Bhavana, Bhāvanā, Bhāvana, Bha-vana: 52 definitions
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Bhavana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Bhāvanā (भावना) is a Sanskrit technical term, referring to “levigation”. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.Source: PMC: Nootropic (medhya) effect of Bhāvita Śaṇkhapuṣpī tablets
Bhāvanā is a specific procedure in which a powdered drug of herbal or mineral origin is thoroughly mixed with the liquid media (expressed juice, decoction etc.) and staged intermittent trituration followed by drying (preferably in sunlight). The process is carried out till the attainment of subhāvita features (confirmatory test for completion of levigation) and complete absorption of liquid into the powder and drying of the mixture.Source: Studies in India Cultural History: Indian Science of Cosmetics and Perfumery
Bhāvana (भावन, “infusing”).—One of the processes for manufacturing cosmetics and perfumes mentioned by Gaṅgādhara;—Bhāvana means infusing or saturating powders with fluid. It is followed by pācana (decoction of materials).Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
1) Bhāvana (भावन):—Steeping it’s a type of modulatory process of qualities of food & drugs. Steeping the food articles with any kind of decoction or juice will enhances the properties of the perticular food and drug.
2) Bhāvanā (भावना):—One of the process applied in purification / refining of the material
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy
Bhavana.—A thing is said to be subjected to bhavana with a liquid substance, if it is saturated with the latter and dried, by being exposed to the sun during day time and to open air during night. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)Source: Academia.edu: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics (rasashastra)
Bhāvana is a process in which the drugs are mixed with liquid substance grounded to soft mass and allowed to dry.Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I
Bhāvanā is the process by which powders of drugs are levigated to a soft mass with specified liquids and allowed to dry. (see the Rasataraṅgiṇī 2.49, which is a 16th century alchemical century treatise on Rasaśāstra by Bhānudatta).
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
1) Bhavana (भवन) refers to a “temple”, and in a broader sense represents “devotional place” or “residence of God”. It is one of commonly used names for a temple, as found in Vāstuśāstra literature such the Mayamata and the Mānasāra.
2) Bhavana (भवन) is a Sanskrit technical term denoting a “residence” in general, according to the lists of synonyms given in the Mayamata XIX.10-12, the Mānasāra XIX.108-12 and the Samarāṅgaṇa-sūtradhāra XVIII.8-9, all populair treatises on Vāstuśāstra literature.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Bhavana (भवन) refers to “sanctuary §§ 4.2, 33; 5.1.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Bhavana (भवन) refers to “magnificent buildings”, mentioned as one of the potential rewards of Śiva-worship, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12:—“[...] those who desire magnificent buildings (bhavana), beautiful ornaments, beautiful women, wealth to satiety, sons and grandsons, health, splendid body, extraordinary status, heavenly happiness and final salvation or profound devotion to the great lord shall duly worship Śiva by virtue of their merit accumulated by them. Sure success will be his who regularly worships Śiva liṅga with great devotion. He will never be afflicted by sins”.
Bhavana refers to the “divine mansions” (erected by Tvaṣṭṛ) which were of “great value” and “brilliant lustre”, as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.27. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] once a great sacrifice was started by Dakṣa, O sage. To partake in that sacrifice, the celestial and terrestrial sages and Devas were invited by Śiva and they reached the place being deluded by Śiva’s Māyā. [...] Large divine mansions (bhavana) of great value (mahārha) and brilliant lustre (suprabha) were erected by Tvaṣṭṛ and assigned to them by Dakṣa. In all those places they stationed themselves in a befitting manner after being duly honoured. They shone along with Viṣṇu and me”.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Bhavana (भवन) is the name for a “building” that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The terms—bhavana, gṛha, niveśana, ālaya, veśma, āyatana, aṭṭālaka etc. have been used in the Nīlamata for buildings but it is not possible to distinguish between the significance of one term and the other. No example of the period of the Nīlamata has been preserved. The Nīlamata says nothing about the building-materials. All that is known about the houses mentioned in the Nīlamata is that those had doors and ventilators and were whitewashed. The decoration of houses with fruits, leaves and garlands of rice-plants is also referred to.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Bhavana (भवन).—House; the time for the building of houses; Vaiśākha, Āṣāḍha, Śrāvaṇa, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrṣa, Phālguṇa are recommended; Citra, Jyeṣṭha, Bhādrapada, Āśvayuja, Pauṣa, and Māgha are not recommended; the nakṣatras Aśvini, Rohiṇi, Mūlam, the three Uttaras, Svāti, Hasta and Anūrādha are commended; excepting Sundays and Wednesdays all days are good; the respective position of Sūrya and Candra must be considered; this also applies to the making of wells and tanks; the examination of the ground is differently mentioned for different castes; Sāmāhika vāstu is to be installed; details as regards the kind of wood, the position and other technique are also given in the chapter; the following chapter (254) gives a description of catusśāla, triśāla, dviśāla and ekaśāla. That of the king (palace): consists of five prākāras; of Yuvarāja, etc., of the four castes and then of performers of penance.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa Chh. 252-4.
2a) Bhāvana (भावन).—A son of Bhṛgu, and a Deva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 89; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 87.
2b) The Devas of the Auttama epoch.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 13.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Bhāvanā (भावना) refers to “creative contemplation”.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)
Bhavana (भवन) refers to the “arising (of a manifestation)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.133.—Accordingly, “A manifestation necessarily requires a cause as regards both [its] arising (bhavana) and [its] not arising (abhavana). And if there is no such [cause], then [this manifestation] is causeless. And since as a consequence there is no relation of cause and effect, [someone] who wants a pot should not get clay [and] should not go see a family of potters; [and someone] who wants smoke should not get himself a fire. Moreover, the relation between the knowing subject and the object of knowledge has as its root the relation of cause and effect. [...]”.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Bhāvana (भावन) refers to an “experience”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī (KSTS vol. 65, 330).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus, due to practicing [this insight], the qualities of His consciousness, which are aspects of Śakti, fully penetrate [those various levels], causing the [various] powers to arise. But even without practice, in the [rare] case of an instantaneous immersion into That, one obtains the state of liberation-in-life through the process of the direct experience (āvis-bhāvana-krama) of [the Five Mystic States]: Bliss, Ascent, Trembling, Sleep, and ‘Whirling,’ which means Pervasion”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
Bhāvanā (भावना).—The term bhāvanā has several meaning. The grammarians hold it on a par with action (vyāpāra) denoted by a verbal root. The Naiyāyikas list it under saṃskāra which having been produced by experience gives rise to memory. The Mīmāṃsakas define it as the particular activity of an agent conducive to the production of that which is to come into being. This may be explained by the following example.
Viṣṇumitra o rders Devadatta to bring a cow. The former intends to generate an inclination in the latter’s mind so that he may be prompted to bring the cow. The intention or effort on the part of Viṣṇumitra and Devadatta’s inclination are both called bhāvanā which, according to the Mīmāṃsakas is denoted by the affix added to the verbal root to form the optative or the imperative.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Bhāvanā (भावना).—Effort, activity.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Bhavana (भवन) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Bhāvanā (भावना, “disposition”) refers to one of three types of Saṃskāra (impression) according to Praśastapāda (Vaiśeṣikadarśanam with Praśastapādabhāṣya), Viśvanātha (Bhāṣāpariccheda) and Annaṃbhaṭṭa (Dīpikā on Tarkasaṃgraha).—According to Praśastapāda, Bhāvanā is the quality of ātmā only. It is produced by the vividness of judgements, their repetition or a special effort. It is the cause of recollection. It turns back the substance to its original status. Viśvanātha says that certitude other than in difference is the cause of disposition (bhāvanā). It is also the cause of recollection and recognition. According to Annaṃbhaṭṭa, bhāvanā is produced from cognition and is the cause of recollectin. It exists in ātmā only. Annaṃbhaṭṭa also says that the adjective ‘produced by cognition’ is given in order to remove the over-pervasion to self, etc.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Bhāvana (भावन) refers to “contemplation”, according to the Jayadrathayāmala: one of the earliest and most extensive Tantric sources of the Kālīkrama system.—Accordingly, as Bhairava teaches the Goddess about his inner state: “[...] There in the centre [i.e., within the foundation], O daughter of the mountains, is the supreme light between the two, being and nonbeing. Within that centre my (energy) abides in accord with (her supreme) state of being. (She is) Kālī who generates (kalanī) time, she who is the cause of cogitation (kalpanā). Then that supreme goddess who devours time issued forth, absorbed in the bliss of her own (innate) bliss, powerful with the contemplation of (her) own nature [i.e., svabhāva-bhāvana-utkaṭā]. Established on the plane of consciousness and the unconscious, she is between the plane of consciousness and the unconscious. (She is) the goddess who is the Great Void, the Transmental who devours time”.—(cf. Kandacakra)
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Bhavana (भवन) refers to “houses”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The etherial Ketus appear in flag staffs, instruments of war, houses [i.e., bhavana], trees, horses, elephants and the like. The celestial Ketus appear in stellar regions and the terrestrial ones appear in pits and low grounds in the surface of the Earth. Some writers say that the Ketus are 101 in number; others say that they are 1,000 in number; Nārada says that there is but one Ketu which appears in various shapes at various times”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics
Bhāvanā (भावना) refers to “demonstration” or “proof” (meaning anything demonstrated or proved, hence theorem, lemma) [the word bhāvanā also means composition or combination], according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.
Bhāvanā is further distinguished as:
- samāsa-bhāvanā (Addition Lemma or Additive Composition) and
- antara-bhāvanā (Subtraction Lemma or Subtractive Composition).
When the bhāvanā is made with two equal sets of roots and interpolators, it is called tulya-bhāvanā (Composition of Equals) and when with two unequal sets of values, atulya-bhāvanā (Composition of Unequals).
Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia
Bhāvana is the urge, inspiration to perform yajña. This is caused by the desire for its result. Thus from the perspective of yajña, desire is seen as an inspiration to performing karma. Need and desire are the two inspirations for beings to perform karma that run the activity of phenomenal world.
Bhāvana has three aspects:
- what is desired
- what is the means
- what is the method.
From the injunctions of Śruti, these are learned. For instance, from injunctions such as “one who desires cattle should perform Citra”.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
Bhāvana refers to “mental cultivation” or “development”; “meditation”.—The third of the three grounds for meritorious action.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Bhavana ( “progression”, “development of the concentration”) [F].—Training lying in developing the concentration.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Bhavana (“mental development”) [bhāvanā] (lit. “calling into existence, producing”) is what in English is generally but rather vaguely called 'meditation'. One has to distinguish 2 kinds:
- development of tranquillity (samatha-bhāvanā), i.e. concentration (samādhi), and
- development of insight (vipassanā-bhāvanā), i.e. wisdom (paññā).
These two important terms, tranquillity and insight (s. samatha-vipassanā), are very often met with and explained in the Sutta, as well as in the Abhidhamma.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Bhāvanā (भावना) refers to the “desire” of the worshipper.—As the object for which the worshipper sits in meditation is different in different cases the deity visualised also becomes different. It is the Bhāvanā (desire) of the worshipper which is of the nature of a psychic force that reacts on the Infinite Energy, giving rise to different manifestations according to the nature of the reaction. The nature of this reaction is of illimitable variety and thus the resultant deity also appears in an infinite variety of forms, and this seems to be the chief reason why we find gods and goddesses of different forms in the pantheons of both the Buddhistsand the Hindus.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Bhāvanā (भावना) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Bhāvanācinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Bhāvanā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Bhāvanā (भावना) refers to “cultivation”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Further, the so-called ‘insight (prajñā)’ is a word for calm because it is free from the flame of false discrimination; [...] a word for cultivation (bhāvanā-pada) because it is the entering into the way of non-duality; a word for awakening because of the remarkable perfect awakening; a word for the dharma because it is free from desire. Since the light of knowledge is the entrance into such a word, and not dependent on others, it is called insight. Since it is in accordance with the sky-like teaching among all the teachings of the Buddha, he accordingly does not produce thought-constructions or fiction even concerning the smallest dharma. That is the perfection of insight of the Bodhisattva becoming like the expanse of the sky. [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism
Bhavana has been generally translated as “development” or “producing”. More specfically, it denotes “developing by means of thought or meditation, cultivation by mind” and, in Buddhist contexts, “reflection, contemplation”. The word is found in Buddhist, Hindu and Jain texts.—In Buddhist teachings, bhavana is often found in compound forms indicating a type of intra personal development involving personal, intentional effort over time.Source: Shambala Publications: General
Bhāvanā Skt., Pali; meditation, mind development, all those practices usually designated as meditation. Two types of bhāvanā are distinguished: the development of tranquillity (shamatha) and clear seeing (vipashyanā). Tranquillity is the prerequisite for attaining clear seeing. According to the Visuddhimagga there are forty different exercises leading to the development of tranquillity. They include absorption (dhyāna), contemplation (samāpati), and concentration (samādhi).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Bhāvanā (भावना) or Bhāva refers to “state of mind” and represents one of the four divisions of dharma, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism. Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] Dharma is so-called from supporting creatures who have fallen into a bad condition of existence. It is fourfold with the divisions of liberality (dāna), good conduct (śīla), penance (tapas), and state of mind (bhāva)”.
Note: State of mind (bhāvanā=bhāva) is devotion solely to the possessors of the three jewels, service to them, only pure thoughts, and disgust with existence.
2) Bhāvanā (भावना) is the name of an ancient merchant from Ādityābha, according to chapter 2.4.—Accordingly, as Ajita narrated:—“Once upon a time in the city Ādityābha there lived a merchant, named Bhāvana, master of crores of money. The merchant Bhāvana turned over all his money to his son Haridāsa and went to a foreign country to trade. When the merchant Bhāvana had stayed twelve years in the foreign country and had acquired great wealth, he came back and stopped outside the city. [...] By performing some good deed, Bhāvana’s jīva became Pūrṇamegha and Haridāsa’s jīva became Sulocana. [...]”.Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
1) Bhāvanā (भावना) refers to the “(twelve) pure reflections”, according to the Praśamaratiprakaraṇa 149-50 (p. 93-4).—Accordingly, “(A monk) should reflect, upon transcient [sic] nature of the world, helplessness, loneliness, separateness of the self from non-self, impurity (of the body), cycle of births sand [sic] rebirths, inflow of Karmas and stoppage of inflow of Karmas; Shedding of stock of Karmas, constitution of the universe, nature of true religion, difficulty in obtaining enlightenment, which are (called) twelve pure Bhāvanās (reflections) [i.e., dvādaśa-bhāvanā]”.
Note: The entry in Monier-Williams s.v. bhāvanā includes “reflection, contemplation”. In the later Jain texts, especially among Śvetāmbara sources, bhāvanā was used interchangeably with, or instead of, anuprekṣā. The verse quoted at the beginning of this section shows how Śubhacandra’s text is an example of this usage since there anuprekṣā is a reference to the twelve reflections, dvādaśa-bhāvanā.
2) Bhāvanā (भावना) refers to the “(twelve) reflections”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.
Śubhacandra presents the reflections in the following order in Chapter 2:
- transience (anityatā),
- helplessness (aśaraṇa),
- the cycle of rebirth (saṃsāra),
- solitariness (ekatva),
- difference [between the body and the self] (anyatva),
- impurity [of the body] (aśucitva),
- the influx of karma (āsrava),
- stopping the influx of karma (saṃvara),
- wearing away karma (nirjarā),
- the doctrine (dharma),
- the cosmos (loka), and
- enlightenment (bodhi).
3) Bhavana (भवन) refers to the “abode” (of Indra), according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “This most powerful [and] cruel death devours against their will the life of those who possess a body that has settled in the middle world, in hell, in the world of Brahmā, in Indra’s abode (surapati-bhavana), in the middle of the ocean, inside the forest, at all quarters of the globe, on a mountain-peak, in a place difficult of access on account of fire, forest, cold, darkness, thunderbolts [and] swords, or in [a place] crowded with a troop of ruttish elephants”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Bhavana.—(LL), a temple. Cf. pura, āyatana, ālaya, etc. Note: bhavana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Bhāvanā.—(CII 4), sentiment, e. g., maitrī, etc. (EI 3), Jain; a method of kāy-otsarga. Note: bhāvanā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Biology (plants and animals)Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)
Bhavana in India is the name of a plant defined with Garcinia xanthochymus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Xanthochymus pictorius Roxb.) (Greek xanthos ‘yellow’ and chymos ‘juice’. (among others).
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1980)
· Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
· Plants of the Coast of Coromandel (1805)
· The Flora of British India (1874)
· Journal of the Indian Botanical Society (1980)
If you are looking for specific details regarding Bhavana, for example diet and recipes, side effects, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, extract dosage, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
bhavana : (nt.) becoming; a dwelling place. || bhāvanā (f.) increase; development by means of thought; meditation.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Bhāvanā, (f.) (fr. bhāveti, or fr. bhāva in meaning of bhāva 2, cp. Class. Sk. bhāvanā) producing, dwelling on something, putting one’s thoughts to, application, developing by means of thought or meditation, cultivation by mind, culture.—See on term Dhs. trsl 261 (=2 240); Expos. I. 217 (=DhsA. 163); Cpd. 207 n. 2. ‹-› Cp. pari°, vi°, sam°.—Vin. I, 294 (indriya°); D. III, 219 (three: kāya°, citta°, paññā°), 221, 225, 285, 291; S. I, 48; Dh. 73, 301; J. I, 196 (mettā°); III, 45 (id.); Nd1 143 (saññā°); Nett 91 (samatha-vipassanaṃ); Vbh. 12, 16 sq. , 199, 325; Vism. 130 (karaṇa, bhāvanā, rakkhaṇa; here bh. =bringing out, keeping in existence), 314 (karuṇā°), 317 (upekkhā°); Miln. 25 (°ṃ anuyuñjati); Sdhp. 15, 216, 233, 451.
— or —
Bhavana, (nt.) (fr. bhū) dwelling, sphere, world, realm S. I, 206, Sn. 810 (see explanation Nd1 132: nerayikānaṃ nirayo bh. etc. & SnA 534: niray’ādi-bhede bhavane); Nd1 448 (Inda° the realm of Indra); J. III, 275 (nāga° the world of the Nāgas). (Page 500)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
bhavana (भवन).—n S A house or dwelling place. 2 Being or existing. 3 The place of abiding or being.
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bhāvanā (भावना).—f (S) Forming in the mind; conceiving, imagining, supposing. Ex. īśvarāsa mūrtti āhē asī bhā0 kimapi karūṃ nayē; tō sādhu āhē asī bhā0 karuna tyālā vandā. 2 State of health; feeling of body as respects healthfulness. In this sense some popular compounds are rōgabhāvanā, maratī- bhāvanā, vāñcatībhāvanā, paḍatībhāvanā, caḍhatībhāvanā, raḍatībhāvanā Sickly state, dying state, convalescence &c. 3 Assurance; faith in or towards; conviction or confidence regarding. Pr. yādṛśī bhāvanā tādṛś phalaṃ As is faith so is the fruit. 4 A common term for the operations (of baking, sun-drying, boiling down &c.) in preparing medical compositions. 5 In algebra. A mode of multiplying; distinguished into antarbhāvanā, samāsabhāvanā, tulyabhāvanā. 6 Laxly. Natural constitution, nature. Ex. tyā āmbyācī bhāvanāca asī kīṃ kōīpāsīṃ ambaṭa asāvēṃ. 7 In medicine. A malady with its symptoms; the whole disease or disorder constituting the diagnosis.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
bhavana (भवन).—n A house. Being or existing.
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bhāvanā (भावना).—f Imagining, fancy. Symptom, indications of a condition of health. Conviction or confidence regarding. Natural constitution.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Bhavana (भवन).—[bhū-ādhāre lyuṭ]
1) Being, existence.
2) Production, birth.
3) An abode, residence, dwelling, mansion; अथवा भवनप्रत्ययात् प्रविष्टोऽस्मि (athavā bhavanapratyayāt praviṣṭo'smi) Mṛcchakaṭika 3; Meghadūta 34; Rām.7.11. 5.
4) A site, abode, receptacle; as in अविनयभवनम् (avinayabhavanam) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.191.
5) A building.
6) A field; स शालिभवनं रम्यं सर्व- सस्यसमाचितम् (sa śālibhavanaṃ ramyaṃ sarva- sasyasamācitam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.84.15.
8) Horoscope, natal star.
-naḥ A dog.
Derivable forms: bhavanam (भवनम्).
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Bhāvana (भावन).—a. (-nī f.) [भू-णिच्-ल्यु ल्युट् वा (bhū-ṇic-lyu lyuṭ vā)] Effecting &c.; भूतभव्यभविष्याणां भावानां भुवि भावनाः (bhūtabhavyabhaviṣyāṇāṃ bhāvānāṃ bhuvi bhāvanāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.37.15; यत् पृच्छसे भागवतान् धर्मांस्त्वं विश्वभावनान् (yat pṛcchase bhāgavatān dharmāṃstvaṃ viśvabhāvanān) Bhāgavata 11.2.11;8.1.16; see भावक (bhāvaka) above.
-naḥ 1 An efficient cause.
2) A creator; जय देव भुवनभावन (jaya deva bhuvanabhāvana) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.4.
3) An epithet of Śiva.
4) Of Viṣṇu.
-nam, -nā 1 Creating, manifesting; भावनं ब्रह्मणः स्थानम् (bhāvanaṃ brahmaṇaḥ sthānam) Bhāgavata 3.26.46.
2) Promoting any one's interests.
3) Conception, imagination, fancy, thought, idea; मधुरिपुरहमिति भावनशीला (madhuripurahamiti bhāvanaśīlā) Gītagovinda 6; or भावनया त्वयि लीना (bhāvanayā tvayi līnā) 4; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 3.162.
4) Feeling of devotion, faith; नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना (nāsti buddhirayuktasya na cāyuktasya bhāvanā) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.66; यादृशी भावना यस्य सिद्धिर्भवति तादृशी (yādṛśī bhāvanā yasya siddhirbhavati tādṛśī) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.15.
5) Meditation, contemplation, abstract meditation.
6) A supposition, hypothesis.
7) Observing, investigating.
8) Settling, determining; विभागभावना ज्ञेया (vibhāgabhāvanā jñeyā) Y.2.149.
9) Remembering, recollection.
1) Direct knowledge, perception or cognition.
11) The cause of memory which arises from direct perception (in logic); see भावना (bhāvanā) and स्मृति (smṛti) in T. S; भावनाख्यस्तु संस्कारो जीववृत्तिरतीन्द्रियः (bhāvanākhyastu saṃskāro jīvavṛttiratīndriyaḥ) Bhāṣā. P.
12) Proof, demonstration, argument.
13) Steeping, infusion, saturating a dry powder with fluid; द्रवेण यावन्मानेन चूर्णं सर्वं प्लुतं भवेत् । भावनायाः प्रमाणस्तु चूर्णे प्रोक्तं भिषग्वरैः (draveṇa yāvanmānena cūrṇaṃ sarvaṃ plutaṃ bhavet | bhāvanāyāḥ pramāṇastu cūrṇe proktaṃ bhiṣagvaraiḥ) Bhāva. P.
14) Scenting; decorating with flowers and perfumes.
15) (In arith.) Finding by combination or composition.
16) Nature, essence (at the end of comp.).
17) Reason, cause; परावरेशं प्रकृतिमस्योत्पत्त्यन्तभावनम् (parāvareśaṃ prakṛtimasyotpattyantabhāvanam) Bhāgavata 3.32.7.
18) Growth, prosperity (vardhana); तस्यैषा निष्कृतिः कृत्स्ना भूतानां भावनं पुनः (tasyaiṣā niṣkṛtiḥ kṛtsnā bhūtānāṃ bhāvanaṃ punaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.97.7.
-nā 1 A crow.
-nam Apprehension; perception.
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Bhāvana (भावन).—a mass of rays or light.
Derivable forms: bhāvanam (भावनम्).
Bhāvana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms bhā and vana (वन).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Bhavana (भवन).—name of a mountain: Kāraṇḍavvūha 91.16.
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Bhāvana (भावन).—(?) (= Sanskrit °nā?), in Lalitavistara 182.21 (verse) anusmṛtī bhāvanu śabda niścarī, the sounds anusmṛti (q.v.) and bhāvana (°nā) came forth; nt. for fem.? or u, nom. sg. for fem. ā (§ 9.13)? or, finally, perhaps [compound] °tī-bhāvana, adj. agreeing with śabda, a sound producing anusmṛti (but this seems less likely; parallel words in the verse are nouns in apposition with śabda).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naṃ) 1. A house, a dwelling. 2. A nature, a quality. 3. The place of abiding or being, scite, field, spot, &c. 4. Production. E. mū to be, aff. lyuṭ .
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(-naṃ-nā) 1. Mental perception, recollection, the present consciousness of past ideas or perceptions. 2. Imagination. 3. Religi ous and abstract meditation. 4. Looking about, (literally or figuratively.) observing, investigating. 5. Causing to be. 6. Decorating any person or object with flowers, perfume, &c, scenting, anointing. 7. Steeping, infusion, especially repeatedly drying the article by day and keeping it moist at night. 8. (In arithmetic,) Composition. 9. (In law,) Ascertainment, proof. E. bhū to be, in the causal form, to bring present or into being, aff. ṇic-lyu .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bhavana (भवन).—i. e. bhū + ana, n. 1. Nature. 2. A dwelling, house, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 17; a palace, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 236. 3. A temple, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 100.
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Bhāvana (भावन).—i. e. bhū, [Causal.], + ana, I. m. 1. A creator, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 36, 11. 2. A founder. Ii. n., and f. nā. 1. Causing to be. 2. Mental perception, Bhāṣāp. 31; [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 91 (cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 2119; the success of an advice, etc., depends on the manner in which it is mentally received, faithfully believed, etc.). 3. Recollection, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 25, 13. 4. Imagination, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
Bhavana (भवन).—[neuter] coming into existence, place of existence, dwelling, abode, house, palace, temple.
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Bhāvana (भावन).—[feminine] ī = bhāvaka.
— [feminine] ā & [neuter] effecting, bringing about; imagination, conception, conjecture, supposition, thought, idea; ascertainment, evidence (only [feminine]).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Bhavana (भवन):—[from bhava] n. (m. [gana] ardharcādi) a place of abode, mansion, home, house, palace, dwelling (ifc. f(ā). ), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] horoscope, natal star (See bhavaneśa)
3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Ṛṣi in the 2nd Manvantara, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
4) [v.s. ...] a dog, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] n. coming into existence, birth, production, [Kapila [Scholiast or Commentator]; Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 1-4, 31]
6) [v.s. ...] a site, receptacle (ifc.), [Pañcatantra]
7) [v.s. ...] the place where anything grows (ifc.= field cf. śāli-bh)
8) [v.s. ...] = bhuvana, water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) Bhāvana (भावन):—[=bhā-vana] 1. bhā-vana n. (for 2. bhāvana See p. 755, col. 1) a forest of rays, [Ghaṭakarpara]
10) [from bhāva] 2. bhāvana mf(ī)n. ([from] [Causal]; for 1. See 2. bhā p.750) causing to be, effecting, producing, displaying, manifesting, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
11) [v.s. ...] promoting or effecting any one’s ([genitive case] or [compound]) welfare, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
12) [v.s. ...] imagining, fancying, [Aṣṭāvakra-saṃhitā]
13) [v.s. ...] teaching, [Mahābhārata]
14) [v.s. ...] m. a creator, producer, efficient, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature]
15) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva (= dhyātṛ), [Mahābhārata]
16) [v.s. ...] of Viṣṇu, [Apte’s The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
17) [v.s. ...] of the 22nd Kalpa (q.v.)
18) [v.s. ...] f(ā). and n. the act of producing or effecting, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
19) [v.s. ...] forming in the mind, conception, apprehension, imagination, supposition, fancy, thought, meditation (nayā ind. in thought, in imagination; nām-√bandh, with [locative case], to occupy one’s imagination with, direct one’s thoughts to), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Śaṃkarācārya; Vedāntasāra] etc.
20) [v.s. ...] (in logic) that cause of memory which arises from direct perception, [Tarkasaṃgraha]
21) [v.s. ...] application of perfumes etc. (= adhivāsana), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) Bhāvanā (भावना):—[from bhāvana > bhāva] a f. demonstration, argument, ascertainment, [Yājñavalkya]
23) [v.s. ...] feeling of devotion, faith in ([locative case]), [Pañcatantra]
24) [v.s. ...] reflection, contemplation (5 kinds with Buddhists, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 128])
25) [v.s. ...] saturating any powder with fluid, steeping, infusion, [Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā]
26) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) finding by combination or composition
27) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) right conception or notion
28) [v.s. ...] the moral of a fable, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]
29) [v.s. ...] Name of an Upaniṣad
30) [v.s. ...] a crow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
31) [v.s. ...] water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
32) Bhāvana (भावन):—[from bhāva] n. furthering, promoting, [Mahābhārata]
33) [v.s. ...] the fruit of Dillenia Speciosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
34) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) nature, essence, [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad]
35) Bhāvanā (भावना):—[from bhāva] b f. of [preceding], in [compound]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Bhavana (भवन):—(naṃ) 1. n. A house; a quality.
2) Bhāvana (भावन):—[(naṃ-nā)] 1. n. f. Mental perception; abstract meditation; adorning the person with flowers, perfume, &c.; infusion or steeping; composition; proof.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Bhavana (भवन) [Also spelled bhavan]:—(nm) a house; building, mansion; an edifice; -[nirmāṇa] house-building; •[kalā] architecture.
2) Bhavāna (भवान) [Also spelled bhavan]:—(pron) your honour, your grace.
3) Bhāvana (भावन) [Also spelled bhavan]:—(nm) conception; comprehension; thinking.
4) Bhāvanā (भावना) [Also spelled bhavna]:—(nf) sentiment, feeling, emotion; ~[maya/yukta] sentimental, emotional; [bhāvanāoṃ ko bhaḍakānā] to blow the coals, to fan the flames of passion.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Bhāvaṇa (भावण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Bhāvana.
2) Bhāvaṇā (भावणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Bhāvanā.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] existence a) the state or fact of existing; being; b) continuance in being.
2) [noun] the act or fact of coming into life or of being born; birth.
3) [noun] a building where a person or a family normally dwells; a house.
4) [noun] a big, usu. multi-storied, building.
5) [noun] space; room; place.
6) [noun] a wide stretch of plain, open land (suitable for cultivation); field.
7) [noun] (astrol.) any of the twleve divisions or houses in the zodiac.
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Bhāvana (ಭಾವನ):—[noun] (jain.) a deity belonging to a particular class.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+62): Bhavana Bala, Bhavana Maya Panna, Bhavana Sutta, Bhavanabhi, Bhavanabhyasa, Bhavanachinta, Bhavanacinta, Bhavanadhipa, Bhavanadhisha, Bhavanadvara, Bhavanaga, Bhavanagari, Bhavanage, Bhavanageha, Bhavanajivi, Bhavanakarya, Bhavanakrama, Bhavanakshaya, Bhavanalabdha, Bhavanalavana.
Ends with (+157): Abhavabhavana, Abhavana, Abhibhavana, Abhidhabhavana, Abhisambhavana, Abhutodbhavana, Agastyabhavana, Agnibhavana, Ajbhavana, Ajbhavana, Amritabhavana, Amtarbhavana, Antarabhavana, Antarbhavana, Anubhavana, Anyathasambhavana, Apabhavana, Apalatabhavana, Apurvabhavana, Arthabhavana.
Full-text (+444): Bhavabhavana, Antarbhavana, Bhavanamaya, Sutikabhavana, Bhutabhavana, Brahmabhavana, Tulyabhavana, Abhavana, Udbhavana, Lokabhavana, Prabhavana, Shalibhavana, Paribhavana, Vibhavana, Bhavanayukta, Dvadashabhavana, Bhavan, Vrikshabhavana, Bhavanodara, Bhavanapati.
Search found 143 books and stories containing Bhavana, Bhāvanā, Bhāvana, Bha-vana, Bhā-vana, Bhavāna, Bhāvaṇa, Bhāvaṇā; (plurals include: Bhavanas, Bhāvanās, Bhāvanas, vanas, Bhavānas, Bhāvaṇas, Bhāvaṇās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study) (by Riddhi J. Shah)
Chapter 1.7 - Adhyātma, Bhāvanā, Dhyāna, Svādhyāya and Saṃyama Yoga < [Chapter 1 - The Jain Yoga Tradition—A Historical Review]
Chapter 1.4 - From Haribhadrasūri to Hemacandrācārya (Hemachandra) < [Chapter 1 - The Jain Yoga Tradition—A Historical Review]
Chapter 1.8 - The Goal in Jain Yoga < [Chapter 1 - The Jain Yoga Tradition—A Historical Review]
Vastu-shastra (3): House Architecture (by D. N. Shukla)
Jain Science and Spirituality (by Medhavi Jain)
4.3. Yoga and Barah Bhavana < [Chapter 4 - Main Theory and Practices in Jainism]
3.7. Bhavana, dhyana, samadhi and samayika < [Chapter 6 - Spirituality in Jainism]
Mimamsa interpretation of Vedic Injunctions (Vidhi) (by Shreebas Debnath)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 4 - Extraction of essence of Makshika < [Chapter II - Uparasa (2): Makshika (pyrites)]
Part 2 - Purification of manas-shila < [Chapter XIII - Uparasa (14): Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar)]
Part 2 - Purification of Hingula (cinnabar) < [Chapter XXIII - Uparasa (23): Hingula (cinnabar)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 10 - Treatment of Piles (9): Arkesha rasa < [Chapter V - Piles]
Part 16 - Treatment for indigestion (14): Jvalanala rasa < [Chapter IV - Irregularity of the digesting heat]
Treatment for fever (92): Arkamurti rasa < [Chapter II - Fever (jvara)]