Duryodhana, Dur-yodhana: 21 definitions


Duryodhana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Duryodhan.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) refers to “literally, dur–‘bad’, yodhana– ‘fighter’. In the Mahābhārata War, Duryodhana was the leader of the Kauravas. He is a partial incarnation of Kali”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) refers to:—Kaurava king; the eldest of Dhṛtarāṣṭra’s one hundred sons, known for his antagonism toward the Pāṇḍavas. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Duryodhana in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन):—The oldest of the one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra by his wife Gāndhārī. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.25-26)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).—Villain in the Mahābhārata story; the eldest and greatest of the Kauravas. Genealogy. See under Kauravas. (See full article at Story of Duryodhana from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).—The Mahābhārata refers to another Duryodhana, grandson of Suvīra, and son of Durjaya. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 18). A daughter called Sudarśanā was born to him by his wife Narmadā. Duryodhana married Sudarśanā to Agnideva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).—The eldest of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Gāndhāri;1 Subhadrā was intended by Rāma to be given in marriage to him;2 was met by Kṛtavarman and taken leave of;3 went from Balabhadra and learnt gadā from Balarāma at Mithilā;4 mistook the colour of the flooring of the Pāṇḍava's sabhā (built by Maya) for a sheet of water and had a nasty fall at which Bhīma and the ladies laughed. This enraged Duryodhana who was conciliated by Yudhiṣṭhira who sent clothes to him through Kṛṣṇa. He did not accept them, but went home downcast;5 kept under influence Vinda and Anuvinda of Avanti;6 banished the Pāṇḍavas and Draupadī to the forest for defeat in the game of dice;7 resented Sāmba's action in taking away his daughter Lakṣmaṇā in svayaṃvara and wanted to punish him; heard of Rāma's arrival and extended welcome to him; afraid of Rāma's prowess agreed to the marriage of his daughter to Sāmba and gave a rich dowry;8 did not feel happy over the success of the Rājasūya, where he was in charge of the treasury;9 failed to hit the fish mark in Lakṣmaṇā's svayaṃvara;10 Jealous of Kṛṣṇa and Draupadī, his mind set on the latter;11 ordered Vidura's banishment for offering good counsel, and insulted him as the son of a dāsi;12 met the Pāṇḍavas in war at Kurukṣetra; arranged in vyūha at Syamantapañcaka; fought with Bhīmasena who killed him with his gada; lay in the battlefield with his thigh fractured, along with eleven Akṣauhiṇis.13 Built a house of lac to get the Pāṇḍavas consumed by flames.14

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 26; X. 64. [4]; Matsya-purāṇa 50. 48; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 243; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 39.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 86. 3.
  • 3) Ib. X. 52. (56. V. 12).
  • 4) Ib. X. 57. 26; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 84; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 83.
  • 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 58. 27; 75. 34-39.
  • 6) Ib. X. 58. 30.
  • 7) Ib. X. 64. [4].
  • 8) Ib. X. 68. (whole); Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 35. 4-5, 11.
  • 9) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 74. 53; 75. 2 and 4.
  • 10) Ib. X. 83. 23.
  • 11) Ib. X. 75. 31-32.
  • 12) Ib. I. 7. 14; III. 1. 14-15.
  • 13) Ib. X. 78 (16 (V) 15, 18-19), 39; 79. 23; 80 [1]; III. 3. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 103. 3-5.
  • 14) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 13. 70.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.83) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Duryodhana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) figures as a male character in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Duryodhana was the eldest son of the blind King Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Queen Gāndhārī. He was the eldest of one hundred Kauravas, cousin and the chief antagonist of the Pāṇḍavas. Our poet has portrayed him as the most boastful king of the Kuru family. Duryodhana was a powerful and capable king who governed his subjects fairly, but was devious and wicked in his plots against his cousins.

Although loved by all his family, Duryodhana and most of his brothers were seen as inferior to the Pāṇḍavas in their adherence to virtue and respect of elders. Duryodhana was mentored by his maternal uncle Śakuni, who desired the elevation of his sister's children at the expense of the Pāṇḍavas. Śakuni masterminded most of Duryodhana’s plots to humiliate and kill the Pāṇḍavas.

Duryodhana’s hatred for the Pāṇḍava brothers stemmed from his sincere belief that he being the eldest brother was the heir apparent to the throne of Hastināpura. His father, in spite of being the eldest son, had to renounce the throne in favor of Pāṇḍu because of his blindness. Duryodhana deeply believed that what was rightfully his was being given away to his elder cousin Yudhiṣṭira which was nepotism. His refusal to accept Yudhiṣṭira as Crown Prince, stemmed from the fact that he never acknowledged the sons of Kuntī and Mādari as the sons of Pāṇḍu. To him, the tales relating to Kuntī’s boon was all eyewash. Duryodhana never accepted the fact that Dhṛtarāṣṭra was a regent following the death of Pāṇḍu, and that Yudhiṣṭira was the only one eligible for kingship.

Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Duryodhana in Hinduism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Duryodhana is the eldest of the 100 Kaurava brothers. He was the son of Dhritarashtra and his wife, the Queen Gandhari. Enemy of the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War. He disputed Yudhisthira’s (son of Pandu) claim to the throne. Shakuni (brother of Gandhari) devised a scheme to win Yudhisthira’s kingdom for Duryodhana. Also see: Yudhisthira

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन): The eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Duryodhana in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Duryodhana] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Duryodhana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).—a. invincible, unconquerable.

-naḥ the eldest of the 11 sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī. [From his early years he conceived a deep hatred for his cousins the Pāṇḍavas, but particularly Bhīma, and made every effort he could to compass their destruction. When his father proposed to make Yudhiṣṭhira heir-apparent, Duryodhana did not like the idea, as his father was the reigning sovereign, and prevailed upon his blind father to send the Pāṇḍavas away into exile. Vāraṇāvata was fixed upon as their abode, and under pretext of constructing a palatial building for their residence, Duryodhana caused a palace to be built mostly of lac, resin and other combustible materials, thereby hoping to see them all destroyed when they should enter it. But the Paṇḍavas were forewarned and they safely escaped. They then lived at Indraprastha, and Yudhiṣṭhira performed the Rājasuya sacrifice with great pomp and splendour. This event further excited the anger and jealousy of Duryodhana, who was already vexed to find that his plot for burning them up had signally failed, and he induced his father to invite the Pāṇḍavas to Hastināpura to play with dice (of which Yudhiṣṭhira was particularly fond). In that gambling-match, Duryodhana, who was ably assisted by his maternal uncle Śakuni, won from Yudhiṣṭhira everything that he staked, till the infatuated gambler staked himself, his brothers, and Draupadī herself, all of whom shared the same fate. Yudhiṣṭhira, as a condition of the wager, was forced to go to the forest with his wife and brothers, and to remain there for twelve years and to pass one additional year incognito. But even this period, long as it was, expired, and after their return from exile both the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas made great preparations for the inevitable struggle and the great Bhāratī war commenced. It lasted for eighteen days during which all the Kauravas, with most of their allies, were slain. It was on the last day of the war that Bhīma fought a duel with Duryodhana and smashed his thigh with his club.] मोघं तवेदं भुवि नामधेयं दुर्योधनेतीह कृतं पुरस्तात् न हीह दुर्योधनता तवास्ति पलायमानस्य रणं विहाय (moghaṃ tavedaṃ bhuvi nāmadheyaṃ duryodhanetīha kṛtaṃ purastāt na hīha duryodhanatā tavāsti palāyamānasya raṇaṃ vihāya) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 4.65.17.

Duryodhana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dur and yodhana (योधन). See also (synonyms): duryodha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).—name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 23.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).—m.

(-naḥ) The elder of the Kuru princes, and leader in the war against his cousins, the Pandus and Krishna. E. dur vile, ill, yudh to make war, affix yuc; the author and leader of an unjust warfare.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).— (see the next), m. The eldest of the Kuru princes, Mahābhārata 1, 2728.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन).—[adjective] difficult to be conquered, invincible ([abstract] [feminine]); [masculine] [Name] of the eldest son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Duryodhana (दुर्योधन):—[=dur-yodhana] [from dur] mfn. idem (-tā f., [Mahābhārata iv, 2103])

2) [v.s. ...] Name of the eldest son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra (leader of the Kauravas in their war with the Pāṇḍavas), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc. (cf. su-y)

3) [v.s. ...] of a son of Su-durjaya, [Mahābhārata xiii, 96]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन):—[dur-yodhana] (naḥ) 1. m. The elder of the Kuru princes.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dujjohaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Duryodhana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Duryodhana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) [Also spelled duryodhan]:—(nm) the villain of the great ancient Indian war—MahaBharat, head of the kauravas; —[kī jāṃgha] the Achilles' heel, the weakest point.

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