Atharvaveda and Charaka Samhita

by Laxmi Maji | 2021 | 143,541 words

This page relates ‘5b. Krimi (Worms) in the Atharvaveda’ found in the study on diseases and remedies found in the Atharvaveda and Charaka-samhita. These texts deal with Ayurveda—the ancient Indian Science of life—which lays down the principles for keeping a sound health involving the use of herbs, roots and leaves. The Atharvaveda refers to one of the four Vedas (ancient Sanskrit texts encompassing all kinds of knowledge and science) containing many details on Ayurveda, which is here taken up for study.

In Bhāvaprakāśa Nighaṇṭu, Bhṛṅgarāja is described as an insecticide[1]. Regarding the Mahānimba or Vakāyana, western practitioners believe that consuming small amounts of the bark of Vakāyana can cure the ringworm disease of children[2].

Caraka-Samhita says that it is very difficult to determine the nature of a disease, whether mild or serious and at the same time the investigation of different aspects of parasites is also difficult. The existence of every parasite is active when residing inside the body.

There are twenty types of worms including:

  1. Yūka and
  2. Pipīlikā,
  3. Keśāda,
  4. Lomāda,
  5. Lomadvīpa,
  6. Saurasa,
  7. Audumbara and
  8. Jantumātā,
  9. Antrādā,
  10. Udarāda,
  11. Hṛdayacara,
  12. Curu,
  13. Darbhapuṣpa,
  14. Saugandhika,
  15. Mahāguda,
  16. Kakerukā,
  17. Makerukā,
  18. Lelihā,
  19. Saśūlakā and
  20. Sausurāda.

There are twenty types of worms as described in Śāraṅgadhara Saṃhitā. Among them, the two external worms are–

[From Kapha]:

  1. Yūkā,
  2. Likṣā,
  3. Hṛdayodaka,
  4. Antrādā,
  5. Udarāveṣṭā,
  6. Curava,
  7. Mahāguhā,
  8. Sugandhā,
  9. Darbhakusuma;

[From Rakta]:

  1. Mātara,
  2. Saurasa,
  3. Lomavidhvaṃsā,
  4. Romadvīpā,
  5. Udumvarā and
  6. Keśāda;

[From Purīṣa (faces)]:

  1. Makerukā,
  2. Lelihā,
  3. Slūnā,
  4. Sausurādā and
  5. Kakerukā.

There are several other forms of worms belonging to Kapha and Rakta namely Snāyuka[3].

The parasites including Yūkā and Pipīlikā exist in the excreta. Keśāda, Lomāda, Lomadvīpa, Saurasa, Audumbara, and Jantumātṛ are found in the blood. Antrādā, Udarāveṣṭā, Hṛdayādā, Curu, Darbhapuṣpa, Saugandhika, and Mahāguda thrive in Kapha. Kakerukā, Makerukā, Lelihā, Saśūlakā, and Sausurāda exist in faeces.

The parasites are further classified into four groups i.e., Purīṣaja that born and thrive in faces, Śleṣmaja that grow in phlegm, Śoṇitaja that exist in blood, and Malaja that thrive in external excreta[4].

There are two types of excreta namely external and internal. Malaja is the parasites born of external excreta. They are caused by a lack of cleanliness in the body. They grow in the hair, face, eyelashes and the dress. These creatures microscopically resemble the shape of a grain of Tila. They are white and black. Common symptoms caused by these parasites include itching, production of urticaria and pimples. The common remedy of these parasites is to remove the parasites, keeping the body clean and avoiding regimens that produce the excreta. Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ described two kinds of worms such as Bāhya and Ābhyantara. Based on origin there are four types of worms like wastes, Kapha, aṣrk and faeces. Worms are caused by an unhygienic lifestyle. The worms are very small and resemble sesame seeds. They are found in hair and clothes and cause rashes, eruptions, itching and small tumours. Food such as sweet dishes, molasses, milk curds, flour of grains and freshly harvested grains, aggravate worms[5]. Aṣṭāṅga Saṃgraha described two kinds of worms such as Bāhya and Ābhyantara. They cause rashes, papules, itching and enlargement of lymph glands.

Table 10: Types of Kṛmi[6]

Sl. No. Kṛmi Types Location & Shape Treatment
1. Purīṣaja (5) Kakerukā, Makerukā, Lelihā, Saśūlakā, Sausurāda Location–intestines. Is minute, white, long, cylindrical, black, blue. Extraction of Kṛmi, destruction of the source material, avoidance of etiological factors.
2. Śleṣmaja (7) Antrādā, Udarāda, Hṛdayacara, Curu, Darbhapuṣpa, Saugandhika, Mahāguda Location–stomach. Is white, broad, round, Coppery. Extraction of Kṛmi, destruction of the source material, avoidance of etiological factors.
3. Raktaja (6) Keśāda, Lomāda, Lomadvīpa, Saurasa, Audumbara, Jantumātā Location–blood. Is minute, the round has no feet, is invisible. Kuṣṭha treatment
4. Malaja (2) Yūka, Pipīlikā Location–hairs, beard, moustache, eyelashes. Is minute, multiple, sesamum-shaped. Extraction removal of Excreta.

(Source: Synopsis on Caraka Saṃhitā)

The bloodborne parasites are found in blood vessels. The causes are different skin diseases including leprosy. These parasites are very minute and invisible to the naked eye. They cooperate in colour. This parasite includes Keśāda, Lomāda, Lomadvīpa, Saurasa, Audumbara, and Jantumātṛ. They cause distraction of hair from the head as well as from the different parts of the body including eyelashes and nails. A wound affected by these parasites causes hyperesthesia, itching, pain and creeping sensation.

When they grow excessive in number, they hit the skin, vessels, ligaments, muscles tissue and cartilages[7].

The parasites born of phlegm are caused due to Consumption of milk, sugar candy, sesame seed, fish, and meat of animals from marshy land, pastries, milk products, uncooked food and contaminated or unwholesome food. These parasites grow in the stomach and move upwards or booth the sides. They are tape shaped and white. Some are big and flat; some are round and like an earthworm and white. The names parasites are Antrādā, Udarāveṣṭā, Hṛdayādā, Curu, Darbhapuṣpa, Saugandhika, and Mahāguda. These parasites cause–nausea, salivation, anorexia, indigestion, fever, fainting, yawning, sneezing, constipation, malaise, vomiting, emaciation and dryness of the body[8].

The main characteristics of faces born parasites are as follows–causes including consumption of milk, sugar candy, sesame seed, fish, and meat of animals from marshy land, pastries, milk products, uncooked food and contaminated or unwholesome food. These germs thrive inside the colon when grown excessively as they move downwards. When they move towards the stomach the patient’s breath smells like faecal colour. The parasites are minute, cylindrical and long, white. Other variants are thick, cylindrical in shape and grey, blue, green or yellow.

The names of such parasites are Kakerukā, Makerukā, Lelihā, Saśūlakā, and Sausurāda. These parasites cause diarrhoea, emaciation, dryness and horripilation, irritation in the oral region. The parasites excrete from anus[9].

The treatment includes extraction of parasites contraction of factors responsible for the production phlegm of these parasites and then avoidance of such parasites. Parasites should be extracted manually without or with the help of instruments and also by the proper administration of appropriate therapies such as–śirovirecana, vomiting, purgation and āsthāpana. To counteract, the factors responsible for the production of parasites include certain drugs and diets, pungent, bitter and astringent in taste and hot in nature to be used. Thereafter, factors producing these parasites should be avoided[10].

The patients suffering from diseases caused by parasites should be treated with oleation and fomentation therapies for six to seven consecutive days and nights. One day before these therapies the patient should be given milk, sugar, candy, card, sesame seed, fish meat, the meat of animals from marshy land, pastry, milk and kusumbha oil to arouse the parasites to migrate them to the alimentary tract. If the patient spends the night comfortably being able to digest the food of the previous night, he should be given āsthāpana type of enema, emesis and purgation therapy[11].

In such cases, the patient is advised to collect the following herbs–Mūlaka, Sarṣapa, Laśuna, Karañja, Śigru, Madhuśigru, Kharapuṣpā, Bhūstṛṇa and various types of basils, viz. Sumukha, Surasa, Kuṭheraka, Gaṇḍīra, Kālamālaka, Parṇāsa, Kṣavaka and Phaṇijjhaka. All these ingredients should be washed and cut into pieces and boiled and mixed with the fruit of Madana, Pippalī, Viḍaṅga and oil with svargiksāra and salt and administered to the patient in the form of an enema. In the same way, the following herbs should be mixed with Madana phala to be used as an enema for three to seven days–Arka, Alarka, Kuṭaja, Ādhakī, Kuṣṭha and Kaiḍarya, or Śigru, Pīlu, Kustumburu, Kaṭukā and Sarṣapa, or Āmalaka, Śṛṅgavera, Dāruharidrā, and Picumarda[12].

After the elimination of the ingredients of the last enema, the patient should be allayed and given elimination therapy that causes emesis and purgation. The patient is given a drink made of decoction of seeds of Madana in half-añjali, Akṣa, Trivṛt to eliminate impurities through vomiting and purgation[13].

After this procedure, the patient should be sponged with the Luke-warm decoction of Viḍaṅga -both externally and internally. Otherwise, the decoction of drugs of pungent, bitter and astringent tastes prepared urine may be used for applying on the body of the patient. After that, the patient should be taken inside an airtight room and be gradually given Yavāgu prepared by boiling with Pippalī root, Citraka and Śṛṅgavera. After that, the patient should be given two to three Anuvāsana with the oil of Viḍaṅga on alternate days[14].

If the parasites attack the brain of the patient then the head of the patient should be oleated and fomented and the doṣas from the head should be purged by applying earthiness prepared with dehisced seeds of Apāmārga[15].

An order to counteract the factors liable for the production of parasites Mūlakaparṇī roots and branches should be extracted and paste of red śāli-rice should be boiled to make pūpalikās and fried with smokeless firebrands. The patient infected with the parasite should be given this cake with salt and Viḍaṅga oil. Then he should be given a drink of sour congee or udaśvit which is a mixture of water and buttermilk with salt and the power of pippalī, cavya, Citraka, Śṛṅgavera, Mārkava, Arka, Sahacara, Nīpa, Nirguṇḍī, various types of basils, viz. Sumukha, Surasa, Kuṭheraka, Gaṇḍīra, Kālamālaka, Parṇāsa, Kṣavaka and Phaṇijjhaka, Bakula, Kuṭaja, Suvarṇakṣīrī, Kiṇihī, Kirātatikta, Suvahā, Āmalaka, Harītakī and Bibhītaka in empty stomach in the morning[16].

Dried horse dung should be crushed to powder and well impregnated in the sun with the decoction Viḍaṅga or Triphalā for eight or ten times. These powers mixed with honey should be given to the patient suffering from worm infection[17].

For purgation one kalaśa of Bhallātaka stones crushed and placed in a jar which should be placed over another jar smeared inside with oil and buried underground up to its neck. Then it is burned with cow dung and all the drained oil should be collected and mixed with half quantity of dehisced seeds of Viḍaṅga[18]. Another way to deal with parasites is fresh Tila kept in Luke-warm decoction of Viḍaṅga should be rubbed oil[19].

Another therapy to deal with the production of parasites is as follows–Uddālaka and Tilvaka should be collected and made into a paste adding the decoction of Viḍaṅga. Half Bilva of Śyāmā (black) and Trivṛt (white), one-fourth Bilva each of Dantī, dravantī, cavya, Citraka should be collected and mixed with half ādhaka of decoction of Viḍaṅga, one all of these should be mixed thoroughly keeping over the fire. The mixture should be cooled down and filtered with new cloth and kept in an earthen jar. Resending the remedial Rasendrasāra Saṅgraha prescribes 96 grams of Viḍaṅga, 48 gms of śuddha vatsanābhi, 24 grams of Loha bhasma and 12 grams each of śuddha Pārada and śuddha Gandhaka. Pills prepared by drying the mixture of Kajjalī with other drugs rubbed in and bhāvanā of goat’s milk. To eradicate worms, Krimikālānala rasa is given with Dhānyaka and Jīraka[20]. Equal quantities of śuddha Pārada, śuddha Gandhaka, Indrayava, Ajamodā, śuddha Manaḥśila and seeds of Palāśa is recommended. The

Kajjalī is then left for a day dipping in the juice of Devadāli. If should be consumed with Śālaparṇi, to remove worms[21].

In proper time the patient should be given Anuvāsana. In the same way, the oil should be prepared with drugs like Sarṣapa, Atasī, the seed of Karañja and seed of Koṣātakī and administered to the patient[22].

The treatment of parasites aims to remove them in the beginning and the causative factors for the production of parasites are to be dealt with. There are three types of treatment namely elimination therapy, Alleviation therapy and Avoidance of causative factors[23]. Apakarṣana, Prakṛti vighāta and Nidāna parivarjana -these three principles of treatment described for curing the parasite infestation are also applicable for the cure of all diseases in general[24].

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

bhṛṅgārājo bhṛṅgarajo mārka vo bhṛṅgaeva ca |
aṅgārakaḥ ke śarajo bhṛṅgāraḥ ke śarañjanaḥ |
bhṛṅgarājaḥ kaṭustiktorukṣoṣṇaḥ kaphavātanut |
ke śyastvacyaḥ kṛ miśvāsakāsaśothamapāṇḍu nut |
dantyo rasāyano valyaḥ kuṣṭhanetraśirorttijit ||
(Bhāva–Gugucyādivarga -1/243-245) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 229.

[2]:

K. D. Dvivedi & B. Dvivedi, Vedoṇ Meṇ Āyurveda (Medical Science in the Vedas), Jyanapur, Visvabharati Anusandhan Parishad, 2018, pp. 181-183.

[3]:

evaṃ viṃśatibhedena kṛ mayaḥh syurdvidhā ca te |
bāhyāstathābhyantarāh syusteṣu yukābahiścarāḥ ||
likṣāścānye'ntaracarāḥ kaphāte hṛdayodakāḥ |
atrādā udarāveṣṭāścyuravaśca mahāguhāḥ ||
sugandhā darbhakusumāstathā raktāśca mātaraḥ |
saurasā lomavidhvaṃsā romadvīpā udumbarāḥ ||
ke śādāśca tathaivānye śākṛ jjātā make rukāḥ |
lelihāśca salūnāśca sausurādāḥ kake rukāḥ ||
tathānyaḥ kapharaktābhyāṃ saṃjātaḥ snāyuktaḥ smṛtaḥ |
vraṇasya kṛ mayaścānye viṣamā bāhyayonayaḥ ||
(Śāraṅg. S. –I/7/14-18); Śāraṅgadhara-Saṃhitā: A Treatise on Ayurveda by Śāraṅgadhara, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2017, pp. 32-33.

[4]:

viṃśatividhāḥ krimayaḥ pūrvamuddiṣṭānānāvidhenapravibhāgenānyatrasahajebhyaḥ, te punaḥ prakṛ tibhirvibhajyamānāścaturvidhā bhavant; tadyathāpurīṣajāḥ, śleṣmajāḥ, śoṇitajā, malajāśceti || (CS. Vs-VIII.9) R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Das (ed.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2018, p. 198.

[5]:

kṛ mayastu dvidhā proktābahyābhyantarabhedataḥ ||
bahirmalakaphāsṛgviṅ janmabhedāccaturvidhāḥ ||
nāmato viṃśatividhāḥ bāhyāstatrāmṛjodbhavāḥ ||
tilapramāṇasaṃsthanavarṇāḥ ke śāmbarāśrayāḥ |
bhupādāśca sūkṣmāśca yūkālikṣāśca nāmataḥ ||
dvidhā te koṭhapiṭikākaṇḍū gaṇḍān prakūrvate |
(Aṣṭā. H. Nidānasthāna-14/42-45); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, pp. 143-144.

[6]:

Rajneesh V. Giri & Smitha Rajneesh, Synopsis on Caraka Saṃhitā, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2019, p. 82.

[7]:

śoṇitajānāṃ tu khalu kuṣṭhaiḥ samānaṃ samutthānaṃ; sthanaṃ—raktavāhinyo dhamanyaḥ; saṃsthanam—aṇvo vṛttāścāpādāśca, sūkṣma............. taduttarakālamupadekṣyāmaḥ || (CS. Vimānasthāna–VII.11); Caraka Saṃhitā Vol. I with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, trans. Kasinatha Pandey & Gorakha Natha Chaturvedi, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2015, p. 726.

[8]:

śleṣmajāḥ kṣīraguḍatilamatsyānūpamāṃsapiṣṭānnaparamānnakusumbhasnehājirṇapūrtiklinnasaṃkīrnaviruddhāsātmyabhojana samutthānāḥ............... (CS. Vimānasthāna -VIII.12) R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Das (ed.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2018, p. 201.

[9]:

purīṣajā astulyasamutthānāh śleṣmajaḥ; teṣāṃ sthanaṃ pakvāśayaḥ, te pravardhamānāstvadho visarpanti, yasya punarāmāśayā bhimukhāḥ syuryadantara tadantaraṃ tasyodgāraniśvāsāḥ purīṣagandhinaḥ syuḥ............. (CS. Vimānasthāna–VII.13); Caraka Saṃhitā Vol. I with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, trans. Kasinatha Pandey & Gorakha Natha Chaturvedi, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2015, p. 787.

[10]:

tatrāpakarṣaṇaṃ—hastenābhagṛhya vimṛśyopakaraṇavatā'panayanamanupakaraṇena vā; sthanagatānāṃ tu krimīṇāṃ bheṣajenāpakarṣaṇaṃ nyāyataḥ, taccaturvidhaḥ; tadyathā—śirovirecanaṃ, vamanaṃ, virecanam, āsthapanaṃ ca; ityapakarṣaṇavidhiḥ |........ (CS. Vimānasthāna -VIII.15) R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Das (ed.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2018, p. 203.

[11]:

athainaṃ krimikoṣṭhamāturamagre ṣaḍrā traṃ saptarātraṃ vā snehasvedābhyāmupapādya........... parīkṣyaviśeṣān parīkṣya samyak || (CS.  Vimānasthāna–VII.16); Caraka Saṃhitā Vol. I with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, trans. Kasinatha Pandey & Gorakha Natha Chaturvedi, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2015, p. 728.

[12]:

mūlakasarṣapalaśunakarañjaśigrukharapuṣpābhūstṛṇasumukhasurasakuṭhe ragaṇḍīrakālamālakaparṇāsakṣavakaphaṇijjhakāni sarvā ṇyathavā yathālābhaṃ?[?] tānyāhṛtānyabhisamīkṣya khaṇḍaśaśche dayitvā prakṣālya pānīyena suprakṣālitāyāṃ syālyāṃ samāvāpya gomūtreṇārdhodake nābhiṣicya sādhayet satatamavaghaṭṭayan darvyā?[?] tamupayuktabhūyiṣṭhe'mbhasi gatarasepvauṣadheṣu sthalīmavatārya suparipūtaṃ kaṣāyaṃ bastau vidhivadāsthapayedenaṃ?[?] tathā'rkālarka kuṭajāḍhakīkūṣṭhakai ḍaryakaṣāyeṇa vā?[?] tathā śigrupīlukustumburukaṭukāsarṣapakaṣāyeṇa?[?] tathā''malakaśṛṅgaveradāruharidrāpicumardakaṣāyeṇa madanaphalādisaṃyoge saṃpāditena trirātraṃ saptarātraṃ vā''sthapayet || (CS. Vimānasthāna -VIII.17) R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Das (ed.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2018, p. 205.

[13]:

pratyagate ca paścime bastau pratyaśvastaṃ tadaharevobhayatobhāgaharaṃ........... sarvaviśeṣānavekṣamāṇo bhiṣak || (CS. Vimānasthāna–VII.18); Caraka Saṃhitā Vol. I with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, trans. Kasinatha Pandey & Gorakha Natha Chaturvedi, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2015, p. 729.

[14]:

athainaṃ samyagviriktaṃ vijñāyāparāhṇe śaikharikakaṣāyeṇa sukhoṣṇena pariṣecayet................ cainamanuvāsayedviḍaṅgatailenai- kāntaraṃ dvistrirvā || (CS. Vimānasthāna-VIII.19); R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Das (ed.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2018, p. 206.

[15]:

yadi punarasyātipravṛddhāñchīrṣādān krimīn manyena śirasyaivābhisarpataḥ kadācit, tataḥ snehasvedābhyāmasya śira upapādya virecayedapāmārgataṇḍulādinā śirovirecana || (CS. Vimānasthāna–VII.20); Caraka Saṃhitā Vol. I with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, trans. Kasinatha Pandey & Gorakha Natha Chaturvedi, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2015, p. 730.

[16]:

mūlakaparṇīṃ samūlāgrapratānāmāhṛtya khaṇḍaśaśchedayitvolṛ khale kṣodayitvā pāṇibhyāṃ pīḍayitvā rasaṃ gṛhṇīyāt, tena rasena lohitaśālitaṇḍulapiṣṭaṃ........... || (CS. Vimānasthāna-VIII.21); R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Das (ed.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2018, p. 207.

[17]:

athāśvaśakṛ dāhṛtya mahati kiliñjake prastīryātape śoṣayitvodū khale............ krimikoṣṭhine leḍhūṃ prayacche t || (CS. Vimānasthāna-VIII.22); R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Das (ed.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2018, p. 208.

[18]:

tathā bhallātakāsthīnyāhṛtya kalaśapramāṇena cāpothya............ bhadradārusaralakāṣṭhasnehānupakalpya pātuṃ prayacche t | (CS. –Vimānasthāna -VII. 29-30); Baidyacharya Kalikinkar Sensarma & Ayurbedacharya Satyasekhar Bhattacharya(eds.), Caraka-Samhita–Vol. I, trans. Kabiraj Jasodanandan Sirkar, Kolkata, Deepayan Publication, 2013, p. 47.

[19]:

athāhareti brūyāt—śāradānnavāṃstilān saṃpadupetān; tānāhṛtya suniṣpūtānniṣpūya......... śucau dṛḍhe kalaśe nyasyānuguptaṃ nidhāpayet || (CS. –Vimānasthāna–VII.25); Caraka Saṃhitā Vol. I with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary, trans. Kasinatha Pandey & Gorakha Natha Chaturvedi, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2015, p. 732.

[20]:

viḍaṅgaṃ dvipalañcaiva viṣacūrṇaṃ tadarddhakam |
lauhacūrṇaṃ tadarddhañca tadarddha śuddhapāradam |
rasatulyaṃ śuddhagandhaṃ chāgīdugdhena peṣayat |
chāyāśuṣkāṃvaṭīṃ kṛ tvā khādet ṣoḍaśaraktikām ||
dhānyajīrānupānena krimikālānalo rasaḥ |
udarasthaṃ krimiṃ hanyād grahaṇyarśaḥ samanvitam ||
(Ras. S. –III/Krimi Cikitsā/1-3); Ashok D. Satpute, Rasendra Sāra Saṅgraha of Sri. Gopal Krishna, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, 2009, pp. 409- 410.

[21]:

śuddhasūtamindrayavamajamodāṃ manaḥśilām |
palāśabījaṃ gandhañca devadālyā dravairdinam ||
sammardya bhakṣayennityaṃ śālaparṇīrasaiḥ saha ||
sitāyuktaṃ pivāñcāni krimipāto bhavatyalam ||
(Ras. S. –III/Krimi Cikitsā/24-25); Ashok D. Satpute, Rasendra Sāra Saṅgraha of Sri. Gopal Krishna, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, 2009, p. 414.

[22]:

etenaiva ca pākavidhinā sarṣapātasikarañjakoṣātakīsnehānupakalpya pāyayet sarvaviśeṣānavekṣamāṇaḥ | (CS. –Vimānasthāna–VII.26); R. K. Sharma & Bhagwan Dash (eds.), Caraka Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2017, p. 211.

[23]:

viśeṣatastu svalpamātramāsthapanānuvāsanānulomaharaṇabhūyiṣṭhaṃ teṣvevauṣadheṣu purīṣajānāṃ krimīṇāṃ cikitsitaṃ kartavyam | (CS. Vimānasthāna -VII.35); Baidyacharya Kalikinkar Sensarma & Ayurbedacharya Satyasekhar Bhattacharya(eds.), Caraka-Samhita–Vol. I, trans. Kabiraj Jasodanandan Sirkar, Kolkata, Deepayan Publication, 2013, p. 49.

[24]:

apakarṣaṇamevādau krimīṇāṃ bheṣajaṃ smṛtam |
tato vighātaḥ prakṛ teḥ nidanasya ca varjanam ||
(CS. Vimānasthāna -VII.28); Rajneesh V. Giri & Smitha Rajneesh, Synopsis on Caraka Saṃhitā, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2019, p. 83.

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