Pratipa, Pratīpa, Prātīpa: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Pratipa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Pratip.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Pratīpa (प्रतीप):—Son of Dilīpa (son of Ṛkṣa, who was the son of Devātithi). He had three sons named Devāpi, Śāntanu and Bāhlīka. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.11-12)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Pratīpa (प्रतीप).—A King of Candravaṃśa (Lunar dynasty). He was the father of King Śantanu. There is a story behind the birth of the son Śantanu to Pratīpa.

One day this Rājarṣi was worshipping the Sun-god in the waters of the river Gaṅgā, when a beautiful maiden rose from the waters and sat on the right thigh of the royal ascetic. The King was embarrassed and he told her thus:—"Oh sweet girl, who are you? Do you realise what an unrighteous deed you have done? Why did you thus climb on my thigh without seeking my permission? The right thigh is for the daughter and the wife of the son. Since you have thus sat on my right thigh, you shall be the wife of my son when one is born to me."

Hearing this the maiden jumped out from the thigh of the King and left the place and the King went to his palace. After some time Pratīpa got a son named Śantanu. Śantanu was none other than emperor Mahābhiṣak who was forced to be born on earth due to a curse of Brahmā. When Śantanu came of age Pratīpa decided to spend the rest of his life in forests and calling his son to his side gave him all advice and added "Son, perhaps a maiden may come to you and if she comes accept her as your wife. Do not ask her about her identity. By making her your truthful wife you will acquire a great many benefits."

Pratīpa, thereafter, entrusted the kingdom to his son and after performing severe penance in the forests attained divyaloka. (2nd Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Pratipa (प्रतिप).—A son of Dilīpa, and father of three sons: Devāpi, Śantanu and Bāhlika.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 234.

2a) Pratīpa (प्रतीप).—A son of Dilīpa and father of three sons, Devāpi and others.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 11-12; Matsya-purāṇa 50. 38. Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 418; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 8-9.

2b) The first day of the Pakṣa; in the bright half, the moon leaves the Sūryamaṇḍala and takes the middle place between that maṇḍala and that of the moon; the time for sacrifices and oblations;1 first of tithis.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 56. 36, 47.
  • 2) Ib. 53. 114.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Pratīpa (प्रतीप) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.89.51) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Pratīpa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Pratīpa (प्रतीप) is a Sanskrit word referring to “disagreeable”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 4.206)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Pratīpa (प्रतीप) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure pratīpa has not found sanction in the works of Bhāmaha and Udbhaṭa. In Rudraṭa’s Kāvyālaṃkāra it has been mentioned first.

Jayadeva in his Candrāloka (C.L. V/100) has defined pratīpa as—“pratīpamupamānasya hīnatvamupameyataḥ”.—This same definition has found its place in the Kāvyavilāsa of Cirañjīva. According to both of them if the inferiority of a thing which is famous as upamāna than the thing which is famous as upameya is described it is the figure pratīpa. According to Cirañjīva some Ālaṃkārikas have included pratīpa under pratīpopamā.

Example of the pratīpa-alaṃkāra:—

ayaṃ nṛpaścedarivīrahantā dānapriyo locanagocaro’bhūt |
karṇena kiṃ kiṃ surabhūruheṇa kiṃ bhānunā vā’pi kimarjunena ||

“If the king who is the slayer of the heroes of the enemy and fond of benevolence would have come to vision then what is the use of Karṇa, the divine tree, the sun and Arjuna”.

Notes: In this verse Karṇa, the divine tree, the sun and Arjuna are famous as upamāna and the king is famous as upameya. The superiority of the king is described to Karṇa, the divine tree etc. So it is an example of pratīpa alaṃkāra.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pratīpa (प्रतीप).—n S A figure in rhetoric. A reverse illustration; adducing in illustration that which usually is the illustrated subject; as the comparing of the full moon to a beautiful face.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratīpa (प्रतीप).—a. [pratigatāḥ āpo yatra, pratiap ac, apa īp c]

1) Contrary, unfavourable, adverse, opposite; तत्प्रतीप- पवनादि वैकृतम् (tatpratīpa- pavanādi vaikṛtam) R.11.62; Ki.14.6.

2) Reverse, inverted, out of order.

3) Backward, retrograde.

4) Disagreeable, displeasing.

5) Refractory, disobedient, obstinate, perverse; प्रेष्यः प्रतीपोऽधिकृतः प्रमादी (preṣyaḥ pratīpo'dhikṛtaḥ pramādī) (tyājyāḥ) Pt.1.424.

6) Turned away, averted.

7) Meeting, encountering.

8) Hindering.

-paḥ 1 Name of a king, father of Śantanu and grand-father of Bhīṣma.

2) An adversary, opponent; चरति मयि रणे यश्च यश्च प्रतीपः (carati mayi raṇe yaśca yaśca pratīpaḥ) Ve.3.32.

-pam Name of a figure of speech in which the usual form of comparison is inverted, the उपमान (upamāna) being compared with the उपमेय (upameya); प्रतीपमुपमानस्याप्युपमेयत्वकल्पनम् । त्वल्लोचनसमं पद्मं त्वद्वक्त्रसदृशो विधुः (pratīpamupamānasyāpyupameyatvakalpanam | tvallocanasamaṃ padmaṃ tvadvaktrasadṛśo vidhuḥ) || Chandr.5.9; (for fuller definitions and explanation see K. P.1 under pratīpa).

-pam ind.

1) On the contrary.

2) In an inverted order.

3) Against, in opposition to; भर्तृर्विप्रकृतापि रोषणतया मा स्म प्रतीपं गमः (bhartṛrviprakṛtāpi roṣaṇatayā mā sma pratīpaṃ gamaḥ) Ś.4.18.

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Prātīpa (प्रातीप).—A patronymic of Śantanu.

Derivable forms: prātīpaḥ (प्रातीपः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratipa (प्रतिप).—m.

(-paḥ) A king of the lunar race, father of Santanu, and grandfather of Bhishma &c.: See pratīpa. E. prati severally, and pa who cherishes.

Pratipa can also be spelled as Pratīpa (प्रतीप).

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Pratīpa (प्रतीप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pā-paṃ) 1. Turned away, having the face averted. 2. Backwards, following an order or course the reverse of natural, against the grain or stream. 3. Retrograde, coming back. 4. Disobedient, refractory, perverse. 5. Cross, contradictory. 6. Disagreeable, displeasing. m.

(-paḥ) The father of Santanu, and grandfather of Bhishma. n.

(-paṃ) Comparing Upamana or a new object with Upameya or the established object, as with the moon, &c., inverse comparison. There are five forms of this figure according to some, and four according to others; some contend that it is not a separate figure but a form of Upama. E. prati before, ap water, and the a changed to i by special rule.

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Prātīpa (प्रातीप).—m.

(-paḥ) A name of Santanu. E. pratīpa the father of this prince and aṇ aff. of descent.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratīpa (प्रतीप).—i. e. prati-āp + a, adj., f. . 1. Backward. 2. Retrograde, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 7. 3. Contradictory, opposite, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 396. 4. Refractory, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 173; disobedient. 5. Adverse, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 206; against the stream, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 24.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratīpa (प्रतीप).—[adjective] contrary (lit. against the stream), inverted, cross, refractory, hostile, trouble-some, unpleasant; [masculine] adversary, antagonist.

— [neuter] [adverb] contrarily, against, back, in inverted order; [with] gam oppose, resist.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratipa (प्रतिप):—m. Name of a prince, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([probably] [wrong reading] for pratīpa q.v.)

2) Pratīpa (प्रतीप):—mf(ā)n. ([from] prati+ap; cf. anūpa, dvīpa, samīpa), ‘against the stream’, ‘ag° the grain’, going in an opposite direction, meeting, encountering, adverse, contrary, opposite, reverse, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

3) inverted, out of order, [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira]

4) displeasing, disagreeable, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa]

5) resisting, refractory, cross, obstinate

6) impeding, hindering, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. backward, retrograde

7) turned away, averted, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) m. an adversary, opponent, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

9) Name of a prince, the father of Śāṃtanu and grandfather of Bhīṣma, [Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

10) n. (in [rhetoric]) inverse comparison (e.g. ‘the lotus resembles thine eyes’, instead of the usual comparison ‘thine e° resemble the l°’; 5 forms are enumerated), [Kuvalayānanda; Pratāparudrīya; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Kāvyaprakāśa]

11) Name of a gram. [work]

12) n. against, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

13) in return, [Bālarāmāyaṇa]

14) in inverted order, [Manu-smṛti]

15) refractorily (with √gam, to resist, [Śakuntalā]; with abhy-upa-√gam, to go against, oppose, [Rāmāyaṇa])

16) Prātīpa (प्रातीप):—[from prāti] m. ([from] pratīpa) [patronymic] of Śaṃ-tanu, [Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratipa (प्रतिप):—[prati-pa] (paḥ) 1. m. Name of a king.

2) Pratīpa (प्रतीप):—[(paḥ-pā-paṃ) a.] Averted, opposite to, opposed. m. The father of Santanu. n. Comparing the new with the old.

3) Prātīpa (प्रातीप):—(paḥ) 1. m. Sāntanu.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pratīpa (प्रतीप) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paīva, Paḍīva.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pratipa in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratipa in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pratīpa (प्रतीप) [Also spelled pratip]:—(a) contrary; adverse; repugnant; —[gati/gamana] retrogradation, retrogression, going backwards; ~[gāmī] retrograde, retrogressive; -[taraṇa] rowing upstream.

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