Bahya, Bāhya, Bāhyā: 27 definitions
Bahya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Bahy.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Bāhya (बाह्य) or Bāhyaliṅga refers to the “exterior liṅga” which is gross (sthūla), representing one of two types of liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12:—“[...] O Brahmins, liṅga is of two types: the exterior (bāhya) and the interior (ābhyantara). The exterior is gross (sthūla) and the interior is subtle (sūkṣma). Those who are engaged in ritualistic sacrifices and do regularly worship the gross liṅga are unable to steady the mind by meditating upon the subtle and hence they use the gross liṅga. He who has not mastered the liṅga of the mind, the subtle one, must perform the worship in the gross liṅga and not otherwise. The pure undying subtle liṅga is ever perceived by the masters of true knowledge in the same manner as the gross one is thought to be very excellent by those who are not Yogins”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Bāhya (बाह्य).—A son of Bhajamāna.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 3.
1b) Snow-making rays of the sun.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 21.
2) Bāhyā (बाह्या).—A river from the Sahya Mountains.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 35.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstraSource: archive.org: Natya Shastra
1) Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to “irregular” histrionic representation;—When acting (lit. drama) observes free movements and is not combined with songs and instrumental music, is called “irregular” (bāhya). It is called “regular” when it conforms to the rule (lit. within the lakṣaṇa or rule) and ‘irregular’ when it is outside the prescription of the śāstra.
2) Bāhya (बाह्य, “outside”).—One of the three classes of women (strī);—A courtezan woman is a “public” (bhaya) woman.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Bāhya (बाह्य).—(or प्रयत्न (prayatna)) external effort; the 34 term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न (ābhyantaraprayatna). The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; cf. बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषो (bāhyaprayatnastvekādaśadhā | vivāraḥ saṃvāraḥ śvāso nādo ghoṣo)Sघोषो (ghoṣo)Sल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति (lpaprāṇo mahāprāṇa udāttonudāttaḥ svaritaśceti) S.K.on P. I.1.9.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)
Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to the “external object”, according to the Vṛtti on the Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6, 20-21.—Accordingly, “Moreover, [the existence of] the external object (bāhya) is refuted by a means of [valid] knowledge if it has parts, because of [the necessity then] of attributing to it contradictory properties, etc.; [and it is contradicted] in many ways if it has no parts, because [then] it must be in contact with the six directions, etc.”.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to the “external wheel (cakra)”, according to verse 87.140 of the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, “One should meditate upon the internal [wheel/cakra] as external (bāhya), and the external (bāhya) likewise as internal. Considering [these] to be identical, one should then commence installation [of the mantra-deities] on the cakra”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)
Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to the “external (objects) (of the senses)”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.88-90.—Accordingly: “The wise say that death is the natural state of embodied creatures and life is a change in that state. If a being remains breathing even for a moment it is surely fortunate. The foolish man regards the loss of his dear one as a dart shot into his heart. Another man looks on the same as a dart that has been pulled out, for it is a door to beatitude. When we are taught that our own body and soul unite and then separate, tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects (bāhya-viṣaya—bāhyairviṣayaiḥ) of the senses?”.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)
Bāhya (बाह्य) or Bāhyayoga refers to “external union” (of the male semen and female generative fluid), according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “Know bindu to be of two kinds, male and female (vanitā). Semen (bīja) is said to be the male [bindu] and rajas (female generative fluid) is female. As a result of their external union (bāhya-yoga) people are created. When they are united internally, then one is declared a yogi. [...]
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)
Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to “externally”, according to the Mohacūrottara (verse 4.234-243).—Accordingly, [while describing the construction of the maṭha]—“[...] The installation of the houses is according to the wishes [of the patron]. There should be a [door for] entry and exit to the north. [The houses] may have one, two, or three floors, or as is pleasing. Externally (bāhya), [the building] is surrounded by a long hall. In the eastern side of the building is the place for worship. One should install the kitchen and so forth as appropriate. [...]”.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Mantrashastra (the science of Mantras)Source: OAPEN: Adaptive Reuse: Aspects of Creativity in South Asian Cultural History
Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to the “external (appearance)” (of mantras), according to Utpala Vaiṣṇava’s commentary (called Spandapradīpikā) on the Spandakārikā by Vasugupta.—Accordingly, “And moreover, [it is said] in the Saṅkarṣaṇasūtras: ‘The form of consciousness, which is installed in itself alone, and is prepared through presence and absence, is perceivable through self-awareness, and its sphere of knowledge lies beyond nature. This source of the mantras is recollected, o sage, to consist of cognition. These mantras, which appear externally and internally (sa-bāhya-abhyantara-udita) in the form of phonemes rest on the undivided level. Like the [sense] organs of the embodied beings, when they are employed, [the mantras] are successful at all times because of the connection with vigour”.
Mantrashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, mantraśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mantras—chants, incantations, spells, magical hymns, etc. Mantra Sastra literature includes many ancient books dealing with the methods reciting mantras, identifying and purifying its defects and the science behind uttering or chanting syllables.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
1) Bahya (बह्य) or Bahyasūtra refers to the “outer texts”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 3).—Accordingly, “[...] Finally a Brahmin monk named Kātyāyana, wise and of keen faculties (tīkṣnendriya), completely recited the three Baskets (tripiṭaka), the inner and outer texts (ādhyātmika-bahya-sūtra). Wishing to explain the words of the Buddha, he compiled the jñānaprasthānāṣṭagrantha. The first chapter (skandhaka) deals with the supreme worldly Dharmas (laukikāgradharma). Subsequently, his disciples made from it a vibhāṣā for people of ages to come who could not completely understand the Aṣṭagrantha (or Jñānaprasthāna)”.
2) Bāhya (बाह्य) or Bāhyaduḥkha refers to “outer suffering” and represents one of the two kinds of suffering (duḥkha), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, outer suffering (bāhyaduḥkha) is of two types: i) the king, the victorious enemy, the wicked thief, the lion, tiger, wolf, snake and other nuisances; ii) the wind, rain, cold, heat, thunder, lightning, thunderbolts, etc: these two kinds of suffering are outer suffering.
3) Bāhya (बाह्य) or Bāhyavedanā refers to “outer feelings ”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[Question]—In regard to mindfulness of the body, it might be a matter of the inner [body] and the outer [body]. But here, all the feelings (vedanā) are included (saṃgṛhīta) in the external bases of consciousness (bāhyāyatana); so how can there be a difference between inner feelings (ādhyātmikavedanā) and outer feelings (bāhyavedanā)?—[Answer]—The Buddha said: ‘There are two kinds of feelings: bodily feeling (kāyikī-vedanā) and mental feeling (caitasikī-vedanā)’. Bodily feeling is outer (bāhya) and mental feeling is inner (ādhyātmika). [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to “external (asceticism)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the nature of asceticism]—Astonishingly, external (bāhya) [and] internal asceticism is undergone by honourable mendicants who are wise [and] alarmed by the continuous series of births [in the cycle of rebirth]. In that regard, external asceticism is declared to be of six kinds beginning with fasting while internal [asceticism] is also of [six] kinds on account of the divisions beginning with atonement”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Bāhya.—cf. bāhy-ābhyantara-adāya (IE 8-5; Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 276, text line 14); ‘income from the sale of things imported in a village’, same as Tamil puṟav-āyam (SITI), ‘revenue from external sources (collected mainly in cash)’ or Tamil puṟa-kaḍamai (SITI), ‘external taxes’, explained as taxes and fees payable to the State. But puṟa-kaḍamai is the same as puṟav-āyam. Bāhya and ābhyantatra may thus mean respectively taxes payable to the king and those payable to the village authorities. See ābhyantara. Cf. samudaya-bāhy- ādya-stamba (EI 23), ‘land covered with original shrubs, i. e. waste which does not yield any revenue to the State’. (HD), a class of royal servants distinguished from Antaraṅga. See Rājataraṅgiṇī, VIII. 426, 680, 1542. Note: bāhya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual
Bāhya (बाह्य) refers to the “external” traditions [as perceived] by the age-old brahminical tradition (i.e., Buddhism, Jainism, Śaivism, Vaiṣṇavism and Materialism).—Every religious group in India has sought to define the nature of its scriptures and the authority lying behind its tradition by identifying the factors that make its teachings valid, and by restricting validity to its own adherents and excluding the teachings of other groups. This is typically how the Veda-oriented brahminical community approached other religious traditions in classical and medieval India. The Buddhist, Jaina, Śaiva, Vaiṣṇava and materialist traditions were perceived as ‘external’ (bāhya) to the age-old brahminical tradition and thus as heretical. In time, however, these traditions challenged brahminical authority, as a result of which a long history of debates on the nature and extent of scriptural authority and religious legitimacy developed.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
bāhya (बाह्य).—a (S) External, exterior, outward. It forms neat and useful compounds bearing the power of extra, ex, dis; as ācārabāhya, indriya-grantha-jāti-dharma- rīti-lōka-vicāra-śāstra-sampradāya-vidhi-vyavahāra-pramāṇa- buddhi-jñāna-bāhya.
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bāhyā (बाह्या).—m One of the two members composing the musical instrument tabalā, viz. that on which the bass is sounded.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
bāhya (बाह्य).—a Outward, external, exterior.
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bāhyā (बाह्या).—See bāyā.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Bāhya (बाह्य).—a. [bahirbhavaḥ ṣyañ ṭilopaḥ]
1) Outer, outward, external, exterior, being or situated without; विरहः किमिवानुतापयेद् वद बाह्यैर्विषयैर्विपश्चितम् (virahaḥ kimivānutāpayed vada bāhyairviṣayairvipaścitam) R.8.89; बाह्योद्यान (bāhyodyāna) Me. 7; Kumārasambhava 6.46; बाह्यनामन् (bāhyanāman) 'the outer name', i. e. the address or superscription written on the back of a letter; अदत्तबाह्यनामानं लेखं लेखयित्वा (adattabāhyanāmānaṃ lekhaṃ lekhayitvā) Mu.1.
2) Foreign, strange; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.
3) Excluded from, out of the pale of; जातास्तदूर्वोरुपमानबाह्याः (jātāstadūrvorupamānabāhyāḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.36.
4) Expelled from society, outcast; अतोऽपि शिष्टस्त्वधमो गुरुदारप्रधर्षकः । बाह्यं वर्णं जनयति चातुर्वर्ण्यविगर्हितम् (ato'pi śiṣṭastvadhamo gurudārapradharṣakaḥ | bāhyaṃ varṇaṃ janayati cāturvarṇyavigarhitam) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 13.48.9.
5) Public; तेषां बाह्यं चारं छत्रभृङ्गारव्यजनपादुकोपग्राहिणः तीक्ष्णाः विद्युः (teṣāṃ bāhyaṃ cāraṃ chatrabhṛṅgāravyajanapādukopagrāhiṇaḥ tīkṣṇāḥ vidyuḥ) Kau. A.1.12.
-hyaḥ 1 A stranger, foreigner; त्यक्ताश्चाभ्यन्तरा येन बाह्याश्चाभ्यन्तरीकृताः (tyaktāścābhyantarā yena bāhyāścābhyantarīkṛtāḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.259; बाह्यः क्षणेन भवतीति विचित्र- मेतत् (bāhyaḥ kṣaṇena bhavatīti vicitra- metat) 5.26.
2) One who is excommunicated, an outcast.
3) A person or community born from प्रतिलोम (pratiloma) connection; cf. Manusmṛti 1.28-31; प्रतिकूलं वर्तमाना बाह्या बाह्यतरान् पुनः । हीना हीनान् प्रसूयन्ते वर्णान् पञ्चदशैव च (pratikūlaṃ vartamānā bāhyā bāhyatarān punaḥ | hīnā hīnān prasūyante varṇān pañcadaśaiva ca) || Manusmṛti 1.31.
-hyam, -bāhyena, -bāhye ind. outside, on the outside, externallySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bāhya (बाह्य) or Vāhya.—mfn.
(-hyaḥ-hyā-hyaṃ) 1. To be carried or borne. 2. Outer, external. n.
(-hyaṃ) A carriage, a vehicle. m.
(-hyaḥ) A beast of burthen, an ox, a horse, &c. E. vah to bear, aff. ṇyat, or vahir external, yañ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bāhya (बाह्य).—see vāhya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bāhya (बाह्य).—[adjective] external, being outside or without, opposite or contrary to, extra-, anti- ([ablative] or —°), strange, foreign; [masculine] a foreigner or an outcast. °—, [accusative] [instrumental], & [locative] outside, without, [ablative] from without. — Abstr. tā† [feminine], tva† [neuter]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Bāhya (बाह्य):—mf(ā)n. ([from] bahis; in later language also written vāhya q.v.; m. [nominative case] [plural] bāhye, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]) being outside (a door, house, etc.), situated without ([ablative] or [compound]), outer, exterior ([accusative] with √kṛ, to turn out, expel), [Atharva-veda] etc., etc.
2) not belonging to the family or country, strange, foreign, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
3) excluded from caste or the community, an out-caste, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
4) diverging from, conflicting with, opposed to, having nothing to do with ([ablative] or [compound]), [ib.]
5) (with artha), meaning external to (id est. not resulting from) the sounds or letters forming a word, [Pāṇini 1-1, 68 [Scholiast or Commentator]]
6) m. a corpse (for vāhya?), [Kāvya literature]
7) Name of a man ([plural] his family), [Saṃskārakaustubha]
8) ([plural]) Name of a people, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
9) Bāhyā (बाह्या):—[from bāhya] f. ([scilicet] tvac) the outer bark of a tree, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]
10) Bāhya (बाह्य):—(ifc. f(ā). ) the outer part, exterior, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
11) [in the beginning of a compound] outside, without, out, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Bāhya (बाह्य) [Also spelled bahy]:—(ind) out, outside; beyond; (a) external, outward, exterior; superficial; ostentatious; hence ~[tā] (nf).
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] located farther without; outer; exterior; external.
2) [adjective] thrown, sent out; expelled; ousted.
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1) [noun] the outer region or district.
2) [noun] the outer portion of something.
3) [noun] that which is not related to, concerned with or is beyond the limit of.
4) [noun] an outsider, stranger, unknown man; a foreigner.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+75): Bahya-gola, Bahya-kona, Bahya-parigraha, Bahyabhuta, Bahyabhyamtara, Bahyabhyantara, Bahyac, Bahyacara, Bahyaceshta, Bahyach, Bahyachka, Bahyacinta, Bahyacka, Bahyadruti, Bahyaduhkha, Bahyadvara, Bahyagni, Bahyagocara, Bahyajnana, Bahyaka.
Ends with (+10): Abahya, Angabahya, Antarbahya, Asheshabahya, Dharmabahya, Galabahya, Grihabahya, Kalabahya, Lokabahya, Mandabahya, Matabahya, Nagarabahya, Nirbahya, Nitibahya, Padmabahya, Panktibahya, Paribahya, Pratibahya, Samayabahya, Samudaya-bahya.
Full-text (+184): Bahira, Bajjha, Bahyam, Bahyata, Bahyakarna, Bahyakarana, Bahyalingin, Bahyashakala, Bahyakaksha, Bahyadruti, Bahyasambhoga, Vamshabahya, Bahyayama, Vahya, Bahyalaya, Vedabahya, Bahyatas, Bahyaka, Bahyatonara, Bahyasparsha.
Search found 75 books and stories containing Bahya, Bāhya, Bāhyā; (plurals include: Bahyas, Bāhyas, Bāhyās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 9.19 - The six kinds of external austerities (bāhya-tapas) < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Verse 9.26 - The two subdivisions of renunciation (vyutsarga) < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Verse 2.17 - The physical-sense (dravyendriya) < [Chapter 2 - Category of the Living]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.4.253 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Verse 2.2.95 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 2.4.230 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 13.34 < [Chapter 13 - Prakṛti-puruṣa-vibhāga-yoga]
Verse 5.21 < [Chapter 5 - Karma-sannyāsa-yoga (Yoga through Renunciation of Action)]
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)
Text 8 < [Chapter 8 - Aṣṭama-yāma-sādhana (Rātri-līlā–prema-bhajana sambhoga)]
Text 14 < [Chapter 6 - Ṣaṣṭha-yāma-sādhana (Sāyaṃ-kālīya-bhajana–bhāva)]
Text 4 < [Chapter 6 - Ṣaṣṭha-yāma-sādhana (Sāyaṃ-kālīya-bhajana–bhāva)]
Mudrarakshasa (literary study) (by Antara Chakravarty)
2. Classification and number of Alaṃkāras < [Chapter 3 - Use of Alaṃkāras in Mudrārākṣasa]
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)