Cakravartin, Cakra-vartin: 13 definitions
Cakravartin means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chakravartin.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: The ocean of story. vol. 8
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्), translated by Tawney as “emperor,” is usually taken to mean “universal monarch.” The etymology of the word has been variously interpreted, but that advanced by Jacobi seems most acceptable. Cakra must be taken in its original sense of “circle,” while vartin denotes the idea of “abiding in.” Thus the whole expression denotes “he who abides in the circle.” The “circle” refers to the discus of Viṣṇu, the symbol of the sun, and only he who had attained the highest honours could rejoice in the name of Cakravartin, so closely connected with the deity. The number and variety of the “jewels” or ratnas varies, although seven was the usual number
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—Came into being in Treta and partook the aṃśa of Hari to protect Dharma. Their seven ratna— cakra, ratha, maṇi, sword, carma, Ketu, and nidhi (some include wife, horse and elephant and leave out sword and Ketu) and seven creatures: wife, purohita, senāni, rathakrit, mantri, aśva and kalabha; had the attributes of Viṣṇu; they enjoyed trivarga, fame and success, aiśvarya like Aṇima and Prabhu śakti; learned and pure; entertained with their prowess sages, gods, devils, men, etc.; bodily characteristics of; legs with the symbol of wheel and fish, hands with conch and lotus.1 Reigned for a long time with daṇḍanīti.2 Vāli was a cakravartī. Arjuna (Kārtavīrya) was another.3
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 98; II. 29. 71 ff.; Matsya-purāṇa 142. 64-75; Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 66-80.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 275.
- 3) Ib. 69. 23.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Chakravartin is a term used in Indian religions for an ideal universal ruler, who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world. Such a ruler's reign is called sarvabhauma. It is a bahuvrīhi, literally meaning "whose wheels are moving", in the sense of "whose chariot is rolling everywhere without obstruction". It can also be analyzed as an 'instrumental bahuvrīhi: "through whom the wheel is moving" in the meaning of "through whom the Dharmacakra ("Wheel of the Dharma) is turning" (most commonly used in Buddhism and Hinduism).
In Buddhism and Jainism, three types of Chakravartins are distinguished:
- Cakravala Cakravartin: a ruler over all four continents postulated in ancient Indian cosmography
- Dvipa Cakravartin: a ruler over only one of four continents
- Pradesa Cakravartin: a ruler over only part of a continent.
etymology: Chakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन् cakravartin, Pali Cakkavatti)
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—Cakravartins are “universal monarchs” or “world conquerors”. The Jaina Purāṇas give a list of twelve such Cakravartins who flourished in this Avasarpiṇī. Golden in complexion and the mark of the Śrīvatsa symbol, formed of hair, adorns their chests. They all belonged to the Kāśyapa-gotra. The first amongst them was Bharata, the son of Ṛṣabhanātha, who gave his name to this land, which is called Bharata-bhūmi or Bhārata. His chief queen was Subhadrā.
The mother of a Cakravartin sees some dreams at the time of conception. According to the Ādipurāṇa, Bharata’s mother saw the sun and the moon, the mount Meru, the lake with swans, earth and the ocean. According to Hemacandra, Summaṅgalā, the mother of Bharata, sees fourteen great dreams.
According to both Digambara and Śvetāmbara, every universal monarch obtains ratnas or jewels amongst human beings and amongst symbols, weapons or animals.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Cakravartin.—(IE 8-2; EI 21, 28; CII 3, 4), a title of para- mount sovereignty; the title of an emperor. See Saptama- cakravartin; also Cakreśvara, Cakrin. (IE 8-2), often suffixed to expressions like Pratāpa, Prau- ḍhapratāpa, Bhujabalapratāpa, Niḥśaṅkapratāpa, etc., and some- times also to dynastic names like Yādava. (EI 31), epithet of the Buddha. (IE 8-2), cf. cakravarti-kṣetra. Note: cakravartin is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) an emperor, universal monarch, sovereign of the world, a ruler whose dominions extend as far as the ocean (āsamudrakṣitīśa Ak.); पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि (putramevaṃguṇopetaṃ cakravartinamāpnuhi) Ś.1.12; तव तन्वि कुचावेतौ नियतं चक्रवर्तिनौ । आसमुद्रक्षितीशोऽपि भवान् यत्र करप्रदः (tava tanvi kucāvetau niyataṃ cakravartinau | āsamudrakṣitīśo'pi bhavān yatra karapradaḥ) || Udb. (where there is a pun on the word cakravartin, the other meaning being 'resembling in shape the ruddy goose', 'round');
2) (hence) head, foremost; आपद्गतः किल महाशयचक्रवर्ती विस्तारयत्यकृतपूर्वमुदार- भावम् (āpadgataḥ kila mahāśayacakravartī vistārayatyakṛtapūrvamudāra- bhāvam) Bv.1.7; कवयस्तर्कयाञ्चक्रुरित्थं ते चक्रवर्तिनः (kavayastarkayāñcakruritthaṃ te cakravartinaḥ) Parṇal.5.38.
3) a kind of horse having one or three curls on the shoulder; स्कन्धपार्श्वे यदावर्त एको वा यदि वा त्रयः । चक्रवर्ती स विज्ञेयो वाजी भूपालमन्दिरे (skandhapārśve yadāvarta eko vā yadi vā trayaḥ | cakravartī sa vijñeyo vājī bhūpālamandire) || Śālihotra of Bhoj.
Cakravartin is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms cakra and vartin (वर्तिन्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—(1) name of one of the Uṣṇīṣa-rājānaḥ (see uṣṇīṣa 3): (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 41.10; (2) name of one of the krodha, q.v.: Dharmasaṃgraha 11.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—m., f. inī, 1. a sovereign of the world, Mahābhārata 12, 808. 2. a sovereign, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 1, 13.
Cakravartin is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms cakra and vartin (वर्तिन्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—[adjective] rolling on wheels; [masculine] supreme ruler, emperor, chief of ([genetive] or —°).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Cakracūḍāmaṇi: Durgāmāhātmyaṭīkā. Pheh. 2. Pañcādhyāyīṭīkā, on a part of the tenth skandha of the Bhāgavatapurāṇa. Oudh. Xiii, 36. Bhāgavatapurāṇaṭīkā. Rādh. 40. Bhāgavatapurāṇadaśamaskandhaṭīkā. Rādh. 42. Vedastutiṭīkā. Oudh. Xiii, 36. 42. See Kavicūḍāmaṇi Cakravartin.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्):—[=cakra-vartin] [from cakra] mfn. rolling everywhere without obstruction, [Kathāsaritsāgara cvii, 133]
2) [v.s. ...] m. a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction, emperor, sovereign of the world, ruler of a Cakra (or country described as extending from sea to sea; 12 princes beginning with Bharata are [especially] considered as Cakravartins), [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Buddhist literature; Jaina literature] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] mfn. supreme, holding the highest rank among ([genitive case] or in [compound]), [Kumāra-sambhava vii, 52; Gīta-govinda i, 2; Kathāsaritsāgara i, xx]
4) [v.s. ...] m. Chenopodium album, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] Name of the author of a [commentator or commentary] on [Alaṃkāraśekhara, by Keśava-miśra], [Pratāparudrīya [Scholiast or Commentator]]
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. auf Rädern rollend. —
2) m. — a) dessen Räder ungehemmt über die Länder rennen , Weltherrscher ; Herrscher über (im Comp. vorangehend) [Vikramāṅkadevacarita 1031.] — b) Oberhaupt überh. , der unter — (Gen. oder im Comp. vorangehend) der unter — (Gen. oder im Comp. vorangehend) den höchsten Rang einnimmt ; auch von Unbelebtem. — c) *Chenopodium album [Rājan 7,121.] — d) Nomen proprium eines Commentators des Alaṃkārasarvasva [Kumārasvāmin] zu [Pratāparudriya 46,27.] u.s.w. —
3) f. nī — a) f. zu 2)b). — b) *eine best. wohlriechende Pflanze , = jantukā [Rājan 3,114.] — c) *Nardostachys Jatamansi [Rājan 12,98.] — d) *rother Lack [Rājan 6,209.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Cakravartini.
Ends with (+88): Abhasvaracakravartin, Abrihacakravartin, Acyuta cakravartin, Acyutacakravartin, Akanishthacakravartin, Akashanantyayatanacakravartin, Akimcanyayatanacakravartin, Anabhrakacakravartin, Apramanabhacakravartin, Apramanashubhacakravartin, Ardhacakravartin, Asuracakravartin, Atapacakravartin, Balacakravartin, Bhavanidasa cakravartin, Bhavicakravartin, Bhujabalapratapacakravartin, Bhujabalapraudhapratapacakravartin, Brahmakayikacakravartin, Brahmapurohitacakravartin.
Full-text (+427): Mahashakuni, Upacaru, Geyarajan, Mahakusa, Muci, Mahapranada, Padmottaratmaja, Priyamitra, Bandhujivaka, Mahasudarshana, Cakravartita, Vaijayi, Nyanku, Kavicakravartin, Cakravartitva, Agvajaneya, Apratihatavega, Upakusha, Balacakravartin, Bhavicakravartin.
Search found 23 books and stories containing Cakravartin, Cakra-vartin; (plurals include: Cakravartins, vartins). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Introduction to volume 4 < [Introductions]
Part 5: Marīci’s pride < [Chapter I - Previous births of Mahāvīra]
Part 2: Conquest of Magadhatīrtha by Sagara < [Chapter IV - Conquest of Bharatavarṣa by Sagara]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 5 - The Bodhisattva in the Mahāyāna system < [Chapter VIII - The Bodhisattvas]
The Bahudhātuka-sūtra (sutta) < [Part 2 - The ten powers in particular]
Part 1 - Why is the Buddha called Bhagavat < [Chapter IV - Explanation of the Word Bhagavat]
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)
The seven jewels of the Cakravartin < [Notes]
Foreword to volume 7 < [Forewords]
Manasara (English translation) (by Prasanna Kumar Acharya)
Vimalakīrti Sutra (by John R. McRae)