Katuka, Kaṭukā, Kāṭuka: 29 definitions


Katuka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ayurveda: Cikitsa

1) Kaṭuka (कटुक) is a Sanskrit word referring to Helleborus niger, a perennial flowering plant from the Ranunculaceae family, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The plant is commonly known in English as “black hellebore” or “Christmas rose”.

2) Kaṭukā (कटुका) is another name for Śakulādanī (Picrorhiza kurroa) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. It can also be spelled as Kaṭuka (कटुक). It is also known as Kaṭurohiṇī or Kaṭvī, or in the Nepali language it is known as Kuṭkī. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. Certain plant parts of Śakulādanī are eaten as vegetables.

The plant (Kaṭuka) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the names Tiktā, Tiktakarohiṇī or Rohiṇī.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Kaṭuka (कटुक) refers to the medicinal plant Picrorrhiza kurroa Benth., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Kaṭuka] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Picrorrhiza kurroa Benth. (Kaṭuka) is known as Rohiṇī or Kaṭurohiṇī according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Kaṭukā (कटुका) is another name for Tiktatuṇḍī, a medicinal plant identified with Coccinia indica (ivy gourd ) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.64-65 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Kaṭukā and Tiktatuṇḍī, there are a total of six Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Kaṭukā (कटुका) also represents a synonym for Kṣudracuñcu which is a variety of Cuñcu, an unidentified medicinal plant possibly identified with (i) Marsilea dentata Linn., (ii) Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. or (iii) Marsilea minuta Linn., according to verse 4.148-149. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kaṭukā and Kṣudracuñcu, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

3) Kaṭuka (कटुक) is another name for Marica, a medicinal plant identified with Piper nigrum Linn. or “black pepper” from the Piperaceae or “pepper” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.30-32.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Kaṭuka and Marica, there are a total of seventeen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

1) Kaṭuka (कटुक) refers to “pungent” (in taste) and represents a particular dietetic effect according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Accordingly, the dietetic effect kaṭuka is associated with the following conditions: Food utensils made of Hastikarṇīpatra (coral tree leaf).

2) Kaṭuka (कटुक) is used in the process of chewing betel (tāmbūla).—Accordingly, betel leaves (tāmbūla) are generally chewed with areca-nut and limestone powder. One who holds the betel savored in combination with [viz., kaṭuka], can stimulate his appetite and clear the bad smell of his mouth. Five niṣkas of areca-nut, two palas of betel leaf and two guñjas of limestone powder is the best proportion for betel chewing.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kaṭukā (कटुका) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Abelmoschus moschatus Medikus” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kaṭukā] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Katuka—A taste, which produces a burning sensation at the tip of the tongue attended with a tingling of the part and headache, and is instantaneously followed by a running at the nose (fluent coryza) is called pungent (Katuka). [...] Katuka (pungent), astringent and bitter ones are dry and light in character. The pungent, acid and saline ones exercise fiery or heat making virtues. Tastes such as pungent, bitter and astringent tend to subdue the deranged Kapha.

Katuka (pungent taste) is largely possessed of attributes, which mark the elementary principles of air (vāyu or pavana) and fire (agni or dahana). [...] A pungent taste, which is possessed of the same properties as the Pitta, respectively increases the heat, pungency, dryness, lightness and non-sliminess of the latter with the help of similar properties of its own. [...] A pungent taste is endued with properties which are contrary to those of the Kapha, hence the sweetness, oiliness, heaviness, coldness and sliminess of the latter, are respectively destroyed by the pungency, dryness, lightness, heat and non-sliminess of the former.

Virtueof Katuka—A pungent taste is endued with appetising, resolving (Pachana) and purifying properties in respect of ulcers etc.), and destroys obesity, languor, deranged Kapha and intestinal parasites. It is antitoxic in its character, proves curative in cases of Kushta (skin diseases) and itches, and removes the stiffness of the ligaments. It acts as a sedative and reduces the quantity of semen, milk and fat.

Downfall of Katuka—A pungent taste, though possessed of the aforesaid virtues, may bring on vertigo, loss of consciousness, dryness of the throat, palate and lips, burning sensation and a high temperature of the body, loss of strength, tremor, a sort of aching or breaking pain, and a neuralgic pain (Vata-simla) in the back, sides and the extremities, etc. in the event of its being largely partaken of in exclusion of all other tastes.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kaṭuka (कटुक) refers to “pungent (flavour)” and is mentioned in verse 3.4 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] pre-spring etc.—by these three (seasons) one shall know the northern course (of the sun), and this (is named) ‘absorption’ (as) it absorbs strength from man every day. [...] then the (rough) flavours bitter [tikta], astringent [kaṭuka], (and) pungent (are) strong in succession. Therefore (the period of) absorption (is) fire-like”.

Note: Tikta (“bitter”) and. kaṭuka (“pungent”) have been translated by thsa(-ba) and khu-ba respectively, on which see 1.14.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kaṭuka (कटुक) refers to a “bitter flavour”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The Sun presides over the people of the western half of the Narmadā, and over the people living on the banks of the Ikṣumatī. He also presides over hill-men, quick-silver, deserts, shepherds, seeds, pod-grains, bitter flavour (kaṭuka), trees, gold, fire, poison and persons successful in battle; over medicines, physicians, quadrupeds, farmers, kings, butchers, travellers, thieves, serpents, forests and renowned and cruel men”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Kaṭuka (कटुक) refers to one of the nine kinds of upaveśana or “sitting postures” (in Sanskrit Dramas), as conveyed through Āṅgikābhinaya: one of the four divisions of Abhinaya or “ways to convey or represent one’s emotion to others”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra and the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, nine kinds of upaveśana i.e., sitting postures are accepted for Drama. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, nine kinds of upaveśana i.e., sitting postures are accepted for Drama, e.g., kaṭuka.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Kaṭuka (कटुक, “pungent”) refers to one of the five types of Rasa (taste) which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma (e.g., kaṭuka).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kaṭuka.—(EI 13; HD), an official designation of uncertain import; cf. Mahākaṭuka. See Ep. Ind., Vol XIII, p. 117. Note: kaṭuka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Katuka in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks from the Malvaceae (Mallow) family having the following synonyms: Corchorus antichorus, Corchorus humilis, Corchorus microphyllus. For the possible medicinal usage of katuka, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Katuka in India is the name of a plant defined with Corchorus depressus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Corchorus antichorus Raeusch. (among others).

2) Katuka is also identified with Coccinia grandis It has the synonym Physedra gracilis A. Chev. (etc.).

3) Katuka is also identified with Strychnos potatorum It has the synonym Strychnos heterodoxa Gilg (etc.).

4) Katuka is also identified with Trichosanthes cucumerina It has the synonym Trichosanthes cucumerina Wall. (etc.).

5) Katuka in Indonesia is also identified with Carica papaya It has the synonym Vasconcellea peltata (Hook. & Arn.) A. DC. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Beitrag zur Flora Aethiopiens (1867)
· Journal of Botany, British and Foreign (1939)
· De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1790)
· E-Journal of Chemistry (2007)
· Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association (1980)
· Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (1942)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Katuka, for example diet and recipes, chemical composition, health benefits, side effects, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kaṭuka : (adj.) sharp; severe, painful; pungent.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kaṭuka, (adj.) (Sk. kaṭu(ka), from *(s)qǔer to cut; cp. Sk. kṛṇoti (kṛṇtati), Lat. caro “cutlet. ” — k. is almost exclusively poetical; usually explained in prose by aniṭṭha, tikhiṇa, ghora (of niraya); often combined with khara, opp. madhura, e.g. PvA. 119) sharp, bitter, acid, severe.—1. severe, sharp (fig.), of dukkha, vedanā, kāmā, etc. M. I, 10=A. II, 143; J. VI, 115; Th. 2, 451 (=ThA. 281); SA 56.—painful, terrible, frightful (-applied to the fruits of evil actions and to the sufferings in Niraya: see kammapphala & niraya) J. III, 519; Pv. I, 102, 111; IV, 18, 76.—bitter, or perhaps pungent of taste DhS 291; Miln. 65, 112; J. III, 201.—2. (nt.) pungency, acidity, bitterness D. II, 349=J. I, 380; Th. 2, 503 (pañca°); J. VI, 509.—Note. Is k. to be written instead of kadukkha at VvA. 316, where it explains maraṇa? Cp. J. III, 201: tesaṃ taṃ kaṭukaṃ āsi, maraṇaṃ ten’upāgamuṃ.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kāṭūka (काटूक) [or कांटूक, kāṇṭūka].—n A fragment of wood; a little stick or chip; a chat.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kāṭūka (काटूक).—n A fragment of wood or a little stick or chip.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kaṭuka (कटुक).—a.

1) Sharp, pungent; मधुरो गुडः कटुकं शृङ्गबेरम् (madhuro guḍaḥ kaṭukaṃ śṛṅgaberam) Mahābhārata on P.II.1.1.

2) Impetuous, hot; Ṛgveda 1. 85.34.

3) Disagreeable, unpleasant.

4) Fierce. स संप्रहारस्तुमुलः कटुकः शोणितोदकः (sa saṃprahārastumulaḥ kaṭukaḥ śoṇitodakaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.7.12.

5) Harsh; यदा ह्यस्य गिरो रुक्षाः श्रुणोमि कटुकादयाः (yadā hyasya giro rukṣāḥ śruṇomi kaṭukādayāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.1.4.

-kaḥ 1 Pungency, acerbity.

2) Name of several plants :-पटोल, सुगन्धितृण, कुटज, अर्क, राजसर्षप (paṭola, sugandhitṛṇa, kuṭaja, arka, rājasarṣapa).

-kā Name of several plants :- कटुरोहिणी, ताम्बुली, राजिका, तिक्तालावुक (kaṭurohiṇī, tāmbulī, rājikā, tiktālāvuka).

-kī = कटुरोहिणी (kaṭurohiṇī).

-kam 1 Pungency; (at the end of comp. in a bad sense; as dadhikaṭukam 'bad curds').

2) A compound of ginger, black and long pepper.

3) unpleasant works, speech; क्षमिणं तादृशं तात ब्रुवन्ति कटुकान्यपि (kṣamiṇaṃ tādṛśaṃ tāta bruvanti kaṭukānyapi) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.28.13.

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Kaṭukā (कटुका).—f. Name of plant, Picrorrhiza Kurroa (Mar. kuṭakī, bāḷakaḍū).

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Kāṭuka (काटुक).—Acidity.

Derivable forms: kāṭukam (काटुकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kaṭuka (कटुक).—(so Index, for text kuṭaka), m. or nt., pool, pond: Śikṣāsamuccaya 249.14 udapānaṃ vā kaṭukaṃ vā kūpaṃ vā puṣkariṇīṃ vā khānayet; Tibetan renders ka° and puskar° both by rdziṅ, pond.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭuka (कटुक).—mf. (-kaḥ-kī) 1. A plant, the bark and seed of which have an acrid and bitter taste, and are used in medicine for worms, dysentery, &c. (Wrightea antidysenterica.) 2. Gigantic swallow wort, (Colotropis gigantea. 3. A fragrant kind of grass. 4. Mustard. 5. A gourd: see paṭola f. (-kā or -kī) A medicinal plant, used as a sedative and laxative; also kaṭurohiṇī. n.

(-kaṃ) A compound of three pungent substances, a black pepper, long papper, and dry ginger: see trikaṭu. E. kaṭu pungent, and kan aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭuka (कटुक).—[kaṭu + ka], I. adj., f. , Sharp, pungent; of taste, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 11, 23; of smell, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 16, 17; of words, Mahābhārata 13, 6645. Ii. n. Pungency.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭuka (कटुक).—[adjective] = [preceding] adj.; [abstract] kaṭukatā [feminine], kaṭukatva [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṭuka (कटुक):—[from kaṭ] mf(ā and ī)n. sharp, pungent, bitter

2) [v.s. ...] fierce, impetuous, hot, bad, [Ṛg-veda x, 85, 34; Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of several plants, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a man

5) [v.s. ...] f(ā, ī). Name of several plants, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] n. pungency, acerbity, [Mahābhārata ii]

7) [v.s. ...] (ifc. in a bad sense e.g. dadhi-kaṭuka m. bad coagulated milk, [Pāṇini 6-2, 126])

8) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] an aggregate of three pungent substances (See -traya), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Kāṭuka (काटुक):—n. ([from] kaṭuka) acidity [gana] yuvādi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭuka (कटुक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A plant (Wrightea antidysenterica). f. A medicinal plant; mustard; a gourd.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kaṭuka (कटुक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kaḍu, Kaḍua.

[Sanskrit to German]

Katuka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kaṭuka (ಕಟುಕ):—

1) [noun] a butcher; a man who a) slaughters animals for food; b) who kills or has killed people indiscriminately or brutally; c) is merciless, ruthless.

2) [noun] ಕಟುಕರ ಅಂಗಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬಸವಪುರಾಣ ಹೇಳಿದಹಾಗೆ [katukara amgadiyalli basavapurana helidahage] kaṭukara aŋgaḍiyalli basava purāṇa hēḷida hāge a butcher never yields to peace counsel; ಕಟುಕರ ಮನೆಯ ಕುರಿಯ ಹಾಗೆ [katukara maneya kuriya hage] kaṭukara maneya kuriya hāge to be cherished to be immolated.

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Kaṭuka (ಕಟುಕ):—[noun] a false account of something; a fictitious narration of an event.

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Kaṭuka (ಕಟುಕ):—

1) [adjective] characterised by a relatively or abnormally high temperature; very warm.

2) [adjective] that cannot be endured or tolerated; unbearable; abominable; disgusting.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Kaṭuka (கடுக) adverb < கடுகு¹-. [kadugu¹-.] See கடிதில். கடுக .. . ஸமர்ப்பியங்கோள் [kadithil. kaduga .. . samarppiyangol] (ஈடு-முப்பத்தாறுயிரப்படி [idu-muppatharuyirappadi], 9, 1, 10).

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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