Kusumbha, Kushumbha: 21 definitions


Kusumbha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kusumbha (आसुरी) is a Sanskrit word referring to Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), from the Asteraceae family. Certain plant parts of Kusumbha are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant.

According to the Rājanighaṇṭu, safflower (kusumbha) has the following synonyms: Padmottara, Kamalottara, Kukkuṭaśikha, Agniśikha, Vahniśikha, Raktasaṅkoca, Raktā, Pīta and Vahnidīpaka.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) refers to “safflower” which is used to prepare oils (taila) from according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Taila-prakaraṇa describes the properties of the oil prepared from [viz., kusumbha (safflower), etc.].

Kusumbha or “safflower” foodstuff is mentioned as being mutually incompatible (viruddhāhāra) with Āvi (sheep meat).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Kusumbha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) refers to Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kusumbha is referred to in connection with the worship of the deities. The Nīlamata mentions also clothes dyed in the colour of Kusumbha (verses 494, 720). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Kusumbha in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) refers to “saffron-dye”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225-226).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then follows the image of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, which matches the conception of Kālarātri in the passage from the Mahābhārata:] [...] she bore the coquettish apparel of a woman going out to meet Mahākāla at night, with a vine-like body furnished with a raiment reddened with saffron-dye (kusumbha-pāṭalita), with a face with red eyes, whose brows were furrowed into a frown, whose lip was crimsoned with betel that was blood, whose cheeks were reddened by the light shed from ear-ornaments of pomegranate flowers, with a forehead on which there was a tilaka dot of vermillion made by a Śabara beauty, covered by a magnificent gold turban. She was worshipped by goats... mice... antelope and black serpents... She was praised on all sides by flocks of old crows; [...]”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) refers to “safflower”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.17-25ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Sūrya]—“Now, I explain that which consists of light [i.e., Sūrya]. He manifests the siddhi of man. [Sūrya] resembles a red flower, has equal splendor with red juice. [He is] the color of a heap of vermillion, as beautiful as a ruby, appears as the color of safflower (kusumbha-rāga-saṃkāśa) . [He] looks like the flower of a pomegranate [and] resembles Soma at the end of time. [Sūrya has] one face, three eyes, four arms, possess a noble nature, and [holds his] hands in the shape of the wish-granting and protection [mudrās]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) refers to “saffron” and represents one of the various substances used in the process of creating a Canvas, in the ancient Indian art of Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—Canvas is a kind of surface on which a painter can draw a picture. In ancient time walls are seen to be plastered with different substances (i.e., kusumbha) and these were prepared for Painting. [...] For the process of kuḍya i.e., plastering on a wall, the painter needs iṣṭakācūrṇa i.e., powder of bricks and mṛd i.e., clay as basic ingredients. [...] Along with this mixture, some more ingredients [viz., kusumbha i.e., saffron, ... etc.] should be mingled. After that, the mixture should be transferred to a touch stone mortar for the process of pounding.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kusumbha in India is the name of a plant defined with Carthamus tinctorius in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica (1987)
· Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry (2008)
· The American Journal of Chinese Medicine (2002)
· Journal of the Indian Botanical Society (1990)
· Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences (1997)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kusumbha, for example extract dosage, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kusumbha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kusumbha : (m.) the safflower. (used for dying red).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kusumbha, (nt.) the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, used for dying red J. V, 211 (°rattavattha); VI, 264 (do); Khus IV. 2. (Page 224)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ).—[Uṇādi-sūtra 4.16]

1) Safflower; कुसुम्भारुणं चारु चेलं वसाना (kusumbhāruṇaṃ cāru celaṃ vasānā) Jag.; कुसुम्भरागारुणितैः सुदुकुलैः (kusumbharāgāruṇitaiḥ sudukulaiḥ) Ṛtusaṃhāra 6.4.

2) Saffron.

3) The waterpot of an ascetic; Manusmṛti 6.52.

-mbham Gold.

-mbhaḥ Mere outward affection (compared with the colour of safflower); hence कुसुम्भरागः (kusumbharāgaḥ) also means affected love.

Derivable forms: kusumbhaḥ (कुसुम्भः), kusumbham (कुसुम्भम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ).—name of a king, husband of Kusumā: devī Kusumbharājasya Mahāvastu i.180.14, 15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ).—n.

(-mbhaṃ) 1. Safflower, (Carthamus tinctorios.) 2. Gold. m.

(-mbhaḥ) The water pot of the student and Sanyasi. E. kus to shine, and umbha Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ).—probably s for ś and ku-śumbh + a, I. m. and n. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 14. Ii. m. 1. A student’s water-pot. 2. The name of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 16, 27.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ).—[masculine] safflower; pot, water-jar.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kuṣumbha (कुषुम्भ):—m. the venom-bag of an insect, [Atharva-veda ii, 32, 6] (cf. kusumbha.)

2) Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ):—[from kusumbaka] m. [am n., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]] safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Śiśupāla-vadha] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] saffron (Crocus sativus), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] ‘the water-pot of the student and Saṃnyāsin’ See -vat

5) [v.s. ...] m. outward affection (compared with the colour of safflower), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 16, 27]

7) [from kusumbaka] n. gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ):—(mbhaṃ) 1. n. Safflower; gold. m. Student’s water-pot.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kusuṃbha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kusumbha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Kusuṃbha (कुसुंभ) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kusumbha.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kusuṃbha (ಕುಸುಂಭ):—

1) [noun] = ಕುಸುಂಬೆ [kusumbe].

2) [noun] a small water container with a handle and snout or nozzle, used by an ascetic.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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