Katuka, aka: Kaṭukā, Kāṭuka; 9 Definition(s)

Introduction

Katuka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[Katuka in Ayurveda glossaries]

1) Kaṭuka (कटुक) is a Sanskrit word referring to Helleborus niger, a perennial flowering plant from the Ranunculaceae family, and is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The plant is commonly known in English as “black hellebore” or “Christmas rose”.

2) Kaṭukā (कटुका) is another name for Śakulādanī (Picrorhiza kurroa) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. It can also be spelled as Kaṭuka (कटुक). It is also known as Kaṭurohiṇī or Kaṭvī, or in the Nepali language it is known as Kuṭkī. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. Certain plant parts of Śakulādanī are eaten as vegetables.

The plant (Kaṭuka) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the names Tiktā, Tiktakarohiṇī or Rohiṇī.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Katuka—A taste, which produces a burning sensation at the tip of the tongue attended with a tingling of the part and headache, and is instantaneously followed by a running at the nose (fluent coryza) is called pungent (Katuka).

A pungent taste is largely possessed of attributes, which mark the elementary principles of air (vāyu or pavana) and fire (agni or dahana).

A pungent taste, which is possessed of the same properties as the Pittam, respectively increases the heat, pungency, dryness, lightness and non-sliminess of the latter with the help of similar properties of its own.

A pungent taste is endued with properties which are contrary to those of the Kapham, hence the sweetness, oiliness, heaviness, coldness and sliminess of the latter, are respectively destroyed by the pungency, dryness, lightness, heat and non-sliminess of the former.

The pungent, astringent and bitter ones are dry and light in character.
The pungent, acid and saline ones exercise fiery or heat making virtues.
Tastes such as pungent, bitter and astringent tend to subdue the deranged Kapham.

Virtueof Katuka—A pungent taste is endued with appetising, resolving (Pachana) and purifying properties in respect of ulcers etc.), and destroys obesity, languor, deranged Kapham and intestinal parasites. It is antitoxic in its character, proves curative in cases of Kushta (skin diseases) and itches, and removes the stiffness of the ligaments. It acts as a sedative and reduces the quantity of semen, milk and fat.

A pungent taste, though possessed of the aforesaid virtues, may bring on vertigo, loss of consciousness, dryness of the throat, palate and lips, burning sensation and a high temperature of the body, loss of strength, tremor, a sort of aching or breaking pain, and a neuralgic pain (Vata-simla) in the back, sides and the extremities, etc. in the event of its being largely partaken of in exclusion of all other tastes.

(Source): archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Kaṭukā (कटुका) is another name for Tiktatuṇḍī, a medicinal plant identified with Coccinia indica (ivy gourd ) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.64-65 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Kaṭukā and Tiktatuṇḍī, there are a total of six Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

(Source): WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Katuka in Jainism glossaries]

Kaṭuka (कटुक, “pungent”) refers to one of the five types of Rasa (taste) which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma (eg., kaṭuka).

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Katuka in Pali glossaries]

kaṭuka : (adj.) sharp; severe, painful; pungent.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Kaṭuka, (adj.) (Sk. kaṭu(ka), from *(s)qǔer to cut; cp. Sk. kṛṇoti (kṛṇtati), Lat. caro “cutlet. ” — k. is almost exclusively poetical; usually expld in prose by aniṭṭha, tikhiṇa, ghora (of niraya); often combd with khara, opp. madhura, e.g. PvA. 119) sharp, bitter, acid, severe.—1. severe, sharp (fig.), of dukkha, vedanā, kāmā, etc. M. I, 10=A. II, 143; J. VI, 115; Th. 2, 451 (=ThA. 281); SA 56.—painful, terrible, frightful (-appld to the fruits of evil actions and to the sufferings in Niraya: see kammapphala & niraya) J. III, 519; Pv. I, 102, 111; IV, 18, 76.—bitter, or perhaps pungent of taste DhS 291; Miln. 65, 112; J. III, 201.—2. (nt.) pungency, acidity, bitterness D. II, 349=J. I, 380; Th. 2, 503 (pañca°); J. VI, 509.—Note. Is k. to be written instead of kadukkha at VvA. 316, where it explains maraṇa? Cp. J. III, 201: tesaṃ taṃ kaṭukaṃ āsi, maraṇaṃ ten’upāgamuṃ.

—udraya causing bitterness or pain J. V, 241, cp. dukkhudraya J. V, 119. —odaka a bitter draught Sdhp. 159. —pabhedana (adj.) having a pungent juice exuding from the temples, said of an elephant in rut Dh. 324 (=tikhiṇamada DhA. IV, 13). —pphala a kind of perfume made of the berry of an aromatic plant J. II, 416=DhA. III, 475 (kappūra-k°-ādīni), cp. Sk. kakkolaka.—(adj.) of bitter fruit J. II, 106 (of the mango); S. I, 57=J. III, 291=Dh. 66 (of kamma); Pv. I, 1110 (id.). —bhaṇḍa (sg. & pl.) spices. There are 4 enumd at J. III, 86: hingujīraka, singiveraka, marica, pipphali; 3 at VvA. 186 (as tikaṭuka, cp. kaṭula): ajamoja, hingujīraka, lasuṇa; PvA. 135; DhA. II, 131. —bhāva stinginess DhsA. 376. —rohiṇī the black hellebore Vin. I, 201 (as medicine). —vipāka (adj.) having a bitter result (of pāpa) Miln. 206; compar. °tara S. II, 128. —sāsana a harsh command J. VI, 498. (Page 177)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Katuka in Marathi glossaries]

kāṭūka (काटूक) [or कांटूक, kāṇṭūka].—n A fragment of wood; a little stick or chip; a chat.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kāṭūka (काटूक).—n A fragment of wood or a little stick or chip.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Katuka in Sanskrit glossaries]

Kaṭuka (कटुक).—a.

1) Sharp, pungent; मधुरो गुडः कटुकं शृङ्गबेरम् (madhuro guḍaḥ kaṭukaṃ śṛṅgaberam) Mbh. on P.II.1.1.

2) Impetuous, hot; Rv.1. 85.34.

3) Disagreeable, unpleasant.

4) Fierce. स संप्रहारस्तुमुलः कटुकः शोणितोदकः (sa saṃprahārastumulaḥ kaṭukaḥ śoṇitodakaḥ) Mb.6.7.12.

5) Harsh; यदा ह्यस्य गिरो रुक्षाः श्रुणोमि कटुकादयाः (yadā hyasya giro rukṣāḥ śruṇomi kaṭukādayāḥ) Mb.12.1.4.

-kaḥ 1 Pungency, acerbity.

2) Name of several plants :-पटोल, सुगन्धितृण, कुटज, अर्क, राजसर्षप (paṭola, sugandhitṛṇa, kuṭaja, arka, rājasarṣapa).

-kā Name of several plants :- कटुरोहिणी, ताम्बुली, राजिका, तिक्तालावुक (kaṭurohiṇī, tāmbulī, rājikā, tiktālāvuka).

-kī = कटुरोहिणी (kaṭurohiṇī).

-kam 1 Pungency; (at the end of comp. in a bad sense; as dadhikaṭukam 'bad curds').

2) A compound of ginger, black and long pepper.

3) unpleasant works, speech; क्षमिणं तादृशं तात ब्रुवन्ति कटुकान्यपि (kṣamiṇaṃ tādṛśaṃ tāta bruvanti kaṭukānyapi) Mb.3.28.13.

--- OR ---

Kaṭukā (कटुका).—f. Name of plant, Picrorrhiza Kurroa (Mar. kuṭakī, bāḷakaḍū).

--- OR ---

Kāṭuka (काटुक).—Acidity.

Derivable forms: kāṭukam (काटुकम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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