Cakravartin, Cakravartī, Cakravarti, Cakra-vartin: 25 definitions


Cakravartin means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chakravarti.

In Hinduism

Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Kavya glossary
Source: The ocean of story. vol. 8

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्), translated by Tawney as “emperor,” is usually taken to mean “universal monarch.” The etymology of the word has been variously interpreted, but that advanced by Jacobi seems most acceptable. Cakra must be taken in its original sense of “circle,” while vartin denotes the idea of “abiding in.” Thus the whole expression denotes “he who abides in the circle.” The “circle” refers to the discus of Viṣṇu, the symbol of the sun, and only he who had attained the highest honours could rejoice in the name of Cakravartin, so closely connected with the deity. The number and variety of the “jewels” or ratnas varies, although seven was the usual number

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—Came into being in Treta and partook the aṃśa of Hari to protect Dharma. Their seven ratna— cakra, ratha, maṇi, sword, carma, Ketu, and nidhi (some include wife, horse and elephant and leave out sword and Ketu) and seven creatures: wife, purohita, senāni, rathakrit, mantri, aśva and kalabha; had the attributes of Viṣṇu; they enjoyed trivarga, fame and success, aiśvarya like Aṇima and Prabhu śakti; learned and pure; entertained with their prowess sages, gods, devils, men, etc.; bodily characteristics of; legs with the symbol of wheel and fish, hands with conch and lotus.1 Reigned for a long time with daṇḍanīti.2 Vāli was a cakravartī. Arjuna (Kārtavīrya) was another.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 98; II. 29. 71 ff.; Matsya-purāṇa 142. 64-75; Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 66-80.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 275.
  • 3) Ib. 69. 23.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Cakravartī (चक्रवर्ती).—An Angirasa and mantrakṛt.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 32. 110.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्) refers to an “emperor”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The sacred seat of Oḍḍiyāṇa is in between the eyebrows. It illumines (the surroundings) like a jewel and rotates in the shape of a wheel that shines like the rays of the sun in the form of all things. The venerable and great lord of Oḍu, surrounded by the troupe of Yoginīs, is the emperor (of this seat) [i.e., yoginī-vyūha-parivṛta-cakravartin]. The power of the will abides as the essential nature (of all things) within the Wheel as the lordship of the sacred seat. In (this), the first sacred seat, there is a tree, creeper, guardian, cremation ground, monastery, gesture, cave and the rest (associated with them). Within one's own body it is located between the eyebrows and in accord with the sequence of emanation. One should know (this) the first sacred seat by means of the essential nature of (the deity’s) energy”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्) refers to “one who is the sovereign” (e.g., ‘among the Vidyādharas’), according to his own Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] Here ends the Vāmakeśvarīstuti composed by Vatsarāja, the king of great kings, the sovereign among the Vidyādharas [i.e., vidyādhara-cakravartin]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Pancaratra glossary
Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्) refers to a “universal sovereign”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “A ruler who is a Universal Sovereign (cakravartin) is entitled to the first, a Provincial Governor to the second and a District Governor to the third [level of] Creative Energy. [To the same are entitled] a chief minister or a twice-born, provided he is in charge of the protection of many people. No single man is entitled to [deploy] Her for [just] another man”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Chakravartin is a term used in Indian religions for an ideal universal ruler, who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world. Such a ruler's reign is called sarvabhauma. It is a bahuvrīhi, literally meaning "whose wheels are moving", in the sense of "whose chariot is rolling everywhere without obstruction". It can also be analyzed as an 'instrumental bahuvrīhi: "through whom the wheel is moving" in the meaning of "through whom the Dharmacakra ("Wheel of the Dharma) is turning" (most commonly used in Buddhism and Hinduism).

In Buddhism and Jainism, three types of Chakravartins are distinguished:

  1. Cakravala Cakravartin: a ruler over all four continents postulated in ancient Indian cosmography
  2. Dvipa Cakravartin: a ruler over only one of four continents
  3. Pradesa Cakravartin: a ruler over only part of a continent.

etymology: Chakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन् cakravartin, Pali Cakkavatti)

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Mahayana glossary
Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्) or Cakravartirāja refers to a “universal king”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “And, Śāriputra, a universal king (cakravartin-rāja) called Sarvadevābhiṣeka appeared in three-thousandfold universe, who had a inconceivable treasury of jewels. He had ninety six thousand sons who were spontaneously generated by his own majesty. Why is that? Because there has been not even the concept of woman in that Buddha-field. That Tathāgata, Śāriputra, lived for one hundred thousand aeons. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Jainism glossary
Source: Google Books: Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation

Cakravartī (चक्रवर्ती).—Cakravartīs are emperors who rule over a part of the world (e.g. Bhārata-land having six parts). Their life is embellished with similar features like those of the Tīrthaṅkaras. Every Cakravartī obtains his high rank on account of good actions done in earlier existences and on account of a Nidāna, i.e. a wish which is passionately cherished in an earlier life. He is born in the royal family of Ikṣvāku, grows in pomp and glory and is experienced in all arts and sciences. Having beauty and power, being brace and clerver, he is embellished with 36 insignias of mind and body. After vanquishing all the opponents in battle, he conquers the world.

Cakravartīs owe their success not only to their capability and power and the support they get fro mtheir supermundane beings, but also, above all, to the wonderful “gems” ratna) and previous “treasures” (nidhi) which are in their possession.

Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—Cakravartins are “universal monarchs” or “world conquerors”. The Jaina Purāṇas give a list of twelve such Cakravartins who flourished in this Avasarpiṇī. Golden in complexion and the mark of the Śrīvatsa symbol, formed of hair, adorns their chests. They all belonged to the Kāśyapa-gotra. The first amongst them was Bharata, the son of Ṛṣabhanātha, who gave his name to this land, which is called Bharata-bhūmi or Bhārata. His chief queen was Subhadrā.

The mother of a Cakravartin sees some dreams at the time of conception. According to the Ādipurāṇa, Bharata’s mother saw the sun and the moon, the mount Meru, the lake with swans, earth and the ocean. According to Hemacandra, Summaṅgalā, the mother of Bharata, sees fourteen great dreams.

According to both Digambara and Śvetāmbara, every universal monarch obtains ratnas or jewels amongst human beings and amongst symbols, weapons or animals.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Cakravartin.—(IE 8-2; EI 21, 28; CII 3, 4), a title of para- mount sovereignty; the title of an emperor. See Saptama- cakravartin; also Cakreśvara, Cakrin. (IE 8-2), often suffixed to expressions like Pratāpa, Prau- ḍhapratāpa, Bhujabalapratāpa, Niḥśaṅkapratāpa, etc., and some- times also to dynastic names like Yādava. (EI 31), epithet of the Buddha. (IE 8-2), cf. cakravarti-kṣetra. Note: cakravartin is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

Cakravarttī (चक्रवर्त्ती).—m (S) A ruler of a cakra or region extending from sea to sea, an emperor or a lord paramount.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

Cakravartī (चक्रवर्ती).—m An emperor or a lord paramount.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—m.

1) an emperor, universal monarch, sovereign of the world, a ruler whose dominions extend as far as the ocean (āsamudrakṣitīśa Ak.); पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि (putramevaṃguṇopetaṃ cakravartinamāpnuhi) Ś.1.12; तव तन्वि कुचावेतौ नियतं चक्रवर्तिनौ । आसमुद्रक्षितीशोऽपि भवान् यत्र करप्रदः (tava tanvi kucāvetau niyataṃ cakravartinau | āsamudrakṣitīśo'pi bhavān yatra karapradaḥ) || Udb. (where there is a pun on the word cakravartin, the other meaning being 'resembling in shape the ruddy goose', 'round');

2) (hence) head, foremost; आपद्गतः किल महाशयचक्रवर्ती विस्तारयत्यकृतपूर्वमुदार- भावम् (āpadgataḥ kila mahāśayacakravartī vistārayatyakṛtapūrvamudāra- bhāvam) Bv.1.7; कवयस्तर्कयाञ्चक्रुरित्थं ते चक्रवर्तिनः (kavayastarkayāñcakruritthaṃ te cakravartinaḥ) Parṇal.5.38.

3) a kind of horse having one or three curls on the shoulder; स्कन्धपार्श्वे यदावर्त एको वा यदि वा त्रयः । चक्रवर्ती स विज्ञेयो वाजी भूपालमन्दिरे (skandhapārśve yadāvarta eko vā yadi vā trayaḥ | cakravartī sa vijñeyo vājī bhūpālamandire) || Śālihotra of Bhoj.

Cakravartin is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms cakra and vartin (वर्तिन्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—(1) name of one of the Uṣṇīṣa-rājānaḥ (see uṣṇīṣa 3): (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 41.10; (2) name of one of the krodha, q.v.: Dharmasaṃgraha 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravarttin (चक्रवर्त्तिन्).—m.

(-ttīṃ) An emperor, a sovereign of the world, the ruler of a Chakra or country described as extending from sea to sea; twelve princes beginning with Bharata are especially considered as Chakravartis. E. cakra a reign, and vṛt to abide, affix ṇic vā ṇin .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—m., f. inī, 1. a sovereign of the world, Mahābhārata 12, 808. 2. a sovereign, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 1, 13.

Cakravartin is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms cakra and vartin (वर्तिन्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्).—[adjective] rolling on wheels; [masculine] supreme ruler, emperor, chief of ([genetive] or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Cakracūḍāmaṇi: Durgāmāhātmyaṭīkā. Pheh. 2. Pañcādhyāyīṭīkā, on a part of the tenth skandha of the Bhāgavatapurāṇa. Oudh. Xiii, 36. Bhāgavatapurāṇaṭīkā. Rādh. 40. Bhāgavatapurāṇadaśamaskandhaṭīkā. Rādh. 42. Vedastutiṭīkā. Oudh. Xiii, 36. 42. See Kavicūḍāmaṇi Cakravartin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Cakravartī (चक्रवर्ती) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Bhāgavatapurāṇaṭīkā by Nārāyaṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cakravartin (चक्रवर्तिन्):—[=cakra-vartin] [from cakra] mfn. rolling everywhere without obstruction, [Kathāsaritsāgara cvii, 133]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction, emperor, sovereign of the world, ruler of a Cakra (or country described as extending from sea to sea; 12 princes beginning with Bharata are [especially] considered as Cakravartins), [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Buddhist literature; Jaina literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] mfn. supreme, holding the highest rank among ([genitive case] or in [compound]), [Kumāra-sambhava vii, 52; Gīta-govinda i, 2; Kathāsaritsāgara i, xx]

4) [v.s. ...] m. Chenopodium album, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the author of a [commentator or commentary] on [Alaṃkāraśekhara, by Keśava-miśra], [Pratāparudrīya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravarttin (चक्रवर्त्तिन्):—[cakra-varttin] (rttī) 5. m. An emperor, sovereign of the world. (ttinī) 3. f. A fragrant plant.

[Sanskrit to German]

Cakravartin in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Cakravartin in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Cakravarti (ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿ):—

1) [noun] a man who makes pottery; a potter.

2) [noun] Viṣṇu or Křṣṇa.

3) [noun] the male sovereign or supreme ruler of an empire; an emperor.

4) [noun] a man who is revered in a society.

5) [noun] the plant Chenopodium album (= C. atriplices) of Chenopodiaceae family.

6) [noun] its fruit.

7) [noun] (yoga) a class of souls that are eligible for salvation from the worldly bonds.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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