Niyoga; 8 Definition(s)
Niyoga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)
Niyoga (नियोग) refers to “command” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.(Source): Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Niyoga (नियोग).—An obligatory order or command, such as that of a preceptor, as contrasted with स्वभाव (svabhāva); cf धातोः परः अकारोऽकशब्दो वा नियोगतःकर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति (dhātoḥ paraḥ akāro'kaśabdo vā niyogataḥkartāraṃ bruvankṛtsaṃjñaśca bhavati) ......... स्वभावतः कर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति (svabhāvataḥ kartāraṃ bruvankṛtsaṃjñaśca bhavati) etc. M. Bh. on P. III. 4.67 Vart. 8 where Kaiyata explains नियोग (niyoga) as आचार्यनियोग (ācāryaniyoga).(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Niyoga (नियोग).—During the Vedic period there prevailed a system or custom which permitted either the husband or the wife who had no child by his wife or her husband to procreate a child in another woman or beget children by another man. That custom, called Niyoga fell into disuse after the Vedic period. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 256).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Languages of India and abroad
niyoga : (m.) command; order.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Niyoga, (ni+yoga) command, order; necessity. Abl. niyogā “strictly speaking” Dhs. 1417. (Page 368)(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
niyōga (नियोग).—m S Appointment or assignation; ordering or authorizing; putting or setting to. 2 A command, mandate, direction, bidding.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
niyōga (नियोग).—m Appointment. A command, mandate.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Niyoga (नियोग).—1 Employment, use, application.
2) An injunction, order, command, direction, commission, charge, appointed task or duty, any business committed to one's care; यः सावज्ञो माधवश्रीनियोगे (yaḥ sāvajño mādhavaśrīniyoge) M.5.8; मनो नियोगक्रिययोत्सुकं मे (mano niyogakriyayotsukaṃ me) R.5.11; अथवा नियोगः खल्वीदृशो मन्दभाग्यस्य (athavā niyogaḥ khalvīdṛśo mandabhāgyasya) U.1; आज्ञा- पयतु को नियोगोऽनुष्ठीयतामिति (ājñā- payatu ko niyogo'nuṣṭhīyatāmiti) Ś.1; त्वमपि स्वनियोगमशून्यं कुरु (tvamapi svaniyogamaśūnyaṃ kuru) 'go about your own business', 'do your appointed duty', (frequently occurring in plays, and used as a courteous way of asking servants to withdraw).
3) Fastening or attaching to.
4) Necessity, obligation; तत् सिषेवे नियोगेन स विकल्पपराङ्मुखः (tat siṣeve niyogena sa vikalpaparāṅmukhaḥ) R.17.49.
5) Effort, exertion.
6) Certainty, ascertainment.
7) An invariable rule; न चैष नियोगो वृत्तिपक्षे नित्यः समास इति (na caiṣa niyogo vṛttipakṣe nityaḥ samāsa iti) ŚB. on MS.1.6.5.
8) Commission, act; न कर्ता कस्यचित् कश्चिन्नियोगेनापि चेश्वरः (na kartā kasyacit kaścinniyogenāpi ceśvaraḥ) Rām. 4.25.5.
9) Right (adhikāra); अलघुनि बहु मेनिरे च ताः स्वं कुलिशभृता विहितं पदे नियोगम् (alaghuni bahu menire ca tāḥ svaṃ kuliśabhṛtā vihitaṃ pade niyogam) Ki.1.16.
1) A practice prevalent in ancient times which permitted a childless widow to have intercourse with the brother or any near kinsman of her deceased husband to raise up issue to him, the son so born being called क्षेत्रज (kṣetraja); cf. Ms.9.59.:-देवराद्वा सपिण्डाद्वा स्त्रिया सम्यङ् नियुक्तया । प्रजे- प्सिताधिगन्तव्या सन्तानस्य परिक्षये (devarādvā sapiṇḍādvā striyā samyaṅ niyuktayā | praje- psitādhigantavyā santānasya parikṣaye) ||; see 6, 65 also. (Vyāsa begot pāṇḍu and dhṛtarāṣṭra on the widows of vicitravīrya in this way).
Derivable forms: niyogaḥ (नियोगः).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 8 books and stories containing Niyoga. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 9.69 < [Section IV - Duties of Women in Times of Distress (niyoga)]
Verse 9.59 < [Section IV - Duties of Women in Times of Distress (niyoga)]
Section IV - Duties of Women in Times of Distress (niyoga) < [Discourse IX - Duties of the King (concluded)]
Apastamba Dharma-sutra (by Āpastamba)
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter LXV - The Technical terms used in the treatise < [Canto V - Tantra-bhusana-adhyaya (embellishing chapters)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 6 - Conception of Sacrificial Duties in the Gītā < [Chapter XIV - The Philosophy of the Bhagavad-gītā]
Part 9 - Maṇḍana (a.d. 800) < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 13 - Logical Speculations and Terms relating to Academic Dispute < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Chapter XII - The Unconditioned Brahman < [B - Brahmavidyā Explained]
Chapter II - Brahma-vidyā in a Nutshell < [A - Brahmavidyā expounded]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)