Para, aka: Parā, Pāra, Pārā; 13 Definition(s)


Para means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism


Pāra (पार):—Son of Rucirāśva (one of the four sons of Syenajit). He had two sons named Pṛthusena and Nīpa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.23)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

1) Para (पर).—An ancient King of Bhārata. (Śloka 234, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva).

2) Para (पर).—A Brahmavādī son of Viśvāmītra. (Śloka 55, Chapter 4, Anuśāsana Parva).

3) Pārā (पारा).—Another name for Kauśikī river. (Sloka 32, Chapter 71, Ādi Parva).

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Para (पर).—That which is Pūrva in the Parārdha becomes Para in Aparārdha;1 ety. the best.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 7. 13.
  • 2) Ib. 5. 37.

1b) One of the three sons of Samara of Kampili.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 177.

1c) (Param)—twice the number of Parāṛdha;1 it is Brahmā, knowledge, wealth and everything desirable;2 according to one mode of computation Para is itself Parārdha which means anything above parārdha, and is incalculable.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 90; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 92 and 99.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 99-102.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 2. 105-7, 143.

1d) Brahmā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 105-7.

2a) Parā (परा).—A gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 55.

2b) (or Pāra)—a Sāvarṇa Manu, with a gaṇa of 12, of which six names are mentioned.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 55, 57.

2c) A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 99.

2d) The fourth stage of Kāmākṣī, of four arms with Pāśa, Aṅkuśa, Ikṣukodaṇḍa, and Pañcabāṇa, in this form Lalitā got established at Kāñci.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 39. 13; 44. 141.

2e) A R. rising from the Ṛkṣa hill of the Bhāratavarṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 98.

3a) Pāra (पार).—A son of Rucirāśva and father of Nīpa and Pṛthusena.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 21. 24-25.

3b) One of the three sons of Samara*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 54; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 177; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 41.

3c) A son of Pṛthuṣeṇa, and father of Nīla*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 174; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 37-8.

3d) Gods of the ninth Manvantara.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 19. 19. Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 21.

4) Pārā (पारा).—A river from Ṛṣyavān.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 24.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Parā (परा):—One of the nine Dūtī presided over by one of the nine bhaivaravas named Ananta (emanation of Ananta himself, who is the central presiding deity of Dūtīcakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra and the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Para (पर).—(l) subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व (pūrva) or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; cf. विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (vipratiṣedhe paraṃ kāryam) P. I. 4. 2; (2) occurring after (something); cf. प्रत्ययः परश्च (pratyayaḥ paraśca) P. III. 1.1 and 2; cf. also तत् परस्वरम् (tat parasvaram) T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर (para) is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट (iṣṭa) or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ (śreṣṭha) possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर (para) in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं (viprātiṣedhe paraṃ kāryaṃ) with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; cf. विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति (vipratiṣedhe paraṃ yadiṣṭaṃ tadbhavati) M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची (paraśabdaḥ iṣṭavācī) M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārt. 7; II. 1.69 etc.

--- OR ---

Parā (परा).—The highest eternal voice or word, the highest and the most lofty of the our divisions of language (वाक (vāka)), viz. परा,पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा (parā, paśyantī, madhyamā) and वैखरी (vaikharī), which, (परा (parā)), philosophically is identified with नाद (nāda) (व्रह्म (vrahma)) or शब्दब्रह्म (śabdabrahma) . It is described as वर्णादि -विशेषरहिता चेतनमिश्रा सृष्ट्युपयोगिनी जगदुपादानभूता कुण्डलिनीरूपेण प्राणिनां मूलाधारे वर्तते (varṇādi -viśeṣarahitā cetanamiśrā sṛṣṭyupayoginī jagadupādānabhūtā kuṇḍalinīrūpeṇa prāṇināṃ mūlādhāre vartate) | कुण्डलिन्याः प्राणवायुसंयोगे परा व्यज्यते (kuṇḍalinyāḥ prāṇavāyusaṃyoge parā vyajyate) | इयं निःष्पन्दा पश्यन्त्यादयः सस्पन्दा अस्या विवर्तः । इयमेव सूक्ष्मस्फोट इत्युच्यते । (iyaṃ niḥṣpandā paśyantyādayaḥ saspandā asyā vivartaḥ | iyameva sūkṣmasphoṭa ityucyate |)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Itihasa (narrative history)

Parā (परा) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.19). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Parā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Itihasa from relevant books on Exotic India

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

1) Para (पर) refers to the first of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.—Para is the highest and the transcendental form of the Supreme Being.

2) Parā (परा), Paśyantī, Madhyamā and Vaikharī are the four stages through which sounds pass through before they become audible. At first, it is in the form of air. Then it teaches the stage of Paśyantī. The next stage is called Madhyamā (Kal P. 182) and the last one is Vaikharī where it is uttered, tridhā: into three.

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Pancaratra from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

para : (adj.) other; another; foreign; alien; outsider. || pāra (nt.), the opposite shore; the other side.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Pāra, (adj. -nt.) (fr. para) 1. as adv. (°-) beyond, over, across, used as prep. with Abl. , e.g. pāra-Gaṅgāya beyond the G. S. I, 207, 214; SnA 228. See under cpds.—2. as nt. the other side, the opposite shore S. I, 169, 183; Sn. 1059; Nd1 20 (=amataṃ nibbānaṃ); Dh. 385; DhA. IV, 141 aparā pāraṃ gacchati to go from this side to the other (used with ref. to this world & the world beyond) S. IV, 174; A. V, 4; Sn. 1130; pāraṃ gavesino M. II, 64=Th. 1, 771—3. Cases adverbially: Acc. pāraṃ see sep.; Abl. pārato from the other side Vin. II, 209.—3. the guṇa form of para, another: see cpds. :

—atthika (pār’) wishing to cross beyond D. I, 244. —ga “going beyond, ” traversing, crossing, surmounting S. IV, 71 (jātimaraṇassa); Sn. 32, 997. —gata one who has reached the opposite shore S. I, 34; II, 277; IV, 157; A. IV, 411; Sn. 21, 210, 359; Dh. 414; Vv 531 (cp. VvA. 231); one who has gone over to another party Th. 1, 209. —gavesin looking for the other shore Dh. 355; DhA. IV, 80. —gāmin=gata S. I, 123; A. V, 232 sq. , 253 sq.; DhA. II, 160. —gū (a) gone beyond, i.e. passed, transcended, crossed S. I, 195=Nd2 136A (dukkhassa), IV. 210 (bhavassa); A. II, 9 (id.); III, 223; It. 33 (jarāya); Dh. 348. (b) gone to the end of (Gen. or.—°), reached perfection in, well-versed in, familiar with, an authority on Sn. 992 (sabbadhammānaṃ), 1105 (cp. Nd2 435); D. I, 88 (tiṇṇaṃ vedānaṃ); DhA. III, 361 (id.). —dārika an adulterer, lit. one of another’s wife S. II, 259; J. III, 43 (so read for para°); DhA. II, 10. (Page 454)

— or —

Para, (adv. -adj.) (fr. Idg. *per, *peri (cp. pari); Ved. para, parā, paraṃ; Lat. per through, Gr. pέra & pέran beyond; see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under per & also pari, pubba, pura, purāṇa) 1. (adv. & prep.) beyond, on the further side of (with Abl. or Loc.), over PvA. 168 (para Gaṅgāya, v. l. °āyaṃ). See in same meaning & application paraṃ, paro and parā & cp. cpds. like paraloka.—2. (adj.) para follows the pron. declension; cases: sg. Nom. paro Sn. 879, Acc. paraṃ Sn. 132, 185, Gen. Dat. parassa Sn. 634; Pv. II, 919, Instr. parena PvA. 116, Loc. paramhi Sn. 634, and pare Pv. II, 943; pl. Nom. pare Dh. 6, Acc. pare Dh. 257; PvA. 15, Gen. Dat. paresaṃ D. I, 3; Th. 1, 743; J. I, 256; Sn. 818, Instr. parehi Sn. 240, 255; PvA. 17.—Meanings: (a) beyond, i.e. “higher” in space (like Ved. para as opp. to avara lower), as well as “further” in time (i.e. future, to come, or also remote, past: see Loc. pare under c.), freq. in phrase paro loko the world beyond, the world (i.e. life) to come, the beyond or future life (opp. ayaṃ loko) Sn. 185 (asmā lokā paraṃ lokaṃ na socati), 634 (asmiṃ loke paramhi ca); Dh. 168 (paramhi loke); Pv. II, 83 (id. =paraloke PvA. 107); but also in other combn, like santi-para (adj.) higher than calm Dh. 202. Cp. paraloka, paraṃ and paro.—(b) another, other, adj. as well as n. , pl. others Sn. 396 (parassa dāraṃ nâtikkameyya), 818 (paresaṃ, cp. Nd1 150); Dh. 160 (ko paro who else), 257 (pare others); Pv. II, 919 (parassa dānaṃ); II, 943 (pare, Loc. = paramhi parassa PvA. 130); DhA. IV, 182 (Gen. pl.); PvA. 15, 60 (paresaṃ Dat.), 103, 116, 253 (parassa purisassa & paraṃ purisaṃ). Often contrasted with and opposed to attano (one’s own, oneself), e.g. at M. I, 200 (paraṃ vambheti attānaṃ ukkaṃseti); Sn. 132 (attānaṃ samukkaṃse paraṃ avajānāti); J. I, 256 (paresaṃ, opp. attanā); Nd2 26 (att-attha opp. par-attha, see cpds. °ajjhāsaya & °attha).—paro ... paro “the one ... the other” D. I, 224 (kiṃ hi paro parassa karissati); paro paraṃ one another Sn. 148 (paro paraṃ nikubbetha). ‹-› In a special sense we find pare pl. in the meaning of “the others, ” i.e. outsiders, aliens (to the religion of the Buddha), enemies, opponents (like Vedic pare) D. I, 2 (=paṭiviruddhā sattā DA. I, 51); Vin. I, 349; Dh. 6.—(c) some oblique cases in special meaning and used as adv. : paraṃ Acc. sg. m. see under cpds. , like parantapa; as nt. adv. see sep. In phrase puna ca paraṃ would be better read puna c’aparaṃ (see apara).—parena (Instr.) later on, afterwards J. III, 395 (=aparena samayena C.).—pare (Loc.); cp. Gr. parai/ at; Lat. prae before; Goth. faúra=E, for, old Dat. of *per) in the past, before, yet earlier J. II, 279 (where it continues ajja and hiyyo, i.e. to-day and yesterday, and refers to the day before yesterday. Similarly at Vin. IV, 63 pare is contrasted with ajja & hiyyo and may mean “in future, ” or “the day before yesterday. ” It is of interest to notice the Ved. use of pare as “in the future” opp. to adya & śvas); J. III, 423 (the day before yesterday). At DhA. I, 253 (sve vā pare vā) and IV. 170 in the sense of “on the day after tomorrow. ” —parā (only apparently Abl. , in reality either para+a° which represents the vocalic beginning of the second part of the cpd. , or para+ā which is the directional prefix ā, emphasizing para. The latter expln is more in the spirit of the Pali language): see separately. —paro (old Abl. as adv. =Sk. paras) beyond further: see sep.—parato (Abl.) in a variety of expressions and shades of meaning, viz. (1) from another, as regards others A. III, 337 (attano parato ca); Nett 8 (ghosa), 50 (id.).—(2) from the point of view of “otherness, ” i.e. as strange or something alien, as an enemy M. I, 435 (in “anicca”—passage); A. IV, 423; Nd2 214II; Ps. II, 238; Kvu 400; Miln. 418 and passim; in phrase parato disvā “seen as not myself” Th. 1, 1160; 2, 101; S. I, 188 (saṅkhāre parato passa, dukkhato mā ca attato). ‹-› (3) on the other side of, away from, beyond J. II, 128; PvA. 24 (kuḍḍānaṃ).—(4) further, afterwards, later on S. I, 34; J. I, 255; IV, 139; SnA 119, 482.—Note. The compounds with para° are combinations either with para 1 (adv. prep.), or para 2 (adj. n.). Those containing para in form parā and in meaning “further on to” see separately under parā°. See also pāra, pārima etc.

—ajjhāsaya intent on others (opp. att°) SnA 46. —attha (parattha, to be distinguished from adv. parattha, q. v. sep.) the profit or welfare of another (opp. attattha) S. II, 29; A. III, 63; Dh. 166; Nd2 26. —âdhīna dependent on others D. I, 72 (=paresu adhīno parass’eva ruciyā pavattati DA. I, 212); J. VI, 99; ThA. 15 (°vuttika); VvA. 23 (°vutti, paresaṃ bhāraṃ vahanto). —ûpakkama aggression of an enemy, violence Vin. II, 194. —ûpaghāta injuring others, cruelty Vv 8440. —ûpaghātin killing others Dh. 184 (=paraṃ upahananto p. DhA. III, 237). —ûpavāda reproaching others Sn. 389. —kata see paraṅkata. —kamma service of others, °kārin serving others Vv 3322. —kāra see below under paraṅkāra. —kula clan of another, strange or alien clan Sn. 128; Dh. 73. —kkanta (para° or parā° *krānta?) walked (by another? or gone over?) J. VI, 559 (better to be read with v. l. on p. 560 as pada° i.e. walked by feet, footprint). —kkama (parā+kram) exertion, endeavour, effort, strife D. I, 53; III, 113; S. I, 166 (daḷha°); II, 28 (purisa°); V, 66, 104 sq.; A. I, 4, 50 (purisa°); IV, 190; Sn. 293; Dh. 313; Nd1 487; J. I, 256; II, 153; Dhs. 13, 12, 289, 571; Miln. 244; DhA. IV, 139; Sdhp. 253; adj. (-°) sacca° one who strives after the truth J. IV, 383. —kkamati (*parakramati) to advance, go forward, exert oneself, undertake, show courage Sn. 966 (ger. parakkamma); Dh. 383 (id.); Pv III, 213 (imper. parakkāma, v. l. parakkama); Pug. 19, 23; PvA. 184 (=payogaṃ karoti); Sdhp. 439. —kkaroti (either for parā+kṛ or more likely paras+kṛ, cp. paro) lit. “to put on the opposite side, ” i.e. to remove, do away with J. IV, 26 (corresponding to apaneti, C. explns as “parato kāreti, ” taking parato in the sense of para 2 c 3), 404 (mā parākari=mā pariccaji C.). —gatta alien body, trsl. “limbs that are not thou” Th. 1, 1150. —gavacaṇḍa violent against the cows of another A. II, 109=Pug. 47 (opp. sakagavacaṇḍa, cp. PugA 226: yo attano gogaṇaṃ ghaṭṭeti, paragogaṇe pana so rato sukhasīlo hoti etc.). —(n)kata made by something or somebody else, extra-self, extraneous, alien S. I, 134 (nayidaṃ attakataṃ bimbaṃ nayidaṃ parakataṃ aghaṃ); with ref. to loka & dukkha and opposed to sayaṅkata D. III, 137 sq.; S. II, 19 sq. , 33 sq. , 38 sq.; Ud. 69 sq. —(n)kāra condition of otherness, other people, alienity Ud. 70 (opp. ahaṅkara selfhood). —citta the mind or heart of others A. V, 160. —jana a stranger, enemy, demon, fig. devil (cp. Sk. itarajana) M. I, 153, 210. —tthaddha (parā+tthaddha) propped against, founded on, relying on (with Loc.) J. VI, 181 (=upatthadda C.). —tthabbha is to be read for °tthambha at J. IV, 313, in meaning=°tthaddha (kismiṃ). —dattûpajīvin living on what is given by others, dependent on another’s gift Sn. 217; Miln. 294. —davutta see sep. under parada —dāra the wife of another, somebody else’s wife M. I, 87; A. II, 71, 191; Sn. 108, 242 (°sevanā); Dh. 246, 309 (°upasevin, cp. DhA. III, 482); J. VI, 240; DhA. III, 481 (°kamma). —dārika (better to be read as pāra°) an adulterer S. II, 188, 259; J. III, 43. —dhammika “of someone else’s norm, ” one who follows the teaching of another, i.e. of an heretic teacher Sn. 96Q (Nd1 485: p° ā vuccanti satta sahadhammika ṭhapetvā ye keci Buddhe appasannā, dhamme appa nnā, Saṅghe appasannā). —niṭṭhita made ready by others S. I, 236. —nimmita “created by another, ” in °vasavattin having power under control of another, N. of a class of Devas (see deva) D. I, 216 sq.; A. I, 210; It. 94; Pug. 51; DA. I, 114, 121; KhA 128; VvA. 79. —neyya to be led by another, under another’s rule Sn. 907 Nd1 321 (=parapattiya parapaccaya). —(n)tapa worrying or molesting another person (opp. attantapa) D. III, 232; M. I, 341, 411; II, 159; Pug. 56. —paccaya resting, relying, or dependent on someone else Nd1 321; usually neg. a° independent of another Vin. I, 12, 181 and passim. —pattiya=prec. Nd1 321. —pāṇa other living beings Sn. 220. —puggala other people D. III, 108. —putta somebody else’s son A. IV, 169; Sn. 43. —pessa serving others, being a servant Sn. 615 (=paresaṃ veyyāvacca SnA 466). —pessiyā a female servant or messenger, lit. to be sent by others J. III, 413 (=parehi pesitabbā pesanakārikā C.). —ppavāda (cp. BSk. parapravādin “false teacher” Divy 202) disputation with another, challenge, opposition in teaching (appld to Non-Buddhistic systems) S. V, 261; A. II, 238; Miln. 170, 175. —bhāga outer part, precinct part beyond PvA. 24. —bhuta (Sk. parabhṛta) the Indian cuckoo (lit. brought up by another) J. V, 416 (so read for parābhūta). —bhojana food given by others Sn. 366 (=parehi dinnaṃ saddhādeyyaṃ SnA 364). —loka (cpd. either with para 1. or para 2. It is hardly justified to assume a metaphysical sense, or to take para as temporal in the sense of paraṃ (cp. paraṃmaraṇā after death), i.e. the future world or the world to come) the other world, the world beyond (opp. ayaṃ loko this world or idhaloka the world here, see on term Stede, Peta Vatthu p. 29 sq.) D. I, 27, 58, 187; II, 319; S. I, 72, 138; Sn. 579, 666, 1117; Nd1 60; Nd2 214 (v. l. for paloka in anicca-passage) 410 (=manussalokaṃ ṭhapetvā sabbo paraloko); Ps. I, 121; Vv 845 (=narakaṃ hi sattānaṃ ekantânatthatāya parabhūto paṭisattubhūto loko ti visesato paraloko ti VvA. 335); PvA. 5, 60 (=pettivisaya parattha), 64Q, 107, 253 (idhalokato p. natthi); SnA 478 (=parattha); Sdhp. 316, 326, 327. —vambhitā contempt of others M. I, 19 (a°). —vambhin contempting others M. I, 19, 527. —vasatta power (over others) Dāvs. IV, 19. —vāda (1) talk of others, public rumour S. I, 4; Sn. 819 (cp. Nd1 151); SnA 475. (2) opposition Miln. 94 sq. —vādin opponent Miln. 348. visaya the other world, realm of the Dead, Hades Pv IV. 87 (=pettivisaya PvA. 268). —vediya to be known by others, i.e. heterodox D. II, 241; Sn. 474 (=parehi ñāpetabba SnA 410). —sattā (pl.) other beings A. I, 255=III, 17 (+parapuggalā). —suve on the day after tomorrow DhA. IV, 170 (v. l. SS for pare, see para 2 c.). —sena a hostile army D. I, 89=II. 16= III, 59=Sn. p. 106 ≈ (cp. DA. I, 250=SnA 450). —hattha the hand of the enemy J. I, 179. —hiṃsā hurting others Pv III, 73. —hita the good or welfare of others (opp. attahita) D. III, 233; PvA. 16, 163. —hetu on account of others, through others Sn. 122 (attahetu+); Pug. 54. (Page 418)

— or —

Parā°, (prefix) (para+ā, not Instr. of para: see para 2 c; in some cases it may also correspond to paraṃ°) prep. meaning “on to, ” “over” (with the idea of mastering), also “through, throughout. ” The ā is shortened before double consonant, like parā+kṛ=parakkaroti, parā+ kram=parakkamati (see under cpds. of para). (Page 420)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

para (पर).—f (prakāra S) Way, manner, style (as of speech or action): also kind, sort, fashion. In this sense parīcā Strange; of an uncommon or a particular kind; parī prakāracā Of many sorts and fashions; various; parī prakārēṃ In various ways or modes.

--- OR ---

para (पर).—a (S) Strange, foreign, alien: also other, different. In comp. as paracakra, paradēśa, paradvāra, paradhana: also with words not Sanskrit, as paragāṃva, paraghara, paramulūkha, paraṭhikāṇā. 2 In comp. Appertaining to; following after; bearing respect, reference, relation to: also attached to; addicted to; engaged in. Ex. jñānaparaśāstra tumhī karmapara lāvūṃ mhaṇa- tāṃ tara lāgaṇāra nāhīṃ; lōkanindāparabhāṣaṇa karūṃ nayē; puṇyaparakarma karāvēṃ. 3 Uncommon, extraordinary.

--- OR ---

para (पर).—ad Beyond. 2 conj (parantu S) But, yet, nevertheless.

--- OR ---

para (पर).—m ( P) A feather. para phuṭaṇēṃ with or sa of s. To be fledged. 2 fig. To be growing up; to be advancing towards puberty: hence to be growing wanton or wilful--a child. 3 To find a patron, supporter, abettor; to be acquiring affluence, resources, means. para lāvūna-jāṇēṃ-paḷaṇēṃ-dhāvaṇēṃ-cālaṇēṃ To go quickly, to fly.

--- OR ---

parā (परा).—f S Speech in the first of its four stages,--the first stirring of the breath. See paśyantī, madhyamā, vaikharī. parādivācā Speech in all its stages or in whichever stage; speech comprehensively or indiscriminately. Ex. pa0 kuṇṭhita jēthēṃ || nijēṃ tēthēṃ nija bāḷā ||.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—m (S) The end, bottom, limit, lit. fig.; the farther side; the concluding bound; the ut- most reach or extent. Ex. nadī, samudra, māyā, prapañca, śāstra, ityādikāñcā pāra. 2 C A ford, esp. of a salt-creek. 3 R A petty inlet from the sea. 4 The bank or mass raised around the pimpaḷa, vaḍa, and other trees.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—ad On the other side; i. e. across, over, through, out of; as pāra paḍaṇēṃ To get safely out of or through (a difficulty or a business): to arrive at completion; to be duly and fully executed--a work. pāra pāḍaṇēṃ To convey across or over, lit. fig; to bring safely out of or through; to bring duly to completion. pāra jāṇēṃ To go through, to transpierce. 2 To arrive at the end contemplated, lit. fig.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—m (Corr. from prahara) A watch or period of three hours

--- OR ---

pārā (पारा).—m (pārada S) Quicksilver. 2 A young Jackfruit. 3 A plant, Agave vivipara. 4 W A layer (as of bricks on a wall).

--- OR ---

pārā (पारा).—a Spotted with black and white; pepper and salt--cattle &c.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

para (पर).—f Way, sort, fashion. parīcā Strange; of an uncommon kind. parī prakāracā Of many sorts. various; parī prakārēṃ In various ways or modes. a Foreign. Alien; different. Appertaining to; following after. Uncommon. ad Be- yond. conj But, yet. m A feather. para phuṭaṇēṃ To be fledged. To be growing up; to be growing wilful-a child.

--- OR ---

pāra (पार).—m The end, bottom, Limit, lit. fig. The farther side; the utmost reach.

--- OR ---

pārā (पारा).—m Quicksilver. A young Jack-fruit.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Para (पर).—a. [pṝ-bhāve-ap, kartari ac-vā] (Declined optionally like a pronoun in nom. voc. pl., and abl. and loc. sing. when it denotes relative position)

1) Other, different, another; see पर (para) m also.

2) Distant, removed, remote; अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः (aparaṃ bhavato janma paraṃ janma vivasvataḥ) Bg.4.4.

3) Beyond, further, on the other side of; म्लेच्छदेशस्ततः परः (mlecchadeśastataḥ paraḥ) Ms.2.23;7.158.

4) Subsequent, following, next to, future, after (usually with abl.); बाल्यात् परामिव दशां मदनोऽध्युवास (bālyāt parāmiva daśāṃ madano'dhyuvāsa) R.5.63; Ku.1.31.

5) Higher, superior; सिकतात्वादपि परां प्रपेदे परमाणुताम् (sikatātvādapi parāṃ prapede paramāṇutām) R.15.22; इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहु- रिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः । मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः (indriyāṇi parāṇyāhu- rindriyebhyaḥ paraṃ manaḥ | manasastu parā buddhiryo buddheḥ paratastu saḥ) || Bg.3.42.

9) Highest, greatest, most distinguished, pre-eminent, chief, best, principal; क्षत्रात् परं नास्ति (kṣatrāt paraṃ nāsti) Bṛ. Up.1.4.11. न त्वया द्रष्टव्यानां परं दृष्टम् (na tvayā draṣṭavyānāṃ paraṃ dṛṣṭam) Ś.2; Ki.5.18; परतोऽपि परः (parato'pi paraḥ) Ku.2.14 'higher than the highest'; 6.19; Ś7.27.

7) Having as a following letter or sound, followed by (in comp.).

8) Alien, estranged, stranger.

9) Hostile, inimical, adverse,

1) Exceeding, having a surplus or remainder, left over; as in परं शतम् (paraṃ śatam) 'exceeding or more than a hundred.

11) Final, last.

12) (At the end of comp.) Having anything as the highest object, absorbed or engrossed in, intent on, solely devoted to, wholly engaged or occupied in; परिचर्यापरः (paricaryāparaḥ) R.1.91; so ध्यानपर, शोकपर, दैवपर, चिन्तापर (dhyānapara, śokapara, daivapara, cintāpara) &c.

-raḥ 1 Another person, a stranger, foreigner; oft. in pl. in this sense; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि (yataḥ pareṣāṃ guṇagrahītāsi) Bv.1.9; Śi.2.74; see एक, अन्य (eka, anya) also.

2) A foe, an enemy, adversary; उत्तिष्ठमानस्तु परो नोपेक्ष्यः पथ्यभिच्छता (uttiṣṭhamānastu paro nopekṣyaḥ pathyabhicchatā) Śi.2.1; Pt.2.158; R.3.21.

3) The Almighty; तावदध्यासते लोकं परस्य परचिन्तकाः (tāvadadhyāsate lokaṃ parasya paracintakāḥ) Bhāg.3.32.8.

-ram 1 The highest point or pitch, culminating point.

2) The Supreme Sprit; तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम् (teṣāmādityavajjñānaṃ prakāśayati tat param) Bg.5.16.

3) Final beatitude; असक्तो ह्याचरन् कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः (asakto hyācaran karma paramāpnoti pūruṣaḥ) Bg.3.19.

4) The secondary meaning of a word.

5) (In logic) One of the two kinds of सामान्य (sāmānya) or generality of notion; more extensive kind, (comprehending more objects); e. g. पृथ्वी (pṛthvī) is पर (para) with respect to a घट (ghaṭa)).

6) The other or future world; परासक्ते च वस्तस्मिन् कथमासीन्मनस्तदा (parāsakte ca vastasmin kathamāsīnmanastadā) Mb.6.14.55. Note-- The acc., instr. and loc. singulars of पर (para) are used adverbially; e. g. (a) परम् (param)

1) beyond, over, out of (with abl.); वर्त्मनः परम् (vartmanaḥ param) R.1.17.

2) after (with abl.); अस्मात् परम् (asmāt param) Ś.6.24; R.1.66;3.39; Me.12; भाग्यायत्त- मतः परम् (bhāgyāyatta- mataḥ param) Ś.4.17; ततः परम् (tataḥ param) &c.

3) thereupon, thereafter.

4) but, however.

5) otherwise.

6) in a high degree, excessively, very much, completely, quite; परं दुःखितोऽस्मि (paraṃ duḥkhito'smi) &c.

7) most willingly.

8) only.

9) at the utmost. (b) परेण (pareṇa)

1) farther, beyond, more than; किं वा मृत्योः परेण विधास्यति (kiṃ vā mṛtyoḥ pareṇa vidhāsyati) Māl.2.2.

2) afterwards; मयि तु कृतनिधाने किं विदध्याः परेण (mayi tu kṛtanidhāne kiṃ vidadhyāḥ pareṇa) Mv.2.49.

3) after (with abl.) स्तन्यत्यागात् परेण (stanyatyāgāt pareṇa) U.2.7. (c) परे (pare)

1) afterwards, thereupon; अथ तेन दशाहतः परे (atha tena daśāhataḥ pare) R.8.73.

2) in future.

--- OR ---

Parā (परा).—ind. A prefix to verbs and nouns in the sense of 'away, back, in an inverted order, aside, towards'. According to G. M. the senses of परा (parā) are:-

1) killing, injuring & (parāhata).

2) going (parāgata).

3) seeing, encountering (parādṛṣṭa).

4) prowess (parākrānta).

5) direction towards (parāvṛtta).

6) excess (parājita).

7) dependence (parādhīna).

8) liberation (parākṛta).

9) inverted order, backwards (parāṅmukha).

1) setting aside, disregarding.

--- OR ---

Pāra (पार).—[paraṃ tīraṃ parameva aṇ, pṝ-ghañ vā]

1) The further or opposite bank of a river or ocean; पारं दुःखोदधेर्गन्तुं तर यावन्न भिद्यते (pāraṃ duḥkhodadhergantuṃ tara yāvanna bhidyate) Śānti.3.1; विरहजलधेः पारमासादयिष्ये (virahajaladheḥ pāramāsādayiṣye) Pad. D.13; H.1.177.

2) The further or opposite side of anything; स हि देवः परं ज्योतिस्तमःपारे व्यवस्थितम् (sa hi devaḥ paraṃ jyotistamaḥpāre vyavasthitam) Ku.2.58.

3) The end or extremity of anything; furtherest or concluding limit; तेजस्वी रिपुहतबन्धुदुःखपारम् (tejasvī ripuhatabandhuduḥkhapāram) (vrajati) Ve. 3.25.

4) The fullest extent, the totality of anything; स पूर्वजन्मान्तरदृष्टपाराः स्मरन्निव (sa pūrvajanmāntaradṛṣṭapārāḥ smaranniva) R.18.5. (pāraṃ gam, -i, -yā

1) to cross over, surmount, get over; vyasaneṣveva sarveṣu yasya buddhirna hīyate | sa teṣāṃ pāramabhyeti Pt.2.6.

2) to accomplish, fulfil; as in pratijñāyāḥ pāraṃ gataḥ

3) To master fully, become proficient in; sakalaśāstrapāraṃ gataḥ Pt.1; pāraṃ nī 'to bring to a close.').

-raḥ 1 Quick-silver.

2) Guardian; तस्माद् भयाद् येन स नोऽस्तु पारः (tasmād bhayād yena sa no'stu pāraḥ) Bhāg.6.9.24.

3) The end; महिम्नः पारं ते (mahimnaḥ pāraṃ te) Mahimna.1. (pāre meaning 'on the other side of', 'beyond' sometimes enters into comp.; e. g. pāregaṅgam, pāresamudram beyond the Ganges or the ocean; mama laṅkāpurī nāmnā ramyā pāre mahodadheḥ Mb.3.274.35.)

Derivable forms: pāraḥ (पारः), pāram (पारम्).

--- OR ---

Pārā (पारा).—Name of a river; तदुत्तिष्ठ पारासिन्धुसंभेदमवगाह्य नगरीमेव प्रविशावः (taduttiṣṭha pārāsindhusaṃbhedamavagāhya nagarīmeva praviśāvaḥ) Māl.4;9.1.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of para in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Relevant definitions

Search found 573 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Parābhava (पराभव).—(a)1) Defeat, discomfiture, overthrow; पराभवोऽप्युत्सव एव मानिनाम् (parābhav...
Parāyaṇa (परायण).—See under पर (para) (para-ayana).--- OR --- Pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—1) going acros...
Parāga (पराग) refers to the “pollen” of flowers, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms, accor...
Parāśakti (पराशक्ति) refers to one of the Śaktis emanting from a thousandth part of Śiva.—...
Parapuruṣa (परपुरुष).—1) another man, a stranger. 2) the Supreme Spirit, Viṣṇu. 3) the husband ...
Parājita (पराजित).—p. p.1) Conquered, subjugated, defeated.2) Condemned by law, cast or defeate...
Parāpara (परापर).—a. 1) far and near, remote and proximate. 2) prior and posterior. 3) before a...
Paraloka (परलोक).—the next (or furture) world; परलोकनवप्रवासिनः प्रतिपत्स्ये पदवीमहं तव (paralo...
Parākrama (पराक्रम) is the name of a Vidyādhara who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side in the war aga...
Pārāvāra (पारावार).—The sea, ocean; रत्नोद्भवोऽपि वाणिज्यनिपुणतया पारावारतरणमकरोत् (ratnodbhavo...
Paratantra (परतन्त्र).—a. dependent on another, dependent, subservient. Paratantra is a Sanskri...
Parakāra (परकार).—The deeds of the enemy; राज्ञः समीपे परकारमाह प्रज्ञापनैषा विबि- धोपदिष्टा (r...
Parārdha (परार्ध).—1) the other part (opp. pūrvārdha); the latter half; दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्धभ...
Parādhīna (पराधीन).—a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; अन्नमेषां पराधीनं देयं स्याद...
Paravāda (परवाद).—1) rumour, report. 2) Objection, controversy. Derivable forms: paravādaḥ (परव...

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: