Kumara, aka: Kumāra, Kumārā; 21 Definition(s)

Introduction

Kumara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Kumara in Purana glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

Kumāra (कुमार):—One of the seven sons of Havya (lord of Śākadvīpa). His varṣa is also called the same: kumāravarṣa.

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

1) Kumāra (कुमार).—Skanda or Subrahmaṇya. (For details see under Skanda).

2) Kumāra (कुमार).—A King in ancient India. He was invited by the Pāṇḍavas to help them in the great war. He was defeated by Droṇa. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 24).

3) Kumāra (कुमार).—A sage reputed as Sanatkumāra. (For details see under Sanatkumāra).

4) Kumāra (कुमार).—One of the prominent sons of Garuḍa.

5) Kumāra (कुमार).—An urban region in ancient India. King Śreṇimān of Kumāra was defeated by Bhīma during his triumphal tour. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 1).

6) Kumāra (कुमार).—Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumāra and Sanatsujāta were the sons of Brahmā endowed with eternal youthfulness. They are known as the Kumāras.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Kumāra (कुमार).—(subrahmaṇya)—born in śarakānana or śaravana and was nursed by the six Kṛttikas, hence Kārttikeya: Sucking milk with six mouths, the child came to be known as Ṣaṇmukha. Appointed commander of the celestial army in the Tārakāsura war and killed Tāraka.1 Śākha, Viśākha and Naigameya were brothers.2 An avatār of Hari.3 A son of Agni through Svāhā, and the son of Gangā by taking Agni's garbha due to Uma's curse. Hence son of Śiva.4 His birth was heralded by divine musicians, siddhas, cāraṇas, yakṣas, kinnaras and others. Fed with milk by the wives of the seven sages except Arundhatī. Hari presented him two birds—fowl and peacock, Sarasvatī the lute, Brāhmī a goat, and Śiva a ram.5 Married Devasenā, the daughter of Indra: also known as Skanda, Guha, and Devasenāpati.6 Mayūra as the riding animal of.7 Wounded by Maya in the battle of Tripuram.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 7. 64-5; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 115. Matsya-purāṇa 5. 26-7; 160 (whole): 225. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 24.
  • 2) Ib. 66. 24; Matsya-purāṇa 5. 2617.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 4. 17.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 135. 79.
  • 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 24; 10. 35. -48; Matsya-purāṇa 203. 6; Vāyu-purāṇa 72. 35-46.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 30. 39, 99 to the end; Vāyu-purāṇa 72. 48-50; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 48-51.
  • 7) Matsya-purāṇa 135. 76.
  • 8) Matsya-purāṇa 192. 33.

1b) (Sanat)—a siddha who could not comprehend the supreme Being and who would not find fault with Hara for violating dharma.1 Learnt the bhāgavata from Sankarṣaṇa and imparted it to Sānkhyāyana.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 3. 20; 15. 12; 17. 12 and 32; VIII. 23. 20.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 8. 3 and 7.

1c) A son of Havya, after whom Kumāravarṣa was called.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 17-18; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 16.

1d) See bhauma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 85; 28. 92.

1e) A prajāpati.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 54; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 53.

1f) An author of Architecture.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 252. 3.

1g) Rose out of the contemplation of Brahmā in the 29th kalpa; with white complexion and a resplendant fearful countenance and mouth; Brahmā worshipped him as the Gods of Gods, purāṇapuruṣa, the best of yogins and laughed a hearty laugh in wonder; also of red colour.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 22. 10-23.

1h) At the commencement of the eighth kalpa Brahmā got a son (nīlalohita) who was weeping; he asked Brahmā to give him a name for which Brahmā said rudra; again he cried for a second name and Brahmā said, bhava; the other names given in order were śiva, paśupati, īśa, bhīma, ugra and mahādeva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 27. 4-16.

1i) A Nāga.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 71.

1j) A son of Bhavya of Śākadvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 60.

1k) (c)—a kingdom watered by Hlādinī;1 a tribe.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 55.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 52.

1l) A celestial group.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 52.

2) Kumārā (कुमारा).—A river from the Śuktimat hill.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 14.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kumāra (कुमार) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.22) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kumāra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Kumāra is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.101.15/V.103) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Kumāra (one of the aspects of Subrahmaṇya, according to the Kumāra-tantra). He should hold in his right hands the śakti and the khaḍga and in the left ones kukkuṭa and the kheṭaka. The Śrītatvanidhi substitutes the abhaya and varada in the place of khaḍga and kheṭaka.

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

Kumāra (कुमार) is depicted as a sculpture in the first pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—The events leading to the birth of Kumāra, the son of Śiva and Pārvatī have been depicted on the upper portion of all the four façades of this pillar. These pictures are in conformity with the pen pictures that are given in purāṇic texts and in the Kumārasaṃbhava by Kālidāsa.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Kumāra (कुमार) refers to a “prince”, whose beard (śmaśru) should be represented as vicitra (smartly done), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Providing the beard is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

2) Kumāra (कुमार) refers to the role of “princes” defined to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35, the role (bhūmikā) of actors playing princes (kumāras) is defined as, “actors of the best kind who have beautiful eyes, eyebrows, forehead, nose, lips, cheeks, face, neck, and every other limbs beautiful, and who are tall, possessed of pleasant appearance, dignified gait, and are neither fat nor lean, and are well-behaved, wise and steady by nature, should be employed to represent the role of kings (rājan) and princes (kumāra)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

1) Kumāra (कुमार).—Kārtikeya who is believed to havegiven inspiration to the Katantra-sūtrakāra to write the Kātantra-sūtras;

2) Kumāra.—Named Viṣṇumitra who wrote a commentary on the ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य (ṛkprātiśākhya),

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Kumāra (कुमार): Son of Shiva and Parvati who conquered and slew the demon Taraka.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Father of Bharana. He lived in Kappakandara. Mhv.xxiii.64.

2. Name of the god Skanda. He rode on a peacock. It is said that Kumara gave a boon to Manavamma. Cv.lvii.7, 10; see also Hopkins: Epic Mythology, p.227.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of a deity mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV). Other individuals also know all the dharmas, e.g., Kieou mo lo (Kumāra): he holds a cock (kukkuṭa), a bell (ghaṇṭā), a red standard (lohitapatākā) and is mounted on a peacock (śikhigata). All these gods are great guides (mahānāyaka). They cannot be omniscient. Why? Because their mind remains attached (abhiniviṣṭa) to hatred (dveṣa) and pride (abhhimāna).

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of the Śāsanadeva (Yakṣa) accompanying Vāsupūjya: the twelfth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The emblem constantly associated with Vāsupūjya, as wegather from Jaina books, is the buffalo. The other characteristics of his image viz. the Śāsanadeva and the Śāsanadevī are known by the names of Kumāra and Caṇḍā (Digambara: Gāndhārī). The tree which gave him shade while acquiring the Kevala knowledge is Pāṭalika according to the Abhidhānacintāmaṇi and Kadamba according to the Uttarapurāṇa. A King named Darpiṣṭa-Vāsudeva is to wave the Chowri or the fly-fan by his side.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Kumāra (कुमार) is the name of a garden (ārāma) found witin Triliṅga: an ancient Sanskrit name of the Andhra country, accoriding to verses on the Annavarappāḍu plates of Kāṭaya Vema Reḍḍi. The Reḍḍis (Reddy) were an ancient Telugu dynasty from the 14th century who brought about a golden age of the Andhra country. According to the plates, their captial was named Addaṅki (Addaṃki) which resembled Heaven (Amarāvatī) by the beauty of its horses, the donors and the women. King Vema, son of Anna-bhūpati of the Paṇṭa family, can be identified with Anavema of the inscription at Śrīśaila.

Source: Epigraphia Indica Vol. 36: Tenali plates of eastern Chālukya Vijayāditya I grant

Kumāra (कुमार) was the father of  Rūpa Gosvāmin (C. 1470-1583 C.E.): author of Aṣṭādaśachandas and erudite scholar of Indian Diaspora who has enriched the Sanskrit literature by his various compositions with the nectar of Vaiṣṇava philosophy. Rūpagosvāmin was the son of Kumāra, grandson of Mukunda, great grandson of Padmanābha and great great grandson of Rūpeśvara, who is the son of Jagadguru Niruddha. He had two brothers namely Vallabha and Sanātana. He was also the uncle of Jīvagosvāmin, son of his younger brother Vallabha. He was a resident of Rāmakeli, a village in Bengal.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature (history)

Kumāra.—(IE 8-2; EI 28, 30; BL; HD), designation of a prince or the king's heir-apparent; usually a prince younger than the Yuvarāja (heir-apparent). See CII, Vol. I, pp. 93, 97; Vol. II, pp. 40, 48. Cf. Devī-kumāra (IA 18; CII 1). Note: kumāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Kumara in Pali glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

kumāra : (m.) a boy; a youngster.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Kumāra, (Vedic kumāra) a young boy, son Sn. 685 sq. (kuhiṃ kumāro aham api daṭthukāmo: w. ref. to the child Gotama); Pv III, 52; PvA. 39, 41 (=māṇava); daharo kumāro M. II, 24, 44.—a son of (-°) rāja° PvA. 163; khattiya°, brāhmaṇa° Bdhd 84; deva° J. III, 392 yakkha° Bdhd 84.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

kumara (कुमर).—& kumarī Corr. from kumāra & kumārī.

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kumāra (कुमार).—m (S) A boy under five years of age. 2 or rājakumāra A prince, esp. the heir apparent.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kumāra (कुमार).—m A boy under 5 years of age. A prince; esp. the heir-apparent.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kumāra (कुमार).—[cf. Uṇ.3.138]

1) A son, boy; a youth; यदात्थ राजन्यकुमार तत्तथा यशस्तु रक्ष्यं परतो यशोधनैः (yadāttha rājanyakumāra tattathā yaśastu rakṣyaṃ parato yaśodhanaiḥ) R.3.48.

2) A boy below five.

3) A prince, an heir-apparent (especially in dramas); विप्रोषितकुमारं तद्राज्यमस्तमितेश्वरम् (viproṣitakumāraṃ tadrājyamastamiteśvaram) R.12.11; कुमारस्यायुषो बाणः (kumārasyāyuṣo bāṇaḥ) V.5; उपवेष्टुमर्हति कुमारः (upaveṣṭumarhati kumāraḥ) Mu. 4 (said by Rākṣasa to Malayaketu).

4) Name of Kārtikeya, the god of war; कुमारकल्पं सुषुवे कुमारम् (kumārakalpaṃ suṣuve kumāram) R.5.36; कुमारोऽपि कुमारविक्रमः (kumāro'pi kumāravikramaḥ) 3.55.

5) Name of Agni.

6) A parrot.

7) Name of the author of a Dharmaśāstra.

-ram pure gold.

Derivable forms: kumāraḥ (कुमारः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kumāra (कुमार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A boy, one under five years of age. 2. A name of Kartikeya. 3. A prince, the heir apparent, and who is associated to the empire, (in theatrical language.) 4. A horse-man, a cavalier. 5. A parrot. 6. One of the attendants on the twenty-four Jinas, and also a sanctified character amongst the Jaina sect. 7. A tree, (Tapia cratæva) see varuṇa 8. A name of Sind'hu river or Indus. n.

(-raṃ) Pure gold. f. (-rī) 1. A young girl, one from ten to twelve years old, a virgin: or in the Tantras any virgin to the age of sixteen, or as long as menstruation has not commenced. 2. A name of Durga. 3. The central part of the universe according to Hindu geography, Jambu Dwipa or India. 4. The most southerly of the nine portions of the known continent, or of Jambu Dwipa, the southern extremity of the peninsula, whence Cape Comorin or Kumari. 5. The name of a river flowing from the mountain Sactiman. 6. A plant, (Clitoria ternatea:) see aparājitā. 7. Double jasmin. 8. The aloe tree, (Aloes perfoliata:) see ghṛtakumārī. 9. The Syama, a bird so named. E. kumāra to play as a child, affix ac fem. affix ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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