Bahya, Bāhya, Bāhyā: 20 definitions



Bahya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Bahy.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bāhya (बाह्य) or Bāhyaliṅga refers to the “exterior liṅga” which is gross (sthūla), representing one of two types of liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12:—“[...] O Brahmins, liṅga is of two types: the exterior (bāhya) and the interior (ābhyantara). The exterior is gross (sthūla) and the interior is subtle (sūkṣma). Those who are engaged in ritualistic sacrifices and do regularly worship the gross liṅga are unable to steady the mind by meditating upon the subtle and hence they use the gross liṅga. He who has not mastered the liṅga of the mind, the subtle one, must perform the worship in the gross liṅga and not otherwise. The pure undying subtle liṅga is ever perceived by the masters of true knowledge in the same manner as the gross one is thought to be very excellent by those who are not Yogins”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Bāhya (बाह्य).—A son of Bhajamāna.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 3.

1b) Snow-making rays of the sun.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 21.

2) Bāhyā (बाह्या).—A river from the Sahya Mountains.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 35.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Bāhya (बाह्य, “public”) refers to one of the two types of āsanas “seats” (sitting postures) used in dramatic play (nāṭya); it is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 12.

Source: Natya Shastra

1) Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to “irregular” histrionic representation;—When acting (lit. drama) observes free movements and is not combined with songs and instrumental music, is called “irregular” (bāhya). It is called “regular” when it conforms to the rule (lit. within the lakṣaṇa or rule) and ‘irregular’ when it is outside the prescription of the śāstra.

2) Bāhya (बाह्य, “outside”).—One of the three classes of women (strī);—A courtezan woman is a “public” (bhaya) woman.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Bāhya (बाह्य).—(or प्रयत्न (prayatna)) external effort; the 34 term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न (ābhyantaraprayatna). The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; cf. बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषो (bāhyaprayatnastvekādaśadhā | vivāraḥ saṃvāraḥ śvāso nādo ghoṣo)Sघोषो (ghoṣo)Sल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति (lpaprāṇo mahāprāṇa udāttonudāttaḥ svaritaśceti) S.K.on P. I.1.9.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Bāhya (बाह्य) or Bāhyaduḥkha refers to “outer suffering” and represents one of the two kinds of suffering (duḥkha), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI. Accordingly, outer suffering (bāhyaduḥkha) is of two types: i) the king, the victorious enemy, the wicked thief, the lion, tiger, wolf, snake and other nuisances; ii) the wind, rain, cold, heat, thunder, lightning, thunderbolts, etc: these two kinds of suffering are outer suffering.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Bāhya.—cf. bāhy-ābhyantara-adāya (IE 8-5; Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 276, text line 14); ‘income from the sale of things imported in a village’, same as Tamil puṟav-āyam (SITI), ‘revenue from external sources (collected mainly in cash)’ or Tamil puṟa-kaḍamai (SITI), ‘external taxes’, explained as taxes and fees payable to the State. But puṟa-kaḍamai is the same as puṟav-āyam. Bāhya and ābhyantatra may thus mean respectively taxes payable to the king and those payable to the village authorities. See ābhyantara. Cf. samudaya-bāhy- ādya-stamba (EI 23), ‘land covered with original shrubs, i. e. waste which does not yield any revenue to the State’. (HD), a class of royal servants distinguished from Antaraṅga. See Rājataraṅgiṇī, VIII. 426, 680, 1542. Note: bāhya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual

Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to the “external” traditions [as perceived] by the age-old brahminical tradition (i.e., Buddhism, Jainism, Śaivism, Vaiṣṇavism and Materialism).—Every religious group in India has sought to define the nature of its scriptures and the authority lying behind its tradition by identifying the factors that make its teachings valid, and by restricting validity to its own adherents and excluding the teachings of other groups. This is typically how the Veda-oriented brahminical community approached other religious traditions in classical and medieval India. The Buddhist, Jaina, Śaiva, Vaiṣṇava and materialist traditions were perceived as ‘external’ (bāhya) to the age-old brahminical tradition and thus as heretical. In time, however, these traditions challenged brahminical authority, as a result of which a long history of debates on the nature and extent of scriptural authority and religious legitimacy developed.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bāhya (बाह्य).—a (S) External, exterior, outward. It forms neat and useful compounds bearing the power of extra, ex, dis; as ācārabāhya, indriya-grantha-jāti-dharma- rīti-lōka-vicāra-śāstra-sampradāya-vidhi-vyavahāra-pramāṇa- buddhi-jñāna-bāhya.

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bāhyā (बाह्या).—m One of the two members composing the musical instrument tabalā, viz. that on which the bass is sounded.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bāhya (बाह्य).—a Outward, external, exterior.

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bāhyā (बाह्या).—See bāyā.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bāhya (बाह्य).—a. [bahirbhavaḥ ṣyañ ṭilopaḥ]

1) Outer, outward, external, exterior, being or situated without; विरहः किमिवानुतापयेद् वद बाह्यैर्विषयैर्विपश्चितम् (virahaḥ kimivānutāpayed vada bāhyairviṣayairvipaścitam) R.8.89; बाह्योद्यान (bāhyodyāna) Me. 7; Ku.6.46; बाह्यनामन् (bāhyanāman) 'the outer name', i. e. the address or superscription written on the back of a letter; अदत्तबाह्यनामानं लेखं लेखयित्वा (adattabāhyanāmānaṃ lekhaṃ lekhayitvā) Mu.1.

2) Foreign, strange; Pt.1.

3) Excluded from, out of the pale of; जातास्तदूर्वोरुपमानबाह्याः (jātāstadūrvorupamānabāhyāḥ) Ku.1.36.

4) Expelled from society, outcast; अतोऽपि शिष्टस्त्वधमो गुरुदारप्रधर्षकः । बाह्यं वर्णं जनयति चातुर्वर्ण्यविगर्हितम् (ato'pi śiṣṭastvadhamo gurudārapradharṣakaḥ | bāhyaṃ varṇaṃ janayati cāturvarṇyavigarhitam) || Mb.13.48.9.

5) Public; तेषां बाह्यं चारं छत्रभृङ्गारव्यजनपादुकोपग्राहिणः तीक्ष्णाः विद्युः (teṣāṃ bāhyaṃ cāraṃ chatrabhṛṅgāravyajanapādukopagrāhiṇaḥ tīkṣṇāḥ vidyuḥ) Kau. A.1.12.

-hyaḥ 1 A stranger, foreigner; त्यक्ताश्चाभ्यन्तरा येन बाह्याश्चाभ्यन्तरीकृताः (tyaktāścābhyantarā yena bāhyāścābhyantarīkṛtāḥ) Pt.1.259; बाह्यः क्षणेन भवतीति विचित्र- मेतत् (bāhyaḥ kṣaṇena bhavatīti vicitra- metat) 5.26.

2) One who is excommunicated, an outcast.

3) A person or community born from प्रतिलोम (pratiloma) connection; cf. Ms.1.28-31; प्रतिकूलं वर्तमाना बाह्या बाह्यतरान् पुनः । हीना हीनान् प्रसूयन्ते वर्णान् पञ्चदशैव च (pratikūlaṃ vartamānā bāhyā bāhyatarān punaḥ | hīnā hīnān prasūyante varṇān pañcadaśaiva ca) || Ms.1.31.

-hyam, -bāhyena, -bāhye ind. outside, on the outside, externally

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bāhya (बाह्य) or Vāhya.—mfn.

(-hyaḥ-hyā-hyaṃ) 1. To be carried or borne. 2. Outer, external. n.

(-hyaṃ) A carriage, a vehicle. m.

(-hyaḥ) A beast of burthen, an ox, a horse, &c. E. vah to bear, aff. ṇyat, or vahir external, yañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bāhya (बाह्य).—see vāhya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bāhya (बाह्य).—[adjective] external, being outside or without, opposite or contrary to, extra-, anti- ([ablative] or —°), strange, foreign; [masculine] a foreigner or an outcast. °—, [accusative] [instrumental], & [locative] outside, without, [ablative] from without. — Abstr. † [feminine], tva† [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bāhya (बाह्य):—mf(ā)n. ([from] bahis; in later language also written vāhya q.v.; m. [nominative case] [plural] bāhye, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]) being outside (a door, house, etc.), situated without ([ablative] or [compound]), outer, exterior ([accusative] with √kṛ, to turn out, expel), [Atharva-veda] etc., etc.

2) not belonging to the family or country, strange, foreign, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) excluded from caste or the community, an out-caste, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) diverging from, conflicting with, opposed to, having nothing to do with ([ablative] or [compound]), [ib.]

5) (with artha), meaning external to (id est. not resulting from) the sounds or letters forming a word, [Pāṇini 1-1, 68 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

6) m. a corpse (for vāhya?), [Kāvya literature]

7) Name of a man ([plural] his family), [Saṃskārakaustubha]

8) ([plural]) Name of a people, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

9) Bāhyā (बाह्या):—[from bāhya] f. ([scilicet] tvac) the outer bark of a tree, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

10) Bāhya (बाह्य):—(ifc. f(ā). ) the outer part, exterior, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

11) [in the beginning of a compound] outside, without, out, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Bāhya (बाह्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Bajjha, Bahira, Bāhira, Bāhiriya, Bāhirilla.

[Sanskrit to German]

Bahya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Bāhya (बाह्य) [Also spelled bahy]:—(ind) out, outside; beyond; (a) external, outward, exterior; superficial; ostentatious; hence ~[] (nf).

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