Kumara, Kumāra, Kumārā: 34 definitions



Kumara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

Kumāra (one of the aspects of Subrahmaṇya, according to the Kumāra-tantra). He should hold in his right hands the śakti and the khaḍga and in the left ones kukkuṭa and the kheṭaka. The Śrītatvanidhi substitutes the abhaya and varada in the place of khaḍga and kheṭaka.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)

Kumāra (कुमार) is depicted as a sculpture in the first pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—The events leading to the birth of Kumāra, the son of Śiva and Pārvatī have been depicted on the upper portion of all the four façades of this pillar. These pictures are in conformity with the pen pictures that are given in purāṇic texts and in the Kumārasaṃbhava by Kālidāsa.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Kumāra (कुमार):—One of the seven sons of Havya (lord of Śākadvīpa). His varṣa is also called the same: kumāravarṣa.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kumāra (कुमार).—Skanda or Subrahmaṇya. (For details see under Skanda).

2) Kumāra (कुमार).—A King in ancient India. He was invited by the Pāṇḍavas to help them in the great war. He was defeated by Droṇa. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 24).

3) Kumāra (कुमार).—A sage reputed as Sanatkumāra. (For details see under Sanatkumāra).

4) Kumāra (कुमार).—One of the prominent sons of Garuḍa.

5) Kumāra (कुमार).—An urban region in ancient India. King Śreṇimān of Kumāra was defeated by Bhīma during his triumphal tour. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 1).

6) Kumāra (कुमार).—Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumāra and Sanatsujāta were the sons of Brahmā endowed with eternal youthfulness. They are known as the Kumāras.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kumāra (कुमार).—(subrahmaṇya)—born in śarakānana or śaravana and was nursed by the six Kṛttikas, hence Kārttikeya: Sucking milk with six mouths, the child came to be known as Ṣaṇmukha. Appointed commander of the celestial army in the Tārakāsura war and killed Tāraka.1 Śākha, Viśākha and Naigameya were brothers.2 An avatār of Hari.3 A son of Agni through Svāhā, and the son of Gangā by taking Agni's garbha due to Uma's curse. Hence son of Śiva.4 His birth was heralded by divine musicians, siddhas, cāraṇas, yakṣas, kinnaras and others. Fed with milk by the wives of the seven sages except Arundhatī. Hari presented him two birds—fowl and peacock, Sarasvatī the lute, Brāhmī a goat, and Śiva a ram.5 Married Devasenā, the daughter of Indra: also known as Skanda, Guha, and Devasenāpati.6 Mayūra as the riding animal of.7 Wounded by Maya in the battle of Tripuram.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 7. 64-5; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 115. Matsya-purāṇa 5. 26-7; 160 (whole): 225. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 24.
  • 2) Ib. 66. 24; Matsya-purāṇa 5. 2617.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 4. 17.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 135. 79.
  • 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 24; 10. 35. -48; Matsya-purāṇa 203. 6; Vāyu-purāṇa 72. 35-46.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 30. 39, 99 to the end; Vāyu-purāṇa 72. 48-50; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 48-51.
  • 7) Matsya-purāṇa 135. 76.
  • 8) Matsya-purāṇa 192. 33.

1b) (Sanat)—a siddha who could not comprehend the supreme Being and who would not find fault with Hara for violating dharma.1 Learnt the bhāgavata from Saṅkarṣaṇa and imparted it to Sānkhyāyana.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 3. 20; 15. 12; 17. 12 and 32; VIII. 23. 20.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 8. 3 and 7.

1c) A son of Havya, after whom Kumāravarṣa was called.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 17-18; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 16.

1d) See bhauma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 85; 28. 92.

1e) A prajāpati.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 54; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 53.

1f) An author of Architecture.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 252. 3.

1g) Rose out of the contemplation of Brahmā in the 29th kalpa; with white complexion and a resplendant fearful countenance and mouth; Brahmā worshipped him as the Gods of Gods, purāṇapuruṣa, the best of yogins and laughed a hearty laugh in wonder; also of red colour.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 22. 10-23.

1h) At the commencement of the eighth kalpa Brahmā got a son (nīlalohita) who was weeping; he asked Brahmā to give him a name for which Brahmā said rudra; again he cried for a second name and Brahmā said, bhava; the other names given in order were śiva, paśupati, īśa, bhīma, ugra and mahādeva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 27. 4-16.

1i) A Nāga.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 71.

1j) A son of Bhavya of Śākadvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 60.

1k) (c)—a kingdom watered by Hlādinī;1 a tribe.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 55.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 52.

1l) A celestial group.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 52.

2) Kumārā (कुमारा).—A river from the Śuktimat hill.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 14.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kumāra (कुमार) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.22) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kumāra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Kumāra is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.101.15/V.103) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Kumāra (कुमार) refers to a “prince”, whose beard (śmaśru) should be represented as vicitra (smartly done), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Providing the beard is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

2) Kumāra (कुमार) refers to the role of “princes” defined to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35, the role (bhūmikā) of actors playing princes (kumāras) is defined as, “actors of the best kind who have beautiful eyes, eyebrows, forehead, nose, lips, cheeks, face, neck, and every other limbs beautiful, and who are tall, possessed of pleasant appearance, dignified gait, and are neither fat nor lean, and are well-behaved, wise and steady by nature, should be employed to represent the role of kings (rājan) and princes (kumāra)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Kumāra (कुमार).—Kārtikeya who is believed to havegiven inspiration to the Katantra-sūtrakāra to write the Kātantra-sūtras;

2) Kumāra.—Named Viṣṇumitra who wrote a commentary on the ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य (ṛkprātiśākhya),

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shaivism)

Kumāra (कुमार) is another name for Kārttikeya: the son of Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Kārttikeya is also called Skanda, Mahāsena etc.—The birth of Skanda-Kārttikeya is related in chapter sixty two of the Saurapurāṇa. He is frequently mentioned and indeed is more and more brought into the likeness of his father, Śiva. His position as compared with the other gods is significant; Indra foolishy seeks to war with him, but is defeated with humilation. He accepts the Generalship of the divine army and kills Tāraka. Worship of Skanda in Śaiva temples is enjoined in the Saurapurāṇa.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Kumāra (कुमार) refers to:—Four sages–Sanaka, Sanat, Sanātana and Sanandana–who were the first sons of Brahmā but always appear as children of only five years. They were absorbed in impersonal Brahman but became great devotees of the Lord and authorities on devotional service. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kumāra (कुमार) or Kumāraparvata is another name for the Kaumara mountain (identified with Śrīśaila in Andhra) and refers to one of the ten places visited by the Goddess on her pilgrimage, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, as the Goddess said: “I am (now) going again there to the Kula mountain in India that has been praised by those who know it as Śrīparvata from ages without beginning. (Also) called (mount) Kumāra, it is adorned with an umbrella for shade”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Kumāra (कुमार): Son of Shiva and Parvati who conquered and slew the demon Taraka.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Father of Bharana. He lived in Kappakandara. Mhv.xxiii.64.

2. Name of the god Skanda. He rode on a peacock. It is said that Kumara gave a boon to Manavamma. Cv.lvii.7, 10; see also Hopkins: Epic Mythology, p.227.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of a deity mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV). Other individuals also know all the dharmas, e.g., Kieou mo lo (Kumāra): he holds a cock (kukkuṭa), a bell (ghaṇṭā), a red standard (lohitapatākā) and is mounted on a peacock (śikhigata). All these gods are great guides (mahānāyaka). They cannot be omniscient. Why? Because their mind remains attached (abhiniviṣṭa) to hatred (dveṣa) and pride (abhhimāna).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kumāra).

2) Kumāra (कुमार) also refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of the Śāsanadeva (Yakṣa) accompanying Vāsupūjya: the twelfth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The emblem constantly associated with Vāsupūjya, as wegather from Jaina books, is the buffalo. The other characteristics of his image viz. the Śāsanadeva and the Śāsanadevī are known by the names of Kumāra and Caṇḍā (Digambara: Gāndhārī). The tree which gave him shade while acquiring the Kevala knowledge is Pāṭalika according to the Abhidhānacintāmaṇi and Kadamba according to the Uttarapurāṇa. A King named Darpiṣṭa-Vāsudeva is to wave the Chowri or the fly-fan by his side.

Both the texts of the Śvetāmbaras and the Digambaras coincide in attributing to Kumāra a vehicle of swan and white complexion. The Digambara view makes him three-headed and six-handed while the Śvetāmbara school only four-armed. The attributes held by him according to the former are a bow, ichneumon, fruit, club, vara. The attributes as represented by the latter view are a citrus, arrow, mongoose and bow.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of the Yakṣa (or Śāsanadevatās, ‘messenger-deities’) of Vāsupūjya, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“Originating in that congregation, a Yakṣa, named Kumāra, whose vehicle was a haṃsa, white, carrying a citron and an arrow in his two right hands, and an ichneumon and a bow in his two left hands, became Vāsupūjya’s messenger-deity. Likewise appeared Candrā, dark colored, with a horse for a vehicle, with one right hand in varada-position and one holding a spear, and with left hands holding a flower and a club, a messenger-deity of the Lord, always near at hand. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Epigraphia Indica Vol. 36: Tenali plates of eastern Chālukya Vijayāditya I grant

Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of a garden (ārāma) found witin Triliṅga: an ancient Sanskrit name of the Andhra country, accoriding to verses on the Annavarappāḍu plates of Kāṭaya Vema Reḍḍi. The Reḍḍis (Reddy) were an ancient Telugu dynasty from the 14th century who brought about a golden age of the Andhra country. According to the plates, their captial was named Addaṅki (Addaṃki) which resembled Heaven (Amarāvatī) by the beauty of its horses, the donors and the women. King Vema, son of Anna-bhūpati of the Paṇṭa family, can be identified with Anavema of the inscription at Śrīśaila.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature (history)

Kumāra (कुमार) was the father of  Rūpa Gosvāmin (C. 1470-1583 C.E.): author of Aṣṭādaśachandas and erudite scholar of Indian Diaspora who has enriched the Sanskrit literature by his various compositions with the nectar of Vaiṣṇava philosophy. Rūpagosvāmin was the son of Kumāra, grandson of Mukunda, great grandson of Padmanābha and great great grandson of Rūpeśvara, who is the son of Jagadguru Niruddha. He had two brothers namely Vallabha and Sanātana. He was also the uncle of Jīvagosvāmin, son of his younger brother Vallabha. He was a resident of Rāmakeli, a village in Bengal.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kumāra.—(IE 8-2; EI 28, 30; BL; HD), designation of a prince or the king's heir-apparent; usually a prince younger than the Yuvarāja (heir-apparent). See CII, Vol. I, pp. 93, 97; Vol. II, pp. 40, 48. Cf. Devī-kumāra (IA 18; CII 1). Note: kumāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kumāra : (m.) a boy; a youngster.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kumāra, (Vedic kumāra) a young boy, son Sn. 685 sq. (kuhiṃ kumāro aham api daṭthukāmo: w. ref. to the child Gotama); Pv III, 52; PvA. 39, 41 (=māṇava); daharo kumāro M. II, 24, 44.—a son of (-°) rāja° PvA. 163; khattiya°, brāhmaṇa° Bdhd 84; deva° J. III, 392 yakkha° Bdhd 84.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kumara (कुमर).—& kumarī Corr. from kumāra & kumārī.

--- OR ---

kumāra (कुमार).—m (S) A boy under five years of age. 2 or rājakumāra A prince, esp. the heir apparent.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kumāra (कुमार).—m A boy under 5 years of age. A prince; esp. the heir-apparent.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kumāra (कुमार).—[cf. Uṇ.3.138]

1) A son, boy; a youth; यदात्थ राजन्यकुमार तत्तथा यशस्तु रक्ष्यं परतो यशोधनैः (yadāttha rājanyakumāra tattathā yaśastu rakṣyaṃ parato yaśodhanaiḥ) R.3.48.

2) A boy below five.

3) A prince, an heir-apparent (especially in dramas); विप्रोषितकुमारं तद्राज्यमस्तमितेश्वरम् (viproṣitakumāraṃ tadrājyamastamiteśvaram) R.12.11; कुमारस्यायुषो बाणः (kumārasyāyuṣo bāṇaḥ) V.5; उपवेष्टुमर्हति कुमारः (upaveṣṭumarhati kumāraḥ) Mu. 4 (said by Rākṣasa to Malayaketu).

4) Name of Kārtikeya, the god of war; कुमारकल्पं सुषुवे कुमारम् (kumārakalpaṃ suṣuve kumāram) R.5.36; कुमारोऽपि कुमारविक्रमः (kumāro'pi kumāravikramaḥ) 3.55.

5) Name of Agni.

6) A parrot.

7) Name of the author of a Dharmaśāstra.

-ram pure gold.

Derivable forms: kumāraḥ (कुमारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumāra (कुमार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A boy, one under five years of age. 2. A name of Kartikeya. 3. A prince, the heir apparent, and who is associated to the empire, (in theatrical language.) 4. A horse-man, a cavalier. 5. A parrot. 6. One of the attendants on the twenty-four Jinas, and also a sanctified character amongst the Jaina sect. 7. A tree, (Tapia cratæva) see varuṇa 8. A name of Sind'hu river or Indus. n.

(-raṃ) Pure gold. f. (-rī) 1. A young girl, one from ten to twelve years old, a virgin: or in the Tantras any virgin to the age of sixteen, or as long as menstruation has not commenced. 2. A name of Durga. 3. The central part of the universe according to Hindu geography, Jambu Dwipa or India. 4. The most southerly of the nine portions of the known continent, or of Jambu Dwipa, the southern extremity of the peninsula, whence Cape Comorin or Kumari. 5. The name of a river flowing from the mountain Sactiman. 6. A plant, (Clitoria ternatea:) see aparājitā. 7. Double jasmin. 8. The aloe tree, (Aloes perfoliata:) see ghṛtakumārī. 9. The Syama, a bird so named. E. kumāra to play as a child, affix ac fem. affix ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumāra (कुमार).—i. e. ku-mṛ + a (vb. mṛ in its original signification, To be weak), I. m. 1. A child (ved.). 2. A boy, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 152. 3. A youth, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 40. 4. When compounded, often: Young, as latter part, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 27, 15; [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 40; as former part, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 159, From early youth. 5. A young prince, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 12, 41. 6. A name of Skanda, the god of war, [Suśruta] 2, 394, 10. 7. The name of a people, Mahābhārata 2, 1870. Ii. f. . 1. A girl, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 54. 2. A proper name, Mahābhārata 1, 3796. 3. The name of a river, Mahābhārata 6, 343.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumāra (कुमार).—[masculine] boy, youth, son, prince (lit. easily dying, frail); [Epithet] of Skanda, the god of war. [feminine] girl, maiden, daughter; a woman’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Kumāra (कुमार) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—the original author of the Ṛkprātiśākhyabhāṣya. Oxf. 405^b.

Kumāra has the following synonyms: Viṣṇumitra.

2) Kumāra (कुमार):—grammarian. Quoted by Padmanābha Oxf. 110^b.

3) Kumāra (कुमार):—pupil of Nārāyaṇa Jyautiṣa: Praśnāmṛta jy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kumāra (कुमार):—m. ([from] 1. ku māra, √mṛ ? ‘easily dying’; [from] √2. kam, [Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 138]) a child, boy, youth

2) son, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.

3) a prince, heir-apparent associated in the kingdom with the reigning monarch (especially in theatrical language), [Raghuvaṃśa; Mālavikāgnimitra] etc.

4) a groom, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Name of Skanda (or Kārttikeya q.v.; represented as a beautiful youth; also as the author of certain grammatical Sūtras cf. kalāpa; also as causing certain diseases, [Suśruta]), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

6) Name of a son of Agni (who is the author of some Vedic hymns), [Ṛgveda-anukramaṇikā]

7) one of the nine names of Agni, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa vi]

8) Name of a Prajāpati, [Vāyu-purāṇa]

9) of Mañju-śrī, [Buddhist literature]

10) of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

11) of the Sindhu river, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) of the author of a Dharmaśāstra

13) of the attendant of the twelfth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [Jaina literature]

14) a parrot, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) the tree Capparis trifoliata (cf. kumāraka)

16) Name of a people, [Mahābhārata ii, 1075 and 1870] (cf. kumālaka)

17) n. Name of a Varṣa governed by Kumāra (the son of Bhavya), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

18) pure gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kumāra (कुमार):—(ka, t) kumārayati 10. a. To play as a child. Also kumāla.

2) (raḥ) 1. m. A name of Kārtīkeya, Mars; a prince; a youth. f. A young girl. n. Pure gold.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Kumāra (कुमार):—[Die Uṇādi-Affixe 3, 137.]

1) m. a) Kind, bes. ein neugeborenes (namentlich in der älteren Sprache); Knabe, Jüngling, Sohn [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 336.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 540.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 140.] ku.ā.aṃ mā.ā bibharti [Ṛgveda 5, 2, 1.] daśa.māsāṃ chayā.aḥ kumā.o adhi mā.ari [78, 9. 6, 75, 17.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 1, 11, 5.] [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 1, 3.] ku.ā.aḥ sāhade.yaḥ [Ṛgveda 4, 15, 7. 2, 33, 12. 10, 79, 3.] [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 2, 33. 28, 13.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 12, 4, 8.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 2, 2, 1, 1. 4, 4, 5, 23.] kumārasya retaḥ siktaṃ na saṃbhavati [11, 4, 1, 7.] [ŚVETĀŚV. Upakośā 4, 3.] kanyānāṃ saṃpradānaṃ ca kumārāṇāṃ ca rakṣaṇam [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 152.] [Brāhmaṇavilāpa 2, 7.] [Nalopākhyāna 1, 8.] [Mahābhārata 1, 5149. fgg.] [Daśaratha’s Tod 1, 10.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 1, 73. 77, 14] (verheirathet). [5, 43, 1.] kumāraḥ patagottamaḥ (ein in menschlicher Sprache redender Vogel von seinem Sohne) [4, 61, 37. 6, 104, 25.] [Suśruta 1, 323, 2. 369, 2. 3.] madīyakumārān [Pañcatantra 4, 24.] kumārajanman [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 16.] kumārasainyam [40.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 12, 7.] Attributiv am Anf. eines comp.: anekāni sahasrāṇi kumārabrahmacāriṇām . divaṃ gatāni viprāṇāmakṛtvā kulasaṃtatim .. [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 5, 159.] vor śramaṇā u.s.w. [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 70.] Solche compp. haben den Acut auf der Endsilbe von kumāra [6, 2, 26.] kumārapratyenas als Ausnahme [27.] Bezeichnet das zweite Wort eine Menge, so ruht der Ton auf der ersten oder letzten Silbe des ersten Wortes (nach einer anderen Erklärung auf der Endsilbe des zweiten Wortes) [28.] kumāracātakāḥ, kumāralohadhvajāḥ; kumāra; cātakāḥ, lohadhvajāḥ [Scholiast] und [Siddhāntakaumudī] Folgt dem coordinirten Begriffe im comp.: ṛṣikumāra [Śākuntala 27, 15.] rājanya [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 48.] gopa [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 8, 21.] — b) Fürstensohn, Prinz, Erbprinz [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 12.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 332.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Mālavikāgnimitra 8, 17.] [Raghuvaṃśa 12, 11.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 4, 30.] [Sāhityadarpana 37, 1.] [BURN. Lot. de Lassen’s Anthologie b. l. 5. 300.] Vgl. rājakumāra. — c) Pferdeknecht, Stallknecht, = aśvānucāraka [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] = aśvavāraka [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Medinīkoṣa] — d) ein Beiname Skanda's, des Kriegsgottes, [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 1, 36.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 56. 3, 3, 336.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 209.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] agneḥ putraḥ kumārastu śrīmāñcharavanālayaḥ [Mahābhārata 1, 2587.] [Harivaṃśa 157.] tadānujagmatuḥ sthāṇuṃ kumārāviva pāvakī [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 24, 9.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 120.] skandaḥ sṛṣṭo bhagavatā devena tripurāriṇā . bibharti cāparāṃ saṃjñāṃ kumāra iti sa grahaḥ [Suśruta 2, 394, 10. -] [Mahābhārata 3, 8123. 14373.] [Harivaṃśa 9817.] [Suśruta 1, 71, 2.] [Pañcatantra Pr. 1.] [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 55.] [Rgva tch’er rol pa 114. 241.] In den folgenden Stellen ist wohl auch Skanda gemeint: prajāpatirbrahmā devarṣipitṛbhūmipaiḥ . dakṣabhṛgvaṅgiromukhyaiḥ kumāreṇa bhavena ca .. [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8, 23, 20.] brahmā śarvaḥ kumāraśca bhṛgvādyā munayo nṛpa . pitaraḥ sarvabhūtāni siddhā vaimānikāśca ye .. [26.] Verfasser grammatischer Sūtra [Colebrooke II, 44.] Vgl. svāmikumāra und kārttikeya. Kumāra, ein Sohn Agni's wie der Kriegsgott, Verfasser von VedaLiedern [Geschichte des Weda], [Zur L. u. G. d. W. 28.] Desgleichen kumāra ātreyaḥ und yāmāyanaḥ [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 269.] Als einer der 9 Namen Agni's erscheint kumāra [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 6, 1, 3, 8. 18.] Bei den Jaina Diener des 12ten Arhant's der gegenwärtigen Avasarpiṇi [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 42.] — e) Nomen proprium eines Prajāpati [Vāyupurāṇa im Viṣṇupurāṇa 50, Nalopākhyāna 2.] — Ein Beiname Mañjuśrī's [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 20]; vgl. [BURN. Lot. de Lassen’s Anthologie b. l. 300.] — f) pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes [Mahābhārata 2, 1870.] kumāraviṣaya [1075.] Vgl. kumālaka. — g) Papagei [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — h) Name eines Baumes, Capparis trifoliata Roxb. (varuṇadru) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] Vgl. kumāraka. — i) ein Beiname des Flusses Sindhu [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] —

2) f. kumārī a) Mädchen, Jungfrau, Tochter [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 1, 8.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 336.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 510.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 2, 36, 1. 10, 8, 27. 14, 1, 63.] kumārī gandharvagṛhītā [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 5, 29.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 2, 6, 2, 13. 13, 5, 2, 1.] [ŚVETĀŚV. Upakośā 4, 3.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 54. 114.] trīṇi varṣāṇyudīkṣeta kumāryṛtumatī satī [9, 90. 131. 11, 58. 170.] vṛddhakumārī, jaratkumārī [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 2, 95,] [Scholiast] Am Anf. eines comp. vor einem διδασκαλωνυμικόν in dem Sinne, dass es den Schülern vor Allem um ein Mädchen zu thun sei: kumārīdākṣāḥ [69, Scholiast] kumāritarā, kumāritamā [1, 1, 22, Scholiast] — b) Nomen proprium der Gemahlin Bhīmasena’s, Sohnes von Parīkṣit, [Mahābhārata 1, 3796.] einer Tochter Vasudeva's von der Rohiṇī [Harivaṃśa 1952.] ein Beiname der Sītā, der Gemahlin Rāma’s, [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] — c) ein Beiname der Durgā [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 203.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Harivaṃśa 9425.] — d) ein best. Vogel (s. śyāmā) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — e) Name verschiedener Pflanzen: kumārīguṇa [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 987.] α) Aloe perfoliata Lin. [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 54.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Medinīkoṣa] — β) = aparājitā (Clitoria ternatea Lin. [Wilson’s Wörterbuch]). — γ) Jasminum Sambac Ait. [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — δ) = bandhyākarkoṭakī [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — f) die Blüthe von taruṇī und modinī ebend. — g) grosse Kardamomen (sthūlailā) ebend. — h) Name eines best. Theils von Jambudvīpa [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] der südlichen Spitze von Dekkhan (Kap Comorin) [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] Nach [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] und [Medinīkoṣa] Jambudvīpa selbst. — i) Nomen proprium eines Flusses [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Mahābhārata 6, 343.] [Harivaṃśa 12853.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 176.] — k) Name eines Metrums (4 Mal ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘, ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯) [Colebrooke II, 161 (IX, 13).] —

3) n. reines Gold [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

4) kumārī m. f. (nom act. von einem denom. von kumārī) nach einem Mädchen Verlangen habend: kumāryai brāhmaṇāya [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 4, 3, Vārttika von Kātyāyana. 1,] [Scholiast] Wird auch als masc. wie das primitive kumārī declinirt. — Das Wort zerlegt sich in 1. ku + māra und bedeutet wohl eher leicht — als schwer dem Tode anheimfallend, da die ältere Sprache mit dem Worte vorzugsweise das neugeborene Kind bezeichnet; vgl. kumāradeṣṇa. — Vgl. akumāra, sukumāra.

--- OR ---

Kumāra (कुमार):—

1) a) ein Knabe unter fünf Jahren [GARUḌA-Pāṇini’s acht Bücher,] [PRETAKALPA 17, 8] bei [AUFRECHT], [UJJVAL.] — d) viśaṃnti śāpabhītā hi na kumāragṛhaṃ striyaḥ einen Tempel des Skanda [Kathāsaritsāgara 55, 174.] — Verfasser eines Dharmaśāstra [Oxforder Handschriften 356,a,13.] Grammatiker [110,b,15.] = viṣṇumitra [405,b, No. 10.] —

2) c) Name der Dākṣāyaṇī in Māyāpurī [Oxforder Handschriften 39,b,7.] Verfasserin von Mantra der Śākta [101,b,10.] kavaca [88,b,9.] pūjā [6. 95,a,13. 284,a,43.] — k) {Ç} [Weber’s Indische Studien 8, 390.] — l) Bez. kleiner Flaggenstöcke, welche neben Indra's Banner aufgerichtet werden, [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 43, 65.] śakra [39.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Kumāra (कुमार):——

1) m. — a) Knabe , Jüngling , Sohn. In Comp. mit einem coordinirten Begriffe voranstehend oder folgend. — b) Fürstensohn , Prinz , Erbprinz. — c) *Pferdeknecht , Stallknecht. — d) Beiname — α) Skanda’s , des Kriegsgottes. Als dieser auch ein best. Krankheitsdämon [Suśruta (rotrh) 2,394,10.] — β) des Mañjuśrī. — γ) *des Sindhu. — e) einer der 9 Namen Agni's. — f) Nomen proprium — α) eines Prajāpati. — β) verschiedener Männer. — γ) Pl. eines Volkes. — δ) eines Flusses [Wilson's Uebersetzung des Viṣṇupurāṇa ,3,13.] — g) *Papagei. — h) *Capparis trifoliata.

2) f. — a) Mädchen , Jungfrau , Tochter. — b) Beiname der Durgā und der Dākschāyaṇī in Māyāpurī. — c) Bez. kleiner Flaggenstöcke , welche neben Indra’s Banner aufgerichtet werden. — d) ein best. Metrum. — e) *ein dunkelfarbiger Sperling [Rājan 19,124.] — f) ein best. Pflanze [Weber .No.957.] *Aloe perfoliata , *Clitoria Ternatea , *Jasminum Sambac und eine Cucurbitacee ([Rājan 3,39]). — g) *die Blüthe von Taruṇī und Modinī. — h) Nomen proprium — α) verschiedener Flüsse [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 2,29,2.] — β) * = Jambūdvīp oder ein Theil davon. — γ) das Kap Komorin. Pl. Comm. zu [Jaiminiyanyāyamālāvistara 10,1,18.] Vgl. auch kumārī. —

3) n. — a) Nomen proprium eines von Kumāra , eines Sohnes des Bhavya , beherrschten Varṣa [Wilson's Uebersetzung des Viṣṇupurāṇa ,4,59.fgg.] — b) *reines Gold.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Kuṃārā (कुंआरा):—(a) bachelor, unmarried; ~[] virgin, unmarried (girl).

2) Kumāra (कुमार) [Also spelled kumar]:—(a) bachelor; —[vrata] celibacy; —[vratī] a celibate.

context information


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