Pravara, Pravāra, Prāvara, Prāvāra: 26 definitions


Pravara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Pravar.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Pravara (प्रवर).—A Yādava. He was one of the ministers of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Chapter 71, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

2) Pravarā (प्रवरा).—A river of Purāṇic fame. (Śloka 23, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Pravara (प्रवर) refers to the “most important” (e.g., of sons), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.5.—Accordingly, after Goddess Śivā (i.e., Umā/Durgā) granted a boon to Menā:—“[...] O celestial sage, when Indra, the slayer of Vṛtra, became angry and began to chop off the wings of mountains, [Maināka] retained his wings, nay, he did not even feel the pain of being wounded by the thunderbolt. He had good limbs. He had neat strength and prowess. He was the most important [i.e., pravara] of all the mountains born of him. He too became the lord of mountains. [...]”.

2) Pravara (प्रवर) refers to “one’s saintly lineage”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.48 (“Description of Marriage of Śiva and Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Then the Brahmins were requested by Himavat ‘May the rite be formally started after narrating the Tithi etc. The auspicious hour has come’. After saying ‘So be it’, the excellent Brahmins who knew the proper time proclaimed the Tithi etc. very delightedly. Then Himācala mentally urged with pleasure by lord Śiva, the cause of great enjoyment, smilingly spoke to Śiva. ‘O Śiva, please do not delay. Please mention your genealogy, saintly lineage (pravara), family, name and your Veda along with your branch of the Vedas’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Pravara (प्रवर) refers to the “choosing of priests” used in the Yajurveda, according to the Āpastamba-yajña-paribhāṣā-sūtras.—“with the Yajur-veda the performance takes place by murmuring (upāṃśu). With the exception of addresses, replies, choosing of priests (pravara), dialogues, and commands”.

As all these are meant to be understood by others, they have therefore to be pronounced in a loud voice. [...] The choosing of priests (pravara) is “agnir devo hotā”.

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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Pravara in Kavya glossary
Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Pravara (प्रवर) refers to the name of a sage said to be a friend of Indra, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 14.62. In (“puraścakāra pravaraṃ varaṃ yamāyan sakhāyaṃ dadṛśe tayā saḥ”), where there is an indirect reference also to the usual meaning of the word “the founder or dean of a gotra”, “one of a group of sages associated with the sage who actually founds a gotra i.e. a family or a line”. Cf. Mādhavācārya on Parāśara (chapter 2).

With regard to the first meaning, see Harivaṃśa (Viṣṇuparva 96.54ff). Harivaṃśa represents Pravara as a fighting sage. In Pārijātaharaṇacampū 5.27ff, he is described as fighting on Indra’s side to save the Pārijāta tree.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Prāvāra (प्रावार) refers to “quilt”, which is mentioned in verse 3.13 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Having thereupon bathed according to ritual—with the oil removed by an astringent—,rubbed (one’s body) with musk-charged saffron, (and) fumigated (oneself) with aloe-wood one shall (at last) turn to [...] fresh victuals, lard, (and) sesame-oil; (besides), to tepid water for purification (and) a bed covered with a quilt [viz., prāvāra], hide, and silk, ramie, or goat’s-hair sheet [...]”.

Note: Prāvāra (“quilt”), synonymous with (varṇa-)kambala and (sthūla-)paṭa, is described as “a heavy cover” (guruprāvaraṇa Cakrapāṇidatta) “woven together from cotton etc. and the hair of sheep, deer, rams etc.” (kārpāsādināviraṅkūrabhrādiromabhiś ca saṃsyūtaḥ Indu). The Tibetan equivalent beu-ras, lit. “calf-cotton”, seems still to reflect the animal and vegetable raw material used in its manufacture.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Pravara (प्रवर) or Pravarāṅganā refers to “chaste women ”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Gemini (Mithuna), chaste women [i.e., pravara-aṅganā], princes, powerful petty chiefs, learned men, people living on the banks of the Yamunā and the rulers of Bahlikā and Matsya with their subjects will suffer miseries. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Cancer (Karka) the Ābhīras, the Śabaras, the Pallavas, the Mallas, the Matsyas, the Kurus, the Śakas, the Pāñcālas and the Vikalās will be afflicted with miseries and food grains will be destroyed”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pravara (प्रवर) refers to “that which is the best”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly:—“Kāmarūpa, beautifully red, the abode of many qualities, is in authority over the principle of the Point. [...] This is the auspicious and best [i.e., pravara-maṭha-śubha] of monasteries (maṭha) and it is accomplished on the basis of the lineage of Siddhas. The guardian of the field is the lord Kāma. The gesture (here) is called ‘Kāma’. I praise the Vaṭukanātha Piṅgala (the Tawny One) who is on the same plane as the Innate. I praise Kāmarūpa, which gives much bliss and is divided into sixteen divisions”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Pravara (प्रवर) refers to the “highest (of the observances)”, according to the Kiraṇatantra chapter 49 (dealing with vratacaryā).—Accordingly, “Garuḍa spoke: ‘You have taught me, O great Lord, the activities of the Neophyte, the Putraka and the Ācārya. Tell me those of the Sādhaka’. The Lord spoke: ‘[...] The highest (pravara) of the observances is the Raudra-vrata. On accomplishing that, one becomes [equal to] the Sakala [form of Śiva]. For attaining siddhi, the Sādhaka should perform a mantra-observance that is appropriate [to the mantra in question]’”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

1) Pravara (प्रवर) denotes properly the ‘summons’ addressed to Agni at the beginning of the sacrifice to perform his functions. But as Agni was then invoked by the names of the ancestors of the Purohita, the term Pravara denotes the series of ancestors invoked.

2) Pravara (प्रवर), or Pravāra, denotes a ‘covering’ or ‘woollen cloth’ in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Pravarā (प्रवरा) refers to one of the female Śrāvakas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Pravarā).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pravara.—(IA 19), an invocation of ancestors at the perfor- mance of certain rites. (CII 4), a member of the executive committee of a corpo- ration. Note: pravara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Pravara in India is the name of a plant defined with Aquilaria agallocha in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Aloexylum agallochum Lour. (among others).

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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pravara (प्रवर).—a S Chief, principal, supreme, very exalted or very excellent. 2 m The founder of a race.

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pravarā (प्रवरा).—f The name of a river celebrated for its sweet waters. At Toka (ṭōṅkēṃ) it forms confluence with the Godavarii. Pr. pravarāpāna gaṅgāsnāna.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pravara (प्रवर).—a Chief. m The founder of a race.

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pravarā (प्रवरा).—f The name of a river celebrated for its sweet waters.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pravara (प्रवर).—a.

1) Chief, principal, most excellent or distinguished, best, exalted; भीष्मः कुरूणां प्रवरः (bhīṣmaḥ kurūṇāṃ pravaraḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.85.116; संकेतके चिरयति प्रवरो विनोदः (saṃketake cirayati pravaro vinodaḥ) MK.3.3; Ms. 1.27; Ghaṭ.16.

2) Eldest.

-raḥ A call, summons.

2) A particular invocation addressed to Agni by a Brāhmaṇa at the consecration of his fire.

3) A line of ancestors.

4) A race, family, lineage.

5) An ancestor.

6) A Muni or noble ancestor who contributes to the credit of a particular gotra or family; said to be the friend of Indra; पुरश्चकार प्रवरं वरं यमायन् सखायं ददर्श तया सः (puraścakāra pravaraṃ varaṃ yamāyan sakhāyaṃ dadarśa tayā saḥ) N.14.62; cf. पञ्च°, त्रि° (pañca°, tri°).

7) Offspring, descendants.

8) A cover, covering.

9) An upper garment.

1) One of the 42 Gotras.

-rā Name of a river falling into the Godāvarī.

-ram 1 Aloe-wood

2) A particular high number; Buddh.

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Pravāra (प्रवार).—A cover, covering.

Derivable forms: pravāraḥ (प्रवारः).

See also (synonyms): pravāraka.

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Prāvara (प्रावर).—

1) A fence, an enclosure.

2) An upper garment (according to Hemachandra).

3) Name of a country.

Derivable forms: prāvaraḥ (प्रावरः).

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Prāvāra (प्रावार).—

1) An upper garment, a cloak, mantle; ('dvau prāvārottarāsaṅgau samau bṛhatikā tathā'); ययुर्विन्ध्यं शरन्मेघैः प्रावारैः प्रवरैरिव (yayurvindhyaṃ śaranmeghaiḥ prāvāraiḥ pravarairiva) Bhaṭṭikāvya 7.53; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.1.133; also प्रावारक (prāvāraka); Mṛcchakaṭika 8. 22.

2) Name of a district.

Derivable forms: prāvāraḥ (प्रावारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pravara (प्रवर).—m. Mahāvyutpatti 7706, or nt. id. 7832 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha), a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 105.20; 133.1 (nt.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pravara (प्रवर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Best, most excellent. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A line of ancestors. 2. An ancestor. 3. Lineage. 4. An exalted ancestor who contributes to the credit of a particular Gotra. 5. A particular invocation addressed to Agni by a Brahmana at the consecration of his fire. 6. A call, a summons. n.

(-raṃ) 1. Offspring, descendants. 2. Family, race, kindred. 3. A black sort of kidney bean, known as Aloe-wood. 4. Covering, screening. 5. A Muni, who contributes to the continuation of and credit of a particular caste or tribe of Brahmans. E. pra before, vṛ to chuse, aff. ap .

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Pravāra (प्रवार).—m.

(-raḥ) Covering, clothing. E. pra before, vṛ to cover, aff. ghañ, also with ap aff., and in other senses, pravara .

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Prāvara (प्रावर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. An inclosure, a fence, a hedge. 2. An upper garment. E. pra and āṅ before, vṛ to surround, aff. ap .

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Prāvāra (प्रावार).—m.

(-raḥ) An upper or outer garment, a cloak, a mantle, E. pra before, vṛ with āṅ prefix, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pravara (प्रवर).—i. e. pra-vara, I. adj., f. , Best, [Indralokāgamana] 5. 20; exalted, [Pañcatantra] 3, 10; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 167; chief, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 67. Ii. m. 1. A Muni who contributes to the credit of a particular family (gotra). 2. One of the forty-nine gotras, as opposed to the eight principal, Āśval. S. ap. M. Müller, Anc. Sskr. Lit. 380. n. 1.; cf. Weber, Berl. Handschriften, p. 59, 60; [Kusumāñjali, (ed. Cowell.)] 3, 19. Iii. n. A family.

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Prāvāra (प्रावार).—i. e. pra-ā-vṛ + a, m. 1. An upper garment, a garment, Mahābhārata 2, 1733. 2. A cover, Mahābhārata 3, 181.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pravara (प्रवर).—1. [masculine] cover, upper garment.

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Pravara (प्रवर).—2. [masculine] call, either a summons of a Brahman to priestly functions or an invocation of Agni; a line of ancestors (so named in such an invocation) or a member of it.

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Pravara (प्रवर).—3. [adjective] chief, principal, best of ([genetive] or —°), the eldest son; higher, better, greater than ([ablative]); distinguished by (—°).

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Pravāra (प्रवार).—[masculine] cover, cloth.

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Prāvāra (प्रावार).—[masculine] upper garment, mantle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pravara (प्रवर):—[=pra-vara] 1. pra-vara mf(ā)n. ([from] pra + vara or [from] pra √2. vṛ; for 2. and 3. See p.693) most excellent, chief, principal, best, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] eldest (son), [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] better than ([ablative]), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] greater (opp. to sama, ‘equal’, and nyūna, ‘smaller’), [Varāha-mihira]

5) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) eminent, distinguished by, [Harivaṃśa]

6) [v.s. ...] m. a black variety of Phaseolus Mungo, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Opuntia Dillenii, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a messenger of the gods and friend of Indra, [Harivaṃśa]

9) [v.s. ...] of a Dānava, [ib.]

10) Pravarā (प्रवरा):—[=pra-varā] [from pra-vara] f. Name of a river (which falls into the Godāvarī and is celebrated for the sweetness of its water), [Mahābhārata; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

11) Pravara (प्रवर):—[=pra-vara] n. aloe wood, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

12) [v.s. ...] a [particular] high number, [Buddhist literature]

13) Pravāra (प्रवार):—[=pra-vāra] a raṇa etc. See under pra √1. 2. vṛ.

14) Pravara (प्रवर):—[=pra-vara] [from pra-vṛ] 2. pra-vara m. (for 1. See p.690) a cover, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] ([Sāyaṇa] pra-vāra; cf. [Pāṇini 3-3, 54])

15) [v.s. ...] an upper garment, [Varāha-mihira 1.]

16) Pravāra (प्रवार):—[=pra-vāra] [from pra-vara > pra-vṛ] b m. a covering, cover, woollen cloth, [Bṛhad-āraṇyaka-upaniṣad] (cf. 2. pra-vara).

17) Pravara (प्रवर):—[=pra-vara] [from pra-vṛ] 3. pra-vara m. a call, summons ([especially] of a Brāhman to priestly functions), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

18) [v.s. ...] an invocation of Agni at the beginning of a sacrifice, a series of ancestors (so called because Agni is invited to bear the oblations to the gods as he did for the sacrificer’s progenitors, the names of the 4 10 5 most nearly connected with the ancient Ṛṣis being then added), [Brāhmaṇa; ???]

19) [v.s. ...] a family, race, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] an ancestor, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]] (f(ī). , [Patañjali])

21) Prāvara (प्रावर):—[=prā-vara] [from prā] 1. prā-vara mf(ī)n. ([from] 3. pra-vara, p.693; for 2. See prā- √1. vṛ), [Patañjali]

22) a prāvarṣin See under 3. prā, p. 702, col. 3.

23) [=prā-vara] [from prā-vṛ] 2. prā-vara m. (for 1. See under 3. prā. p. 702, col. 3) an enclosure, fence (cf. mahī-pr), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) Prāvāra (प्रावार):—[=prā-vāra] [from prā-vṛ] m. idem, [Mahābhārata; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Mṛcchakaṭikā] (also -ka)

25) [v.s. ...] Name of a district (= varaka), [Mahābhārata]

26) [v.s. ...] mfn. found in outer garments or cloaks, [Kāvya literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pravara (प्रवर):—[pra-vara] (raḥ-rā-raṃ) a. Best, excellent. n. Offspring, family; black kidney bean; covering.

2) Pravāra (प्रवार):—[pra-vāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Covering, clothing.

3) Prāvara (प्रावर):—[prā+vara] (raḥ) 1. m. An enclosure.

4) Prāvāra (प्रावार):—(raḥ) 1. m. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pravara (प्रवर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Pavara, Pavarā, Pāvāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pravara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pravara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pravara (प्रवर) [Also spelled pravar]:—(a) senior; superior; select(ed); eminent; as a suffix it means the best, most excellent (as ~[paṃḍitapravara]); -[samiti] a select committee.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pravara (ಪ್ರವರ):—

1) [adjective] most excellent or superior.

2) [adjective] senior; older; elder.

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Pravara (ಪ್ರವರ):—

1) [noun] a man who is first in rank, authority or importance; a principal man.

2) [noun] (collectively) descendants from a common ancestor; lineage; family.

3) [noun] any person from whom one is descended; an ancestor.

4) [noun] a man who is recognised as the ancestor of a family.

5) [noun] any of the forty two lineages, ascribed to different sages.

6) [noun] a child as related to its parent or parents.

7) [noun] the plant Phaseolus mungo of Papilionaceae family.

8) [noun] its gram used for human consumption; black gram.

9) [noun] the cactus plant Opuntia dillenii of Cactaceae family; prickly pear.

10) [noun] unnecessary or unwanted explanation.

11) [noun] (pros.) name of a metre.

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Prāvāra (ಪ್ರಾವಾರ):—[noun] = ಪ್ರಾವರಣ [pravarana].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of pravara in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

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