Nara, Nārā, Narā: 25 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

1) Nara (नर):—Son of Sudhṛti (son of Rājyavardhana). He had a son named Kevala. He had a son named Saṅkṛti. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2)

2) Nara (नर):—One of the five sons of Manyu (son of Vitatha, another name for Bharadvāja). He had a son named Saṅkṛti. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.1)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Nara (नर).—A hermit of divine power. Birth. Brahmā created Dharmadeva from his breast. Truthful and righteous Dharma married ten daughters of Dakṣa. Several sons were born to Dharma of his ten wives. But foremost among them were Hari, Kṛṣṇa, Nara and Nārāyaṇa. Hari and Kṛṣṇa became great yogins and Nara and Nārāyaṇa became great hermits of penance. The Nara-Nārāyaṇas lived in the holy Asylum of Badarikāśrama in the vicinity of the Himālayas for a thousand years performing penance to Brahmā. (Devī Bhāgavata. Skandha 4). (See full article at Story of Nara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Nara (नर).—A Gandharva (semigod). It is stated in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, stanza 14 that this Nara stays in the presence of Kubera.

3) Nāra (नार).—A King of Ancient India. He never tasted meat in his life. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 115, Stanza 64).

4) Narā (नरा).—One of the wives of Uśīnara, a King of the family of the Aṅga Kings. Uśīnara had several wives such as Nṛgā, Narā, Kṛmī, Daśā. Dṛṣadvatī and so on. Nṛga was born from Nṛgā, Nara from Narā, Kṛmi from Kṛmī, Suvrata from Daśā and Śibi from Dṛṣadvatī. All these sons became Kings. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 277).

5) Nara (नर).—An ancient place in South India. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 60).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nara (नर) refers to the “good people”, which Śiva was asked to protect (together with Satī), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.19. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] then Viṣṇu stood up. Approaching Śiva with palms joined in reverence [viz., kṛtāñjali] and accompanied by Lakṣmī, the Garuḍa-vehicled God Viṣṇu spoke thus: ‘[...] O Śiva, along with this Satī, protect (rakṣā) the good people (nara) and the Devas. Similarly always bestow auspicious goodness upon the people of this world’”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Nara (नर).—(nārāyaṇa)—an avatār of Viṣṇu, born of Dharma and Mūrtī, a daughter of Dakṣa; Ādiśeṣa form of Hari, distinguished for tapas;1 a friend and associate of Nārāyaṇa said to have performed tapas at Badarī;2 seeing the sage's penance Indra got afraid and sent the God of Love and the Apsarasas to disturb his contemplation. Nara invited him and was hospitable by creating a number of beautiful women who served them; Nara asked them to choose one among them as an ornament of Heaven. So they took Ūrvaśi and narrated to Indra the superior powers of the sage;3 was seen with Nārāyaṇa by Mārkaṇḍeya and was praised by him.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 2. 4; 3. 9; II. 7. 6-7; XII. 8. 32, 35. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35-93; Matsya-purāṇa 1. 2.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 4. 22; IV. 1. 52; VII. 6. 27.
  • 3) Ib. XI. 4. 6-16; 7. 18.
  • 4) Ib. XII. 8. 32, 35, 40-49; 9. 1.

1b) A son of Tāmasa Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. I. 27; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 49. Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 19.

1c) A son of Sudhṛti and father of Kevala (Candra Viṣṇu-purāṇa).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 2. 29. 30; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 35; 61. 9; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 40-1; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 13-14.

1d) A son of Manyu and father of Samkṛti.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 21. 1.

1e) A son of Gaya and father of Virāt.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 68; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 38; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 58.

1f) One of the ten horses of the moon's chariot.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 35; Matsya-purāṇa 126. 52.

1g) A sādhya; is satya in the Svārociṣa epoch.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 16-7; Matsya-purāṇa 203. 11; 251; 24-5; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 15; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 50.

1h) A son of Bhuvamanyu.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 36; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 159.

1i) The riding vehicle of Naiṛti and drawer of Kubera's chariot.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 261. 15 and 22.

1j) A son of Tāmasa Manu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 43.

1k) A devaṛṣi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 83.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā

Nārā (नारा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Gola, the sixth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Nārā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Nara (नर).—Description of a women of human (nara) type;—A woman who loves uprightness, is always clever and very virtuous, has regular features (vibhaktāṅgī), is grateful to her benefactors, disposed to worship the elders and gods, always careful about duty (dharma) as well as material gain, and is free from pride and fond of friends and has good habits is said to have the nature of a human being (nara or mānuṣa).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Nara (नर).—Person; personal ending; the term is used in connection with (the affixes of) the three persons प्रथम, मध्यम (prathama, madhyama), and उत्तम (uttama) which are promiscuously seen sometimes in the Vedic Literature cf. सुतिङुपग्रह-लिङ्गनराणां (sutiṅupagraha-liṅganarāṇāṃ) ... व्यत्ययमिच्छति (vyatyayamicchati) ... M. Bh. on III.1.85.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Nara (नर) refers to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Nara (नर).—Gnomon. Note: Nara is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Nara (नर) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.331-333.—Accordingly, “Nara is of the splendor of the coral, has His eyes half-closed, his feelings (knowledge) are kept within, His mind is fixed only on Śabdabrahman, uttering the mantra of the Pada kind unnoticed (by others) shining with the garland of rosaries made of crystal in His hand and counting of the rotation of the rosaries with the left hand”. These Vibhavas (eg., Nara) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Nara (नर), Nṛ.—The general name for ‘man’ in the Rigveda1 and later is Nṛ, while Nara is found occasionally in the later Saṃhitās and the Brāhmaṇas.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Nara is the primordial man. He is also said to be one of the divine twins Nara and Naryana, who represent Man and God respectively. They are shown as great sages, who once performed a great penance. Indra sent his Apsaras to disract them. However, the sages created Urvashi from their thighs. Urvashi was more beautiful than all the Apsaras put together. When they beheld her flawless beauty, they ran away. Indra realized the power of the sages and begged their forgiveness.

Arjuna is said to be an incarnation of Nara.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Nara (नर): Arjuna or Dhananjaya.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Nara (नर) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘samāgama’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., nara) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nara : (m.) man; a human being.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nara, (Ved. nara, cp. nṛtu; Idg. *ner to be strong or valiant =Gr. a)nήr, a)g-ήnwr (valiant), drw/y (*nrw/y); Lat. neriosus (muscuḷar), Nero (Sabinian, cp. Oscan ner= Lat. vir); Oir. nert) man (in poetry esp. a brave, strong, heroic man), pl. either “men” or “people” (the latter e.g. at Sn. 776, 1082; Pv. I, 1112).—A. I, 130; II, 5; III, 53; Sn. 39, 96, 116, 329, 591, 676, 865 etc.; Dh. 47, 48, 262, 309, 341; J. III, 295; Nd1 12=Nd2 335 (definition); VvA. 42 (popular etymology: narati netī ti naro puriso, i.e. a “leading” man); PvA. 116=Dh. 125.

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context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nara (नर).—m (S) Man, individually or generally. Pr. narā harahunnarā Man has a thousand busy schemes and devices. 2 The male or he of any species; and, laxly, the larger, stronger, better one of any pair or couple (of things). 3 fig. The spike which fits into the ring (mādī) of the other portion; forming together a hinge (naramādī); a male screw; and similar things. 4 The middle or (if but two) the larger beam-screw of a sugarmill. 5 A man or piece at chess, draughts &c. 6 A horse. 7 The divine male or spirit pervading the universe. 8 The sine of the altitude of a heavenly body. 9 R A hangnail. Hind. Pr. nara karē tō narakā nārāyaṇa hōigā If Man please to act, Man may become God. (A sentiment in unison with the present estimate of Man in Europe!) nara mōḍūna nārāyaṇa ghaḍaṇēṃ To break up (the image of) man, and make (the image of) God; to make and make again; to break up, and form and fashion (continually or with absolute arbitrariness). See Jer. xviii. 3, 4.

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nāra (नार).—f (Poetry. nārī S) A woman or female.

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nāra (नार).—m The heart or core of wood. 2 The core of a horn.

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nārā (नारा).—m (or nāhīṃ No.) No-ing, negativing. Used of a denying or a dissenting which is constant. v kara, lāva, cālava.

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nārā (नारा).—m A boy-dancer in female attire. Hence nārā nācaṇēṃ g. of s. To be publicly exposed and disgraced. nārā nācaviṇēṃ To wanton in wild acts of wilfulness; to raise an uproar; to make a riot or disturbance; to kick up a row. 2 Husband. Only in the Pr. mī āṇi gājhā nārā dusaṛyācā na lagē vārā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nara (नर).—m Man, individually or generally. The male of any species. The spike which fits into the ring (mādī) of the other portion, forming together a hinge (naramādī) a male screw; and similar things.

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nāra (नार).—f A woman or female.

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nāra (नार).—m The heart or core of wood. The core of a horn.

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nārā (नारा).—m A boy-dancer in female attire. Hence ?Bnācaṇēṃ To be publicly exposed and disgraced. nārā nācaviṇēṃ To wan- ton in wild acts of wilfulness; to kick up a row. Husband. Only in the Pr. mī āṇi mājhā nārā dusaṛyācā na lāgē vārā.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nara (नर).—[nṝ-naye-ac]

1) A man, male person; संयोजयति विद्यैव नीचगापि नरं सरित् । समुद्रमिव दुर्धर्षं नृपं भाग्यमतः परम् (saṃyojayati vidyaiva nīcagāpi naraṃ sarit | samudramiva durdharṣaṃ nṛpaṃ bhāgyamataḥ param) || H. Pr.5; Ms.1.96;2.213.

2) A man or piece at chess.

3) The pin of a sun-dial.

4) The Supreme Spirit, the original or eternal man.

5) Man's length (= puruṣa. q. v.).

6) Name of a primitive sage.

7) Name of Arjuna; see नरनारायण (naranārāyaṇa) below.

8) A horse.

9) (In gram.) A personal termination.

1) The individual soul (jīvātmā); Mb.12.28.5.

Derivable forms: naraḥ (नरः).

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Nāra (नार).—a. (- f.) [नरस्येदम्-अण् (narasyedam-aṇ)]

1) Human, mortal.

2) Spiritual; आपो नारा इति प्रोक्ताः (āpo nārā iti proktāḥ) Ms.1.1.

-raḥ 1 A calf.

2) Water.

-rā Water; cf. Ms.1.1.

-ram 1 A multitude or assemblage of men.

2) Dry ginger.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nara (नर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Man, individually or generally. 2. The Eternal, the divine imperishable spirit pervading the universe. 3. A name of Arjuna. 4. Vishnu. 5. A gnomon. 6. A man or piece at chess, draughts, &c. 7. A Muni, an incarnation of Vishnu. n.

(-raṃ) A fragrant grass, commonly Ramkappur. f. (-rau) Woman in general: see nārī. E. nṝ or nṛ to lead or guide, affix naye-ac . gaṇitaśāstrokte chāyāpramāṇa jñānopayogini śaṅkau ca .

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Nāra (नार).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Relating to men, human, mortal, &c. 2. Spiritual. nf.

(-raṃ-rā) Water. m.

(-raḥ) A calf. n.

(-raṃ) A multitude of men. E. nara, and aṇ affix or na negative, to go, ap aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nara (नर).—i. e. nṛ + a, m. 1. A man; pl. Men, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 96. 2. The Eternal, the divine imperishable spirit pervading the universe, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 10. 3. pl. Certain fabulous beings, Mahābhārata 2, 396. 4. A proper name, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 1, 27.

— Cf. [Latin] Nero, Neriene.

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Nāra (नार).—1. i. e. nṛ or nara + a, adj. Belonging to a man, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 87. Ii. m. Water (cf. nīra, ), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 10. Iii. f. nārī nārī, i. e. nṛ + ī, 1. A woman, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 32. 2. A proper name, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 2, 22.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nara (नर).—[masculine] man, husband, hero; the primal man or spirit (always connected with nārāyaṇa) person or personal ending ([grammar]).

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Nāra (नार).—adj. belonging to a man, human; [masculine] man, [plural] water; [feminine] nārī woman, wife.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nara (नर):—m. (cf. nṛ) a man, a male, a person ([plural] men, people), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

2) husband, [Manu-smṛti ix, 76]

3) hero, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iv, 31; Bālarāmāyaṇa viii, 56]

4) a man or piece at chess or draughts etc., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) the pin or gnomon of a sun-dial, [Sūryasiddhānta] (cf. -yantra)

6) person, personal termination, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 3-1, 85] (cf. puruṣa)

7) the primeval Man or eternal Spirit pervading the universe (always associated with Nārāyaṇa, ‘son of the pr° man’ ; both are considered either as gods or sages and accordingly called devau, ṛṣī, tāpasau etc.; in [Epic] poetry they are the sons of Dharma by Mūrti or A-hiṃsā and emanations of Viṣṇu, Arjuna being identified with Nara, and Kṛṣṇa with Nārāyaṇa), [Manu-smṛti] (cf. -sūnu), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

8) ([plural]) a class of [mythology] beings allied to the Gandharvas and Kiṃ-naras, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

9) Name of a son of Manu Tāmasa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

10) of a s° of Viśvāmitra, [Harivaṃśa]

11) of a s° of Gaya and father of Virāj, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

12) of a s° of Su-dhṛti and f° of Kevala, [Purāṇa]

13) of a s° of Bhavan-manyu (Manyu) and f° of Saṃkṛti, [ib.]

14) of Bhāradvāja (author of [Ṛg-veda vi, 35 and 36]), [Anukramaṇikā]

15) of 2 kings of Kaśmīra, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

16) of one of the 10 horses of the Moon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) n. a kind of fragrant grass.

18) Nāra (नार):—mf(ī)n. ([from] nara) relating to or proceeding from men, human, mortal, [Manu-smṛti; Kāvya literature]

19) spiritual (?), [Horace H. Wilson]

20) m. a man, [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka] ([varia lectio])

21) m. ([plural]) water (also sg. n. and f(ā). , [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Manu-smṛti i, 10] ([probably] invented to explain nārāyaṇa)

22) m. = nārāyaṇa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) a calf, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) n. a multitude of men, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) dry ginger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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