailed a system or custom which permitted either the husband or the wife who had no child by his wife or her husband to procreate a child in another woman or beget children by another man. That custom, called Niyoga fell into disuse after the Vedic period. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 256).

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Niyoga (नियोग):—[niyogaḥ] Injunction; statements in the form of command or orders which are to be followed strictly without doubt or discussion

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Niyoga.—(EI 24; SITI), an appointment; authority; the officer bearing the same. Cf. Niyogin, etc. Note: niyoga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

niyoga : (m.) command; order.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Niyoga, (ni+yoga) command, order; necessity. Abl. niyogā “strictly speaking” Dhs. 1417. (Page 368)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

niyōga (नियोग).—m S Appointment or assignation; ordering or authorizing; putting or setting to. 2 A command, mandate, direction, bidding.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

niyōga (नियोग).—m Appointment. A command, mandate.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Niyoga (नियोग).—1 Employment, use, application.

2) An injunction, order, command, direction, commission, charge, appointed task or duty, any business committed to one's care; यः सावज्ञो माधवश्रीनियोगे (yaḥ sāvajño mādhavaśrīniyoge) M.5.8; मनो नियोगक्रिययोत्सुकं मे (mano niyogakriyayotsukaṃ me) R.5.11; अथवा नियोगः खल्वीदृशो मन्दभाग्यस्य (athavā niyogaḥ khalvīdṛśo mandabhāgyasya) Uttararāmacarita 1; आज्ञा- पयतु को नियोगोऽनुष्ठीयतामिति (ājñā- payatu ko niyogo'nuṣṭhīyatāmiti) Ś.1; त्वमपि स्वनियोगमशून्यं कुरु (tvamapi svaniyogamaśūnyaṃ kuru) 'go about your own business', 'do your appointed duty', (frequently occurring in plays, and used as a courteous way of asking servants to withdraw).

3) Fastening or attaching to.

4) Necessity, obligation; तत् सिषेवे नियोगेन स विकल्पपराङ्मुखः (tat siṣeve niyogena sa vikalpaparāṅmukhaḥ) R.17.49.

5) Effort, exertion.

6) Certainty, ascertainment.

7) An invariable rule; न चैष नियोगो वृत्तिपक्षे नित्यः समास इति (na caiṣa niyogo vṛttipakṣe nityaḥ samāsa iti) ŚB. on MS.1.6.5.

8) Commission, act; न कर्ता कस्यचित् कश्चिन्नियोगेनापि चेश्वरः (na kartā kasyacit kaścinniyogenāpi ceśvaraḥ) Rām. 4.25.5.

9) Right (adhikāra); अलघुनि बहु मेनिरे च ताः स्वं कुलिशभृता विहितं पदे नियोगम् (alaghuni bahu menire ca tāḥ svaṃ kuliśabhṛtā vihitaṃ pade niyogam) Kirātārjunīya 1.16.

1) A practice prevalent in ancient times which permitted a childless widow to have intercourse with the brother or any near kinsman of her deceased husband to raise up issue to him, the son so born being called क्षेत्रज (kṣetraja); cf. Manusmṛti 9.59.:-देवराद्वा सपिण्डाद्वा स्त्रिया सम्यङ् नियुक्तया । प्रजे- प्सिताधिगन्तव्या सन्तानस्य परिक्षये (devarādvā sapiṇḍādvā striyā samyaṅ niyuktayā | praje- psitādhigantavyā santānasya parikṣaye) ||; see 6, 65 also. (Vyāsa begot pāṇḍu and dhṛtarāṣṭra on the widows of vicitravīrya in this way).

Derivable forms: niyogaḥ (नियोगः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niyoga (नियोग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. An order or command. 2. Authority, appointment. 3. Occupation, appointed duty. 4. Effort, exertion. 5. Ascertainment, certainty. 6. Incidence, occurrence. 7. The practise in ancient times by which a childless widow was permitted to have intercourse with the brother or any other near relative of her deceased husband to raise up issue to him. E. ni before, yuj to join, affix ghañ kutvam .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niyoga (नियोग).—i. e. ni-yuj + a, m. 1. Fastening, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3537. 2. Appointment, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 101, 19. 3. An order, a commission, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 41; 9, 61; 65. 4. ºena, instr. Certainly, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 17, 49.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niyoga (नियोग).—[masculine] attaching, fastening (only °—); use, employment; injunction, commission, appointment, command, order; necessity, destiny.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Niyoga (नियोग):—[=ni-yoga] [from ni-yuj] m. tying or fastening to (cf. -pāśa below)

2) [v.s. ...] employment, use, application, [Lāṭyāyana; Mṛcchakaṭikā]

3) [v.s. ...] injunction, order, command (gāt ind., or gena ind. by order of, ifc.), commission, charge, appointed task or duty, business ([especially] the appointing a brother or any near kinsman to raise up issue to a deceased husband by marrying his widow), [Manu-smṛti ([especially] ix, 59 etc.); Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Suśruta] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] necessity (gena ind. necessarily, certainly, surely, [Raghuvaṃśa]), obligation, fate, destiny, [Kāvya literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niyoga (नियोग):—[ni-yoga] (gaḥ) 1. m. An order; appointment; occupation; effort.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Niyoga (नियोग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇioga, Ṇijjoa, Ṇijjoga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Niyoga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Niyoga (नियोग) [Also spelled niyog]:—(nm) an ancient Aryan practice according to which a childless widow or woman was permitted to have sexual intercourse with a person other than her husband to beget a child.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Niyōga (ನಿಯೋಗ):—

1) [noun] the act of associating oneself or being associated with; an association; a union.

2) [noun] the act, fact of appointing (a person) to an office, position, etc.; the fact of being appointed so; appointment.

3) [noun] a job, duty for which one is appointed; assignment.

4) [noun] the occupation of a servant; service.

5) [noun] an observing of (a religious service, fulfilment of vow, etc.).

6) [noun] a group of persons appointed to manage, control local administration, business, etc.

7) [noun] a body of people acting, speaking as representatives of or that is authorised to act, speak for, others; a delegation.

8) [noun] the Veda.

9) [noun] a practice of a married woman having sexual intercourse with a man other than her busband to have a child or children, in case of her husband’s impotency or death (which practice was allowed by the earlier social code of conduct).

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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