Para, Parā, Pāra, Pārā: 20 definitions


Para means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Pāra (पार):—Son of Rucirāśva (one of the four sons of Syenajit). He had two sons named Pṛthusena and Nīpa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.23)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Para (पर).—An ancient King of Bhārata. (Śloka 234, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva).

2) Para (पर).—A Brahmavādī son of Viśvāmītra. (Śloka 55, Chapter 4, Anuśāsana Parva).

3) Pārā (पारा).—Another name for Kauśikī river. (Sloka 32, Chapter 71, Ādi Parva).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Parā (परा) is another name for Śakti (prime cause, created from the body of Īśvara), according to Śivapurāṇa 2.1.6, while explaining the time of great dissolution (mahāpralaya):—“[...] this Śakti is called by various names. Pradhāna, Prakṛti, Māyā, Guṇavatī, Parā. The mother of Buddhi Tattva (The cosmic Intelligence), Vikṛtivarjitā (without modification). That Śakti is Ambikā, Prakṛti and the goddess of all. She is the prime cause and the mother of the three deities. [...]”.

2) Parā (परा, “great”) is used to describe Śiva, in the Chapter 2.2.15. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On arrival there, after paying respects to the lord [Śiva] with great excitement we lauded Him with various hymns with palms joined in reverence. The Devas said: [...] Obeisance to the formless Being of immense form, the great (para), of unlimited power, the lord of the three worlds, the witness of all and all-pervasive”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Para (पर).—That which is Pūrva in the Parārdha becomes Para in Aparārdha;1 ety. the best.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 7. 13.
  • 2) Ib. 5. 37.

1b) One of the three sons of Samara of Kampili.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 177.

1c) (Param)—twice the number of Parāṛdha;1 it is Brahmā, knowledge, wealth and everything desirable;2 according to one mode of computation Para is itself Parārdha which means anything above parārdha, and is incalculable.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 90; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 92 and 99.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 99-102.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 2. 105-7, 143.

1d) Brahmā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 105-7.

2a) Parā (परा).—A gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 55.

2b) (or Pāra)—a Sāvarṇa Manu, with a gaṇa of 12, of which six names are mentioned.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 55, 57.

2c) A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 99.

2d) The fourth stage of Kāmākṣī, of four arms with Pāśa, Aṅkuśa, Ikṣukodaṇḍa, and Pañcabāṇa, in this form Lalitā got established at Kāñci.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 39. 13; 44. 141.

2e) A R. rising from the Ṛkṣa hill of the Bhāratavarṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 98.

3a) Pāra (पार).—A son of Rucirāśva and father of Nīpa and Pṛthusena.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 21. 24-25.

3b) One of the three sons of Samara*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 54; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 177; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 41.

3c) A son of Pṛthuṣeṇa, and father of Nīla*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 174; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 37-8.

3d) Gods of the ninth Manvantara.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 19. 19. Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 21.

4) Pārā (पारा).—A river from Ṛṣyavān.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 24.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Parā (परा) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.19). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Parā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Parā (परा):—One of the nine Dūtī presided over by one of the nine bhaivaravas named Ananta (emanation of Ananta himself, who is the central presiding deity of Dūtīcakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra and the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Para (पर).—(l) subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व (pūrva) or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; cf. विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (vipratiṣedhe paraṃ kāryam) P. I. 4. 2; (2) occurring after (something); cf. प्रत्ययः परश्च (pratyayaḥ paraśca) P. III. 1.1 and 2; cf. also तत् परस्वरम् (tat parasvaram) T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर (para) is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट (iṣṭa) or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ (śreṣṭha) possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर (para) in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं (viprātiṣedhe paraṃ kāryaṃ) with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; cf. विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति (vipratiṣedhe paraṃ yadiṣṭaṃ tadbhavati) M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची (paraśabdaḥ iṣṭavācī) M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārt. 7; II. 1.69 etc.

--- OR ---

Parā (परा).—The highest eternal voice or word, the highest and the most lofty of the our divisions of language (वाक (vāka)), viz. परा,पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा (parā, paśyantī, madhyamā) and वैखरी (vaikharī), which, (परा (parā)), philosophically is identified with नाद (nāda) (व्रह्म (vrahma)) or शब्दब्रह्म (śabdabrahma) . It is described as वर्णादि -विशेषरहिता चेतनमिश्रा सृष्ट्युपयोगिनी जगदुपादानभूता कुण्डलिनीरूपेण प्राणिनां मूलाधारे वर्तते (varṇādi -viśeṣarahitā cetanamiśrā sṛṣṭyupayoginī jagadupādānabhūtā kuṇḍalinīrūpeṇa prāṇināṃ mūlādhāre vartate) | कुण्डलिन्याः प्राणवायुसंयोगे परा व्यज्यते (kuṇḍalinyāḥ prāṇavāyusaṃyoge parā vyajyate) | इयं निःष्पन्दा पश्यन्त्यादयः सस्पन्दा अस्या विवर्तः । इयमेव सूक्ष्मस्फोट इत्युच्यते । (iyaṃ niḥṣpandā paśyantyādayaḥ saspandā asyā vivartaḥ | iyameva sūkṣmasphoṭa ityucyate |)

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

1) Para (पर) refers to the first of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.—Para is the highest and the transcendental form of the Supreme Being.

2) Parā (परा), Paśyantī, Madhyamā and Vaikharī are the four stages through which sounds pass through before they become audible. At first, it is in the form of air. Then it teaches the stage of Paśyantī. The next stage is called Madhyamā (Kal P. 182) and the last one is Vaikharī where it is uttered, tridhā: into three.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Pancaratra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā

Para (पर) refers to the “greatest” and is used as an epithet for Brahmā, in the Gargasaṃhitā chapter 6.3. Accordingly, “[...] by his mystic power he [viz., Raivata] traveled to Brahmaloka. His intention to ask for a proper husband for his daughter, he bowed before the demigod Brahmā. As the Apsarā Pūrvacitti was singing, he found his opportunity. Aware that now he had Brahmā’s attention, he spoke what was in his heart: ‘[...] You are the greatest (Para), the oldest, the seed from which this universe has sprouted, the great soul and the great controller. O Brahmā, you stay always in your own abode. You create, maintain, and destroy this universe’”.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Vaishnavism from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Para.—abbreviation of a modified form of Purohita (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 143). Note: para is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Para.—(LL), possibly, the chief. Note: para is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Pāra.—cf. a-pāra-asana-carm-āṅgāra (IE 8-5); probably, [free] ferrying of rivers [by the royal officers], which the villagers were obliged to provide. Note: pāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

para : (adj.) other; another; foreign; alien; outsider. || pāra (nt.), the opposite shore; the other side.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pāra, (adj. -nt.) (fr. para) 1. as adv. (°-) beyond, over, across, used as prep. with Abl. , e.g. pāra-Gaṅgāya beyond the G. S. I, 207, 214; SnA 228. See under cpds.—2. as nt. the other side, the opposite shore S. I, 169, 183; Sn. 1059; Nd1 20 (=amataṃ nibbānaṃ); Dh. 385; DhA. IV, 141 aparā pāraṃ gacchati to go from this side to the other (used with ref. to this world & the world beyond) S. IV, 174; A. V, 4; Sn. 1130; pāraṃ gavesino M. II, 64=Th. 1, 771—3. Cases adverbially: Acc. pāraṃ see sep.; Abl. pārato from the other side Vin. II, 209.—3. the guṇa form of para, another: see cpds. :

— or —

Para, (adv. -adj.) (fr. Idg. *per, *peri (cp. pari); Ved. para, parā, paraṃ; Lat. per through, Gr. pέra & pέran beyond; see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under per & also pari, pubba, pura, purāṇa) 1. (adv. & prep.) beyond, on the further side of (with Abl. or Loc.), over PvA. 168 (para Gaṅgāya, v. l. °āyaṃ). See in same meaning & application paraṃ, paro and parā & cp. cpds. like paraloka.—2. (adj.) para follows the pron. declension; cases: sg. Nom. paro Sn. 879, Acc. paraṃ Sn. 132, 185, Gen. Dat. parassa Sn. 634; Pv. II, 919, Instr. parena PvA. 116, Loc. paramhi Sn. 634, and pare Pv. II, 943; pl. Nom. pare Dh. 6, Acc. pare Dh. 257; PvA. 15, Gen. Dat. paresaṃ D. I, 3; Th. 1, 743; J. I, 256; Sn. 818, Instr. parehi Sn. 240, 255; PvA. 17.—Meanings: (a) beyond, i.e. “higher” in space (like Ved. para as opp. to avara lower), as well as “further” in time (i.e. future, to come, or also remote, past: see Loc. pare under c.), frequent in phrase paro loko the world beyond, the world (i.e. life) to come, the beyond or future life (opp. ayaṃ loko) Sn. 185 (asmā lokā paraṃ lokaṃ na socati), 634 (asmiṃ loke paramhi ca); Dh. 168 (paramhi loke); Pv. II, 83 (id. =paraloke PvA. 107); but also in other combination, like santi-para (adj.) higher than calm Dh. 202. Cp. paraloka, paraṃ and paro.—(b) another, other, adj. as well as n. , pl. others Sn. 396 (parassa dāraṃ nâtikkameyya), 818 (paresaṃ, cp. Nd1 150); Dh. 160 (ko paro who else), 257 (pare others); Pv. II, 919 (parassa dānaṃ); II, 943 (pare, Loc. = paramhi parassa PvA. 130); DhA. IV, 182 (Gen. pl.); PvA. 15, 60 (paresaṃ Dat.), 103, 116, 253 (parassa purisassa & paraṃ purisaṃ). Often contrasted with and opposed to attano (one’s own, oneself), e.g. at M. I, 200 (paraṃ vambheti attānaṃ ukkaṃseti); Sn. 132 (attānaṃ samukkaṃse paraṃ avajānāti); J. I, 256 (paresaṃ, opp. attanā); Nd2 26 (att-attha opp. par-attha, see cpds. °ajjhāsaya & °attha).—paro ... paro “the one ... the other” D. I, 224 (kiṃ hi paro parassa karissati); paro paraṃ one another Sn. 148 (paro paraṃ nikubbetha). ‹-› In a special sense we find pare pl. in the meaning of “the others, ” i.e. outsiders, aliens (to the religion of the Buddha), enemies, opponents (like Vedic pare) D. I, 2 (=paṭiviruddhā sattā DA. I, 51); Vin. I, 349; Dh. 6.—(c) some oblique cases in special meaning and used as adv. : paraṃ Acc. sg. m. see under cpds. , like parantapa; as nt. adv. see sep. In phrase puna ca paraṃ would be better read puna c’aparaṃ (see apara).—parena (Instr.) later on, afterwards J. III, 395 (=aparena samayena C.).—pare (Loc.); cp. Gr. parai/ at; Lat. prae before; Goth. faúra=E, for, old Dat. of *per) in the past, before, yet earlier J. II, 279 (where it continues ajja and hiyyo, i.e. to-day and yesterday, and refers to the day before yesterday. Similarly at Vin. IV, 63 pare is contrasted with ajja & hiyyo and may mean “in future, ” or “the day before yesterday. ” It is of interest to notice the Ved. use of pare as “in the future” opp. to adya & śvas); J. III, 423 (the day before yesterday). At DhA. I, 253 (sve vā pare vā) and IV. 170 in the sense of “on the day after tomorrow. ” —parā (only apparently Abl. , in reality either para+a° which represents the vocalic beginning of the second part of the cpd. , or para+ā which is the directional prefix ā, emphasizing para. The latter explanation is more in the spirit of the Pali language): see separately. —paro (old Abl. as adv. =Sk. paras) beyond further: see sep.—parato (Abl.) in a variety of expressions and shades of meaning, viz. (1) from another, as regards others A. III, 337 (attano parato ca); Nett 8 (ghosa), 50 (id.).—(2) from the point of view of “otherness, ” i.e. as strange or something alien, as an enemy M. I, 435 (in “anicca”—passage); A. IV, 423; Nd2 214II; Ps. II, 238; Kvu 400; Miln. 418 and passim; in phrase parato disvā “seen as not myself” Th. 1, 1160; 2, 101; S. I, 188 (saṅkhāre parato passa, dukkhato mā ca attato). ‹-› (3) on the other side of, away from, beyond J. II, 128; PvA. 24 (kuḍḍānaṃ).—(4) further, afterwards, later on S. I, 34; J. I, 255; IV, 139; SnA 119, 482.—Note. The compounds with para° are combinations either with para 1 (adv. prep.), or para 2 (adj. n.). Those containing para in form parā and in meaning “further on to” see separately under parā°. See also pāra, pārima etc.

— or —

Parā°, (prefix) (para+ā, not Instr. of para: see para 2 c; in some cases it may also correspond to paraṃ°) prep. meaning “on to, ” “over” (with the idea of mastering), also “through, throughout. ” The ā is shortened before double consonant, like parā+kṛ=parakkaroti, parā+ kram=parakkamati (see under cpds. of para). (Page 420)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

para (पर).—f (prakāra S) Way, manner, style (as of speech or action): also kind, sort, fashion. In this sense parīcā Strange; of an uncommon or a particular kind; parī prakāracā Of many sorts and fashions; various; parī prakārēṃ In various ways or modes.

--- OR ---

para (पर).—a (S) Strange, foreign, alien: also other, different. In comp. as paracakra, paradēśa, paradvāra, paradhana: also with words not Sanskrit, as paragāṃva, paraghara, paramulūkha, paraṭhikāṇā. 2 In comp. Appertaining to; following after; bearing respect, reference, relation to: also attached to; addicted to; engaged in. Ex. jñānaparaśāstra tumhī karmapara lāvūṃ mhaṇa- tāṃ tara lāgaṇāra nāhīṃ; lōkanindāparabhāṣaṇa karūṃ nayē; puṇyaparakarma karāvēṃ. 3 Uncommon, extraordinary.

--- OR ---

para (पर).—ad Beyond. 2 conj (parantu S) But, yet, nevertheless.

--- OR ---

para (पर).—m ( P) A feather. para phuṭaṇēṃ with or sa of s. To be fledged. 2 fig. To be growing up; to be advancing towards puberty: hence to be growing wanton or wilful--a child. 3 To find a patron, supporter, abettor; to be acquiring affluence, resources, means. para lāvūna-jāṇēṃ-paḷaṇēṃ-dhāvaṇēṃ-cālaṇēṃ To go quickly, to fly.

--- OR ---

parā (परा).—f S Speech in the first of its four stages,--the first stirring of the breath. See paśyantī, madhyamā, vaikharī. parādivācā Speech in all its stages or in whichever stage; speech comprehensively or indiscriminately. Ex. pa0 kuṇṭhita jēthēṃ || nijēṃ tēthēṃ nija bāḷā ||.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—m (S) The end, bottom, limit, lit. fig.; the farther side; the concluding bound; the ut- most reach or extent. Ex. nadī, samudra, māyā, prapañca, śāstra, ityādikāñcā pāra. 2 C A ford, esp. of a salt-creek. 3 R A petty inlet from the sea. 4 The bank or mass raised around the pimpaḷa, vaḍa, and other trees.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—ad On the other side; i. e. across, over, through, out of; as pāra paḍaṇēṃ To get safely out of or through (a difficulty or a business): to arrive at completion; to be duly and fully executed--a work. pāra pāḍaṇēṃ To convey across or over, lit. fig; to bring safely out of or through; to bring duly to completion. pāra jāṇēṃ To go through, to transpierce. 2 To arrive at the end contemplated, lit. fig.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—m (Corr. from prahara) A watch or period of three hours

--- OR ---

pārā (पारा).—m (pārada S) Quicksilver. 2 A young Jackfruit. 3 A plant, Agave vivipara. 4 W A layer (as of bricks on a wall).

--- OR ---

pārā (पारा).—a Spotted with black and white; pepper and salt--cattle &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

para (पर).—f Way, sort, fashion. parīcā Strange; of an uncommon kind. parī prakāracā Of many sorts. various; parī prakārēṃ In various ways or modes. a Foreign. Alien; different. Appertaining to; following after. Uncommon. ad Be- yond. conj But, yet. m A feather. para phuṭaṇēṃ To be fledged. To be growing up; to be growing wilful-a child.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—m The end, bottom, Limit, lit. fig. The farther side; the utmost reach.

--- OR ---

pārā (पारा).—m Quicksilver. A young Jack-fruit.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Para (पर).—a. [pṝ-bhāve-ap, kartari ac-vā] (Declined optionally like a pronoun in nom. voc. pl., and abl. and loc. sing. when it denotes relative position)

1) Other, different, another; see पर (para) m also.

2) Distant, removed, remote; अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः (aparaṃ bhavato janma paraṃ janma vivasvataḥ) Bg.4.4.

3) Beyond, further, on the other side of; म्लेच्छदेशस्ततः परः (mlecchadeśastataḥ paraḥ) Ms.2.23;7.158.

4) Subsequent, following, next to, future, after (usually with abl.); बाल्यात् परामिव दशां मदनोऽध्युवास (bālyāt parāmiva daśāṃ madano'dhyuvāsa) R.5.63; Ku.1.31.

5) Higher, superior; सिकतात्वादपि परां प्रपेदे परमाणुताम् (sikatātvādapi parāṃ prapede paramāṇutām) R.15.22; इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहु- रिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः । मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः (indriyāṇi parāṇyāhu- rindriyebhyaḥ paraṃ manaḥ | manasastu parā buddhiryo buddheḥ paratastu saḥ) || Bg.3.42.

9) Highest, greatest, most distinguished, pre-eminent, chief, best, principal; क्षत्रात् परं नास्ति (kṣatrāt paraṃ nāsti) Bṛ. Up.1.4.11. न त्वया द्रष्टव्यानां परं दृष्टम् (na tvayā draṣṭavyānāṃ paraṃ dṛṣṭam) Ś.2; Ki.5.18; परतोऽपि परः (parato'pi paraḥ) Ku.2.14 'higher than the highest'; 6.19; Ś7.27.

7) Having as a following letter or sound, followed by (in comp.).

8) Alien, estranged, stranger.

9) Hostile, inimical, adverse,

1) Exceeding, having a surplus or remainder, left over; as in परं शतम् (paraṃ śatam) 'exceeding or more than a hundred.

11) Final, last.

12) (At the end of comp.) Having anything as the highest object, absorbed or engrossed in, intent on, solely devoted to, wholly engaged or occupied in; परिचर्यापरः (paricaryāparaḥ) R.1.91; so ध्यानपर, शोकपर, दैवपर, चिन्तापर (dhyānapara, śokapara, daivapara, cintāpara) &c.

-raḥ 1 Another person, a stranger, foreigner; oft. in pl. in this sense; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि (yataḥ pareṣāṃ guṇagrahītāsi) Bv.1.9; Śi.2.74; see एक, अन्य (eka, anya) also.

2) A foe, an enemy, adversary; उत्तिष्ठमानस्तु परो नोपेक्ष्यः पथ्यभिच्छता (uttiṣṭhamānastu paro nopekṣyaḥ pathyabhicchatā) Śi.2.1; Pt.2.158; R.3.21.

3) The Almighty; तावदध्यासते लोकं परस्य परचिन्तकाः (tāvadadhyāsate lokaṃ parasya paracintakāḥ) Bhāg.3.32.8.

-ram 1 The highest point or pitch, culminating point.

2) The Supreme Sprit; तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम् (teṣāmādityavajjñānaṃ prakāśayati tat param) Bg.5.16.

3) Final beatitude; असक्तो ह्याचरन् कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः (asakto hyācaran karma paramāpnoti pūruṣaḥ) Bg.3.19.

4) The secondary meaning of a word.

5) (In logic) One of the two kinds of सामान्य (sāmānya) or generality of notion; more extensive kind, (comprehending more objects); e. g. पृथ्वी (pṛthvī) is पर (para) with respect to a घट (ghaṭa)).

6) The other or future world; परासक्ते च वस्तस्मिन् कथमासीन्मनस्तदा (parāsakte ca vastasmin kathamāsīnmanastadā) Mb.6.14.55. Note-- The acc., instr. and loc. singulars of पर (para) are used adverbially; e. g. (a) परम् (param)

1) beyond, over, out of (with abl.); वर्त्मनः परम् (vartmanaḥ param) R.1.17.

2) after (with abl.); अस्मात् परम् (asmāt param) Ś.6.24; R.1.66;3.39; Me.12; भाग्यायत्त- मतः परम् (bhāgyāyatta- mataḥ param) Ś.4.17; ततः परम् (tataḥ param) &c.

3) thereupon, thereafter.

4) but, however.

5) otherwise.

6) in a high degree, excessively, very much, completely, quite; परं दुःखितोऽस्मि (paraṃ duḥkhito'smi) &c.

7) most willingly.

8) only.

9) at the utmost. (b) परेण (pareṇa)

1) farther, beyond, more than; किं वा मृत्योः परेण विधास्यति (kiṃ vā mṛtyoḥ pareṇa vidhāsyati) Māl.2.2.

2) afterwards; मयि तु कृतनिधाने किं विदध्याः परेण (mayi tu kṛtanidhāne kiṃ vidadhyāḥ pareṇa) Mv.2.49.

3) after (with abl.) स्तन्यत्यागात् परेण (stanyatyāgāt pareṇa) U.2.7. (c) परे (pare)

1) afterwards, thereupon; अथ तेन दशाहतः परे (atha tena daśāhataḥ pare) R.8.73.

2) in future.

--- OR ---

Parā (परा).—ind. A prefix to verbs and nouns in the sense of 'away, back, in an inverted order, aside, towards'. According to G. M. the senses of परा (parā) are:-

1) killing, injuring & (parāhata).

2) going (parāgata).

3) seeing, encountering (parādṛṣṭa).

4) prowess (parākrānta).

5) direction towards (parāvṛtta).

6) excess (parājita).

7) dependence (parādhīna).

8) liberation (parākṛta).

9) inverted order, backwards (parāṅmukha).

1) setting aside, disregarding.

--- OR ---

Pāra (पार).—[paraṃ tīraṃ parameva aṇ, pṝ-ghañ vā]

1) The further or opposite bank of a river or ocean; पारं दुःखोदधेर्गन्तुं तर यावन्न भिद्यते (pāraṃ duḥkhodadhergantuṃ tara yāvanna bhidyate) Śānti.3.1; विरहजलधेः पारमासादयिष्ये (virahajaladheḥ pāramāsādayiṣye) Pad. D.13; H.1.177.

2) The further or opposite side of anything; स हि देवः परं ज्योतिस्तमःपारे व्यवस्थितम् (sa hi devaḥ paraṃ jyotistamaḥpāre vyavasthitam) Ku.2.58.

3) The end or extremity of anything; furtherest or concluding limit; तेजस्वी रिपुहतबन्धुदुःखपारम् (tejasvī ripuhatabandhuduḥkhapāram) (vrajati) Ve. 3.25.

4) The fullest extent, the totality of anything; स पूर्वजन्मान्तरदृष्टपाराः स्मरन्निव (sa pūrvajanmāntaradṛṣṭapārāḥ smaranniva) R.18.5. (pāraṃ gam, -i, -yā

1) to cross over, surmount, get over; vyasaneṣveva sarveṣu yasya buddhirna hīyate | sa teṣāṃ pāramabhyeti Pt.2.6.

2) to accomplish, fulfil; as in pratijñāyāḥ pāraṃ gataḥ

3) To master fully, become proficient in; sakalaśāstrapāraṃ gataḥ Pt.1; pāraṃ nī 'to bring to a close.').

-raḥ 1 Quick-silver.

2) Guardian; तस्माद् भयाद् येन स नोऽस्तु पारः (tasmād bhayād yena sa no'stu pāraḥ) Bhāg.6.9.24.

3) The end; महिम्नः पारं ते (mahimnaḥ pāraṃ te) Mahimna.1. (pāre meaning 'on the other side of', 'beyond' sometimes enters into comp.; e. g. pāregaṅgam, pāresamudram beyond the Ganges or the ocean; mama laṅkāpurī nāmnā ramyā pāre mahodadheḥ Mb.3.274.35.)

Derivable forms: pāraḥ (पारः), pāram (पारम्).

--- OR ---

Pārā (पारा).—Name of a river; तदुत्तिष्ठ पारासिन्धुसंभेदमवगाह्य नगरीमेव प्रविशावः (taduttiṣṭha pārāsindhusaṃbhedamavagāhya nagarīmeva praviśāvaḥ) Māl.4;9.1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Para (पर).—adv. pareṇa, see this.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Para (पर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Distant, removed, remote. 2. Best, pre-eminent. 3. Subsequent, after, following. 4. Other, different. 5. Inimical, hostile, estranged, adverse. 6. Addicted to, attached to, engaged in. 7. More, exceeding, as paraṃ śataṃ more than a hundred, paro lakṣaḥ more then a Lac: these are also considered as distinct compounds, see the next. 8. Higher, Superior. 9. Beyond. 10. Last, final. m. (raḥ) 1. An enemy 2. The life of Bramha. n. ind.

(-raṃ) 1. Only, alone. 2. After, afterwards. subst. 1. Final beatitude. 2. The Supreme spirit. 3. (In Logic,) One species of common property; that which comprehends many objects, genus; or it is the same with existence, as the common property of all things. E. pṝ to fill, &c. aff. bhāve ap or karttari ac .

--- OR ---

Parā (परा).—ind. A participle and prefix implying, 1. Supremacy. 2. Liberation. 3. Inverted order. 4. Pride, contumely. 5. Encounter, mutual presence. 6. Excess, exceeding. 7. Overcoming, surpassing. 8. Going. 9. Killing, destroying, injuring. As parākrama supe- rior power or valour; parājaya defeat; parābhava disgrace; parāvartta turning back, &c. see the following. E. pṝ to fill, aff. ap, and ā added.

--- OR ---

Pāra (पार).—n.

(-raṃ) The further or opposite bank of a river. mn.

(-raḥ-raṃ) The end, the extremity, the last. m.

(-raḥ) Quicksilver. f.

(-rā) The name of a river, said to flow from the Pariyatra mountains, or the centrical and western portion of the Vind'hya chain. f. () 1. A quantity of water. 2. A rope for tying an elephant’s feet. 3. A small water jar. 4. The pollen of a flower. 5. A drinking vessel, a glass, a cup. 6. A milk pail, E. para another, īr to go to or towards; or pāra to cross over; or pa to fill aff. ac.

--- OR ---

Pārā (पारा).—f.

(-rā) Name of a river.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Para (पर).—[adjective] far, distant, different; either in space, i.e. remote, opposite, foreign, hostile — or in time, i.e past, previous, former, ancient, old; subsequent, future, later, last, extreme; — or in number, order, & degree, i.e. exceeding, more than; following, standing after, worse, worst; surpassing, superior, better, best (in the compar. mgs mostly [with] [ablative] or —°). —[masculine] another, stranger, foe, the supreme Spirit, the Absolute, a man’s name. [neuter] remotest distance, highest point or degree, final beatitude; chief matter or occupation, [especially] adj. —° quite consisting of, filled with, devoted to, intent upon; as [adverb] & [preposition] beyond, after ([ablative]); hereafter, next, moreover, further (±atas, itas, or tatas), excessively, beyond measure; at the best, at the utmost; at least, at any rate; but, however (±tu or kiṃ tu). — Abstr. paratā [feminine], tva [neuter]

--- OR ---

Parā (परा).—[adverb] (only °— in subst. & verbs) away, off, forth.

--- OR ---

Pāra (पार).—1. [adjective] carrying over. [masculine] crossing (only —°), a man’s name; [neuter] ([masculine]) the further shore or bank, i.[grammar] limit, end, aim. pāraṃ gam cross over, go through, carry out. [feminine] pārā [Name] of a river, pārī milk-pail.

--- OR ---

Pāra (पार).—2. [masculine] = pāla keeper, protector.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Para (पर):—1 mf(ā)n. (√1. pṛ; [ablative] sg. m. n. parasmāt, rāt; [locative case] parasmin, re; [nominative case] [plural] m. pare, rās, rāsas; cf. [Pāṇini 1-1, 34; vii, 1, 16; 50]) far, distant, remote (in space), opposite, ulterior, farther than, beyond, on the other or farther side of, extreme

2) previous (in time), former

3) ancient, past

4) later, future, next

5) following, succeeding, subsequent

6) final, last

7) exceeding (in number or degree), more than

8) better or worse than, superior or inferior to, best or worst, highest, supreme, chief (in the [Comparative degree] meanings [where also -tara], with [ablative], rarely [genitive case] or ifc.; exceptionally paraṃ śatam, more than a hundred [literally] ‘an excessive h°, a h° with a surplus’ [Rāmāyaṇa] ; parāḥ koṭayaḥ, [Prabodha-candrodaya; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

9) strange, foreign, alien, adverse, hostile, [ib.]

10) other than, different from ([ablative]), [Prabodha-candrodaya]

11) left, remaining, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

12) concerned or anxious for ([locative case]), [Rāmāyaṇa]

13) m. another (different from one’s self), a foreigner, enemy, foe, adversary, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

14) a following letter or sound (only ifc. mfn. e.g. ta-para, having t as the f° l°, followed by t), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Pāṇini]

15) ([scilicet] graha) a subsidiary Soma-graha, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

16) Name of a king of Kosala with the [patronymic] Āṭṇāra, [Brāhmaṇa]

17) of another king, [Mahābhārata]

18) of a son of Samara, [Harivaṃśa]

19) (sc. prāsāda) of the palace of Mitravindā, [ib.]

20) m. or n. the Supreme or Absolute Being, the Universal Soul, [Upaniṣad; Rāmāyaṇa; Purāṇa]

21) Parā (परा):—[from para] a f. a foreign country, abroad (?), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

22) [v.s. ...] a species of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] Name of a sound in the first of its 4 stages, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) [v.s. ...] a [particular] measure of time, [Sāyaṇa]

25) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Mahābhārata; Viṣṇu-purāṇa] ([varia lectio] pārā, veṇā, veṇṇā)

26) [v.s. ...] of a goddess (cf. sub voce)

27) Para (पर):—n. remotest distance, [Mahābhārata]

28) highest point or degree, [ib.]

29) final beatitude, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (also -taram and parāt para-taram)

30) the number 10,000,000,000 (as the full age of Brahmā), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

31) Name of [particular] Sāmans, [Kāṭhaka]

32) n. any chief matter or paramount object (ifc. [f(ā). ] having as the chief object, given up to, occupied with, engrossed in, intent upon, resting on, consisting of, serving for, synonymous with etc., [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.)

33) the wider or more extended or remoter meaning of a word, [Jaimini; Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti]

34) (in logic) genus

35) existence (regarded as the common property of all things), [Horace H. Wilson]

36) cf. [Zend] para; [Greek] πέρα, πέραν; [Latin] peren-die; [Gothic] faírra; [German] fern; [English] far and fore.

37) 2. para in [compound] for ras.

38) Parā (परा):—[from para] 1. parā (for 2. See [column]2) f. of para in [compound]

39) 2. parā (for 1. See [column]1). ind. away, off, aside, along, on, ([Latin] per; it occurs only in -taram and -vat, and as a prefix to nouns and verbs; it is [probably] akin to para, paras, pra.)

40) Pāra (पार):—1. pāra mfn. ([from] √pṛ; in some meanings also [from] √pṝ) bringing across, [Ṛg-veda v, 31, 8]

41) n. (rarely m.) the further bank or shore or boundary, any bank or shore, the opposite side, the end or limit of anything, the utmost reach or fullest extent, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (dūre pāre, at the farthest ends, [Ṛg-veda]; pāraṃ-√gam etc. with [genitive case] or [locative case], to reach the end, go through, fulfil, carry out [as a promise], study or learn thoroughly [as a science] [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.; pāraṃ-√nī, to bring to a close, [Yājñavalkya])

42) a kind of Tuṣṭi (sub voce), Sāṃkhyas. [Scholiast or Commentator]

43) m. crossing (See duṣand su-)

44) quicksilver, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

45) a [particular] personification, [Sāma-vidhāna-brāhmaṇa; Gautama-dharma-śāstra]

46) Name of a sage, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

47) of a son of Pṛthu-ṣeṇa (Rucirāśva) and father of Nīpa, [Harivaṃśa]

48) of a s° of Samara and f° of Pṛthu, [ib.]

49) of a son of Aṅga, and f° of Divi-ratha, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

50) ([plural]) of a class of deities under the 9th Manu, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

51) Pārā (पारा):—[from pāra] f. Name of a river (said to flow from the Pāriyātra mountains or the central and western portion of the Vindhya chain), [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

52) Pāra (पार):—2. pāra (for 1. See p.619), Vṛddhi form of para in [compound]

53) 3. pāra m. = pāla, a guardian, keeper (See brahma-dvāra-p).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: