Gandhari, Gāndhārī, Gandhārī, Gāndhāri, Gamdhari: 26 definitions
Gandhari means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी).—The saintly and faithful wife of King Dhṛtarāṣṭra and mother of one hundred sons. The daughter of King Subala of Gāndhāra. She was a great devotee of Lord Śiva from her childhood. Lord Śiva blessed her with a benediction she could have one hundred sons. Śrīla Vyāsadeva also blessed her with the same benediction. She was married to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, who was blind. When she found out that her future husband was blind, she voluntarily blindfolded herself for the rest of her life. She is considered one of the most chaste women of all time.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी):—The wife of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. She gave birth to one hundred sons and one daughter. The oldest son was named Duryodhana and the daughter was called Duḥśalā. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.25-26)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Gāndhārī (गान्धारी).—Wife of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Birth. There was a King called Subala in the family of Turvasu, brother of Yadu. (For genealogy see under Subala). Subala became the King of the land of Gāndhāra. This land extended from the river Sindhu to Kābul. Gāndhārī was the daughter of Subala. (Chapter 111, Ādi Parva). (See full article at Story of Gāndhārī from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Gāndhārī (गान्धारी).—Another Gāndhārī, wife of Ajamīḍha, one of the great Kings of the Pūru dynasty. (Śloka 37, Chapter 95, Ādi Parva).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Gāndhāri (गान्धारि).—The wife of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and mother of hundred sons—Duryodhana and others.1 Daughter of Subala.2 Met by Kṛṣṇa and Rāma after the burning of lac house.3 Heard of Kṛṣṇa's marriage from his wives and was lost in wonder.4 Her grief at Bhīṣma's death; was consoled by Yudhiṣṭhira.5 Felt keenly Kṛṣṇa's separation. Welcomed Vidura to Hastināpura.6 Approved of the anointing of Yudhiṣṭhira.7 Went with her daughter to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse, and there met Kṛṣṇa and Vṛṣṇis.8 Settled on the banks of the Ganges with Dhṛtarāṣṭra, following him to the Himalayas. As a chaste queen she ascended his funeral pyre.9
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 26. Matsya-purāṇa 50. 47-8. Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 242. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 39.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 84. 1.
- 3) Ib. 57. 2.
- 4) Ib. X. 84. 1.
- 5) Ib. I. 9. 48.
- 6) Ib. 10. 9; 13. 4.
- 7) Ib. X. 80.
- 8) Ib. 82. 24.
- 9) Ib. I. 8. 3; 13. 29 and 57.
1b) One of the wives of Dhṛṣṭi. Father of Sumitra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 18-19.
1c) A daughter of Surabhi and Kaśyapa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 71.
2a) Gāndhārī (गान्धारी).—The wife of Vṛṣṇi; gave birth to Sumitra.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 45. 1: Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 17.
2b) A queen of Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 47. 13.
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.90.39) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Gāndhārī) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) refers to one of the jātis (melodic class) related to the madhyama-grāma, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. It is therefore also known as gāndhārījāti. Jāti refers to a recognized melody-type and can be seen as a precursor to rāgas which replaced them.
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 28.121-123, “in the gāndhārī-jāti the aṃśa (key note) will be the five notes of the grāma (musical scale) dhaivata and ṛṣabha being excluded, and its apanyāsa (semi-terminal note) is ṣaḍja and pañcama, and the nyāsa (terminal note) is gāndhāra. Its hexatonic treatment (ṣāḍava / ṣāḍavita) excludes ṛṣabha, and the pentatonic treatment (auḍava / auḍavita) excludes ṛṣabha and dhaivata. Besides these they (i.e., ṛṣabha and dhaivata) should be skipped over and ṛṣabha should always go to dhaivata, and ṣaḍja and madhyama should be amplified (bahutva) in it”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Gandhari [ಗಾಂಧಾರಿ] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. from the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family having the following synonyms: Blumea lactucifolia, Blumea glandulosa, Blumea bodinieri. For the possible medicinal usage of gandhari, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) is another name for Yavāsa, a medicinal plant identified with Alhagi pseudalhagi, synonym of Alhagi maurorum (“camelthorn”) from the Fabaceae or legume family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.44-46 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Gāndhārī and Yavāsa, there are a total of twenty-two Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) is an epithet for the Goddess according to the Bhairavīstotra in the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Victory! Victory (to you) O goddess (bhagavatī)! [...] You are illusion destroyed! You who bestow the delights of the liturgy (krama) of the sixty-four (Bhairavas and Yoginīs)! Beautiful with intense radiant energy (tejas)! Mistress of the gods! Gāndhārī! Gāyatrī! Praised by the Siddhas! [...]”.
Note: Gāndhārī was the wife of the epic king Dhṛtarāṣṭra. As her husband was blind, out of sympathy and because she was ready to share everything with her husband, she kept her eyes covered with a blindfold.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Gandhari is the wife of Dhritarashtra. Parents of the Kauravas (who, eventually fought the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra war). Even though Gandhari's sons (the Kauravas) were portrayed evil in the Mahabharata, Gandhari was regarded good as she tried to convince her sons to make peache with the Pandavas.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Gāndhārī (गांधारी): Dhritarashtra's wife and queen mother of the Kauravas.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Gandhārī (गन्धारी) or Gandharvī is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Gandhahara forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Ākāśacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the ākāśacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Gandhārī] and Vīras are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife. Alternatively, the Ḍākinīs have their own marks and motions according to the taste instead of a small drum and a skull staff.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) (or Caṇḍā, Pracaṇḍā) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Vāsupūjya: the twelfth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—[...] Caṇḍā or Pracaṇḍā, as she is also called by the Śvetāmbaras, has a horse for her riding animal, and carries the symbols of Varada, spear, flower and club. The Digambara form of the same deity is represented as riding on a crocodile and having the hands equipped with a club, two lotuses and Varada-mudrā. Like the previous one, this Yakṣiṇī, too, lakes her part as a Vidyādevī. As such, the name borne by her is Gāndhārī. There is some essential connection between the Yakṣiṇī Gāndhāri’s animal of a crocodile and the Vidyadevī Gāndhārī’s animal of a tortoise, Caṇḍā or Pracaṇḍā seems to be, as the name indicates, a Jaina prototype of the Brahmanic Caṇḍā or Durgā.
2) Gandhārī (गन्धारी) (or Gāndhārī, Cāmuṇḍī) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Naminātha: the twenty-first of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas.—[...] The Śvetāmbara sectarian Yakṣiṇī, Gāndhārī by name, hasbeen described as riding a swan and furnished with four hands, which hold, in turn, Varada-mudrā, sword. citron and spear (kunta). The Cāmuṇḍā or Digambara form of the same Yakṣiṇī is represented in their way as riding on a dolphin and carrying in her hands a rosary, staff, shield and sword.
This pair of names (viz. Gāndhārī and Cāmuṇḍā ) has already occurred in connexion with the Yakṣiṇī of Vāsūpūjya. There seems to have been some mysterious transposition of these deities. In the case of Vāsūpūjya Caṇḍā is Śvetāmbara Yakṣiṇī, whereas Gāndhārī, who is Śvetāmbara here was Digambara there. Gāndhārī there rides a dolphin as Cāmuṇḍā rides thesame animal in the present case. The Yakṣiṇī Gāndhārī we describe now, assumes such symbols (for instance swan, Varada, citron) as would make her partly a Vidyādevī and partly a Yakṣiṇī. Her Digambara counterpart Cāmuṇḍā is also called Kusumamālinī and as such, her dolphin symbol may be justified because Kusumamālī or kāma has the same symbolical mark (Makara-ketana [?]).
3) Gandhārī (गन्धारी) also refers to one of the sixteen Vidyādevīs (goddesses of learning).—The Śvetāmbara Gāndhārī is to be represented either asseated on a lotus and holding a staff and vajra or Varada, staff, Abhaya and Vajra. Digambara goddess rides a tortoise and holds a disc and sword. We meet with the Śvetāmbara Yakṣiṇī of the like name, who belonged to Nami. Her swan vehicle gave her the character of Sarasvatī. The Yakṣiṇī Gāndhārī of the Digambaras rides a crocodile but the Vidyādevī Gāndhārī rides a tortoise. This latter point leads us to connect her with Yamunā, as the preceding Vidyādevī was suggested to be associated with Gaṅgā.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) is the name of a Vidyā (Mantra).—The Kalpasūtra 1.212 (cf. ‘Die Kosmographie der Inder’ p. 153a) gives the number as 48 only, but does not give the names, except of 4 mahāvidyās, Gaurī, Gāndhārī, Rohiṇī, Prajñapti.
2) Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) or Gandhārīvidyā refers to one of the sixteen Vidyās from which are derived the respective classes of Vidyādharas (in this case, Gāndhāra), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, “[...] After making [the two rows of Vidyādhara-cities], many villages and suburbs, they established communities [viz., the Gāndhāras] according to the suitability of place. [...] Dharaṇendra instructed them about the law as follows: ‘If any insolent persons show disrespect or do injury to the Jinas, or the Jinas’ shrines, or to those who will attain mokṣa in this birth, or to any ascetics engaged in pratimā, the Vidyās [viz., Gandhārīs] will abandon them at once, just as wealth abandons lazy people. Whoever kills a man with his wife, or enjoys women against their will, the Vidyās will abandon him at once’.”
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Biology (plants and animals)
1) Gandhari in India is the name of a plant defined with Alhagi maurorum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Hedysarum alhagi L. (among others).
2) Gandhari is also identified with Fagonia cretica It has the synonym Fagonia desertorum Andr..
3) Gandhari is also identified with Fagonia indica It has the synonym Fagonia persica DC. (etc.).
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· Diagn. Pl. Orient. (1843)
· Regnum Vegetabile, or ‘a Series of Handbooks for the Use of Plant Taxonomists and Plant Geographers’ (1993)
· Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (1994)
· Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France (1900)
· Diagn. Pl. Orient. (1849)
· Prodr. (DC.) (1824)
If you are looking for specific details regarding Gandhari, for example chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, side effects, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
gandhārī : (f.) (a magical charm) belonging to Gandhāra.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
1) An epithet of Śakuni, Duryodhana's maternal uncle.
2) An epithet of Duryodhana; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.22.13.
Derivable forms: gāndhāriḥ (गान्धारिः).
--- OR ---
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी).—1 An [गान्धारस्यापत्यं इञ् (gāndhārasyāpatyaṃ iñ)]
1) Name of the daughter of Subala, king of the Gāndhāras and wife of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. [She bore to her husband 1 sons-- Duryodhana and his 99 brothers. As her husband was blind she always wore a scarf over her face (probably to reduce herself to his state). After the destruction of all the Kauravas, she and her husband lived with their nephew Yudhiṣṭhira].
2) A kind of intoxicant; L. D. B.
3) A particular vein in the left eye; Gorakṣa Śataka 26.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Gandhārī (गन्धारी).—name of a rākṣasī: Mahā-Māyūrī 243.17.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gāndhāri (गान्धारि).—1. m. pl. The name of a people, Mahābhārata 8, 2135. 2. i. e. gāndhārī + i, metronym. The sor of Gāndhārī, Mahābhārata 2, 1791.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gandhāri (गन्धारि).—[masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people.
--- OR ---
Gāndhāri (गान्धारि).—[masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Gandhārī (गन्धारी):—[from gandhāra] f. for gāndh (Name of a Vidyā-devī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
2) Gandhāri (गन्धारि):—[from gandhāra] m. [plural] Name of a people, [Ṛg-veda i, 126, 7; Atharva-veda v, 22, 14] (cf. gāndh.)
3) Gāndhārī (गान्धारी):—[from gāndhāra] f. ([Pāṇini 4-1, 14], [vArttika] 4, [Patañjali]) a princess of the Gāndhāris ([especially] the wife of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa i, ix]
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Vidyā-devī, [Mahābhārata iii, 14562]
5) [v.s. ...] (fulfilling the commands of the twenty-first Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [Jaina literature])
6) [v.s. ...] (in music) Name of a Rāgiṇī
7) [v.s. ...] Alhagi Maurorum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] a particular vein in the left eye, [Gorakṣa-śataka 26]
9) [v.s. ...] a kind of fly, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
10) Gāndhāri (गान्धारि):—[from gāndhāra] m. = reya, [Mahābhārata ii f.; v, vii, 3457]
11) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] ([Pāṇini 4-1, 169; 4-2, 52], [vArttika] 2) Name of a people (also called Gandhāras or Gāndhāras), [Mahābhārata viii, 2135.]Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Gāndhārī (गान्धारी) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Gaṃdhārī.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
1) Gaṃdhārī (गंधारी) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Gāndhārī.
2) Gaṃdhārī (गंधारी) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Gāndhārī.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
1) [noun] the plant Blumea lacera of Glandulosa family.
2) [noun] (arch.) name of a musical mode.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Gamdharimenasu, Gandharigrama, Gandharika, Gandharisaptasama, Gandharivanija, Gandharividya.
Ends with: Anamgagamdhari, Devagandhari, Garudagamdhari, Kantha gandhari, Kari-gandhari, Madhyamagandhari, Nagagamdhari, Pamcamagamdhari, Rakshogamdhari, Raktagandhari, Uttaragandhari, Vajragandhari, Vishuddhagandhari, Yugandhari.
Full-text (+46): Gandhara, Shakuni, Duryodhana, Devagandhari, Saubala, Gandhareya, Saubaleyi, Saubali, Subala, Dhritarashtra, Kantha gandhari, Gandharisaptasama, Gandharivanija, Camundi, Camunda, Samhata, Duhshala, Kari-gandhari, Gandharigrama, Mitrasahvaya.
Search found 51 books and stories containing Gandhari, Gāndhārī, Gandhārī, Gāndhāri, Gandhāri, Gamdhari, Gaṃdhārī, Gāṃdhāri; (plurals include: Gandharis, Gāndhārīs, Gandhārīs, Gāndhāris, Gandhāris, Gamdharis, Gaṃdhārīs, Gāṃdhāris). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 8: Marriage with Gāndhāri < [Chapter VI - Marriage of Kṛṣṇa with Rukmiṇī and others]
Part 5: Description of Vaitāḍhya < [Chapter III]
Part 10: Nami’s śāsanadevatās (messenger-deities) < [Chapter XI - Śrī Namināthacaritra]
Jain Remains of Ancient Bengal (by Shubha Majumder)
The twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras and their Yakṣas and Yakṣiṇīs < [Chapter 6 - Iconographic Study of Jaina Sculptural Remains]
Appendix 1 - The Position of Yakṣas and Yakṣiṇīs in Jainism
Images of Tīrthaṅkara Vāsupūjya < [Chapter 6 - Iconographic Study of Jaina Sculptural Remains]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 4.19.64 < [Chapter 19 - A Thousand Names of Srī Yamunā]
Verse 4.19.63 < [Chapter 19 - A Thousand Names of Srī Yamunā]
The Bhagavata Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 13 - Discourse of Nārada < [Book 1 - First Skandha]
Chapter 80(a) - The Story of the Brāhmaṇa Śrīdāman (introductory) < [Book 10 - Tenth Skandha]
Chapter 8 - Kuntī’s Eulogy of Kṛṣṇa and Yudhiṣṭhira’s Repentance < [Book 1 - First Skandha]
Natyashastra (English) (by Bharata-muni)