Dosha, Dosa, Doṣa, Dosā, Doṣā: 43 definitions


Dosha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Doṣa and Doṣā can be transliterated into English as Dosa or Dosha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Dosh.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Doṣā (दोषा) is the name of an ingredient used in the treatment of Maṇḍalī-snake-bites, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—A number of different permutation and combination of herbs are prescribed as Lepa and Pāna for removing the poison of Maṇḍalī snakes.—According to the Kāśyapasaṃhitā verse 9.81: “An application of the paste of Doṣā, Śṛṅgī, Kanakakaṭukī, Kāyakā, Ūrdhvapuṣpī, Kośātakī, curd and Mahatī eschews the itching caused by Maṇḍalī poison. This formula also cures the foaming in the mouth caused by the poison”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Doṣa (दोष) has been defined as that which is one of the components of Prāṇa (‘life’) and plays causative role in physiology and pathology. As it covers the wide range of the entire living world, ti has been applied to the other animate groups as well such as those relating to animals (aśvāyurveda, gajāyurveda, gavāyurveda etc.) and plants (vṛkṣāyurveda). Doṣas have wide range of functions. Similarly, though doṣas are all-pervasive they are predominantly manifested in certain sites such as vāta below the navel, pitta between the heart and navel and kapha in the region above the head.

When prāṇa (vitae) enters into the material body, the three doṣas—vāta, pitta and kapha—emerge to take up the physiological functions. Vāta consists of air (and ether), Pitta of fire and Kapha of water (in combination with earth.) They are called dhātu, doṣa and mala because of their maintaining, pathogenic and excretory phases. The three Doṣas (kapha, pitta and vāta) generally pervade the entire body and are particularly located in head, navel and below respectively. As the world is maintained by air, the sun and the moon by their functions of movements, receiving and releasing, the body is maintained by the three Doṣas (vāta, pitta and kapha) with respective functions. Doṣa is so-called as it defines Prakṛti (human constitution) as well as produces abnormality thus playing vital role in physiology and pathology of living beings.

Source: Hand book of domestic medicine: Basic principles of Āyurveda

The concept of Doṣa has been evolved by the great sages of Āyurveda to differentiate with livings and non-livings. Though Śarīra (human body) is made up of Pañca Mahābhūta, it attains life only when Ātma (spirit), Indriya (senses) and Mana join to it. Doṣa are the biological units of the living body which are responsible for its all functions. Doṣa are three viz. Vāta, Pitta and Kapha, and each of which is also made up of Mahābhūta. Vāyu and Ākāṣa Mahābhūta form Vāta-doṣa, Agni Mahābhūta forms Pitta-doṣa, and Pṛthvī and Jala Mahābhūta form Kapha-doṣa.

The word Doṣa is derived from the verb ‘duṣa’ which means to vitiate. In the normal state of equilibrium they support the body and when vitiated produce the disease. Doṣa play important role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Doṣa (दोष):—Principle constituents of the body that are responsible for homeostasis, when present in the state of equilibrium. Doṣas also determine the psycho-physio-physiological nature / constitution of an individual. Doṣas are capable of vitiating the different bodily tissues, when deviate from the state of equillibrium and can lead to diseases. These are of two classes: a. Śārīrika (bodily): Vāta, Pitta and Kapha. b. Mānasa (psychological): Raja and Tama.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Doṣa (दोष).—A Vasu; husband of Śarvarī and father of Śimśumāra; a kalā of Viṣṇu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11-14.

2) Doṣā (दोषा).—A queen of Puṣpārṇa and mother of Pradoṣa, Niśitha and Vyuṣṭha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 13. 13-14.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Doṣa (दोष) refers to the ten “faults” in a poetical work (kāvya), accoridng to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. They are opposed by the ten guṇas (‘merit’) which provide sweetness and depth of meaning.

The following are defined as the ten faults (doṣa):

  1. gūḍhārtha (circumlocution),
  2. arthāntara (superfluous expression),
  3. arthahīna (want of significance),
  4. bhinnārtha (defective significance),
  5. ekārtha (tautology),
  6. abhiplutārtha (want of synthesis),
  7. nyāyādapeta (logical defect),
  8. viṣama (metrical defect),
  9. visandhi (hiatus),
  10. śabdacyuta (slang).

2) Doṣa (दोष) or Pañcadoṣa refers to the “five faults” of a singer according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 32.519-525:—“The five faults of a singer are that his voice (lit. he) may be Kapila, unsteady, Sandaṣṭa (bitten), Kākī (crow-like), and Tumbakī (nasal)... These are the essential facts about the qualities, and faults of voice, related by me”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Doṣa (दोष).—A fault of pronunciation; cf एताः स्वरदोषभावनाः अतोन्ये व्यञ्जनदोषाः (etāḥ svaradoṣabhāvanāḥ atonye vyañjanadoṣāḥ) M.Bh. on I. 1.1 Vart.18

2) Doṣa.—Defect shown in connection with an expression or explanation.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Doṣa (दोष, “faults”) refers to “poetic faults” as opposed to guṇa (poetic merits), and are ten in number. These faults are divided into two types—sphuṭa or permanent and asphuṭa which are not permanent. The blemishes like cyutasaṃskṛti etc. are permanent. So the words and meanings which will go to constitute poetry must be devoid of these permanent blemishes.

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Doṣa (दोष) or Kāvyadoṣa refers to “poetic defects”.—The alaṅkāras discussed in the preceding pages are desirable attributes of a kāvya, whereas the doṣas are undesirable elements. In other words, they are the opposites of the guṇālaṅkāras. Consequently, if to accomplish alaṅkāras was an important activity, to avoid doṣas is an equally important duty of the poet. That is to say, the avoidance of doṣas is also, in a way, a means of achieving poetic beauty. [...]

According to Bhāmaha, anything that is employed improperly or indirectly and, for that reason, perturbs the mind of a man of taste (sahṛdaya) constitutes a defect (doṣa). And this attitude of his as also his analysis of the doṣas which according to him are of transient nature with prospects of becoming excellences in different contexts show that he admits some kind of subjective element in the concept. He does not regard doṣas as absolute entities; he analyses them from the functional point of view and according to this analysis, his conception of defect closely approximates to the later concept of anaucitya (impropriety) which also is determined by the poetic context. [...]

In Sāhityadarpaṇa, Viśvanātha says doṣas are five-fold:—

  1. defects of word (pada-doṣa)
  2. defects occurring in parts of words (padāṃśa-doṣa)
  3. defects of sentence (vākya-doṣa)
  4. defects of sense (artha-doṣa)
  5. defects of rasa (rasa-doṣa)
Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Doṣa (दोष, “fault”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “doṣa (fault) causes activity; rāga, dveṣa, moha etc. are the roots of all activities”.

Source: A Critical Edition of the Khyāti Section of the Nyāyamañjarī

Doṣa (दोष) refers to “erroneous cognition”, as discussed in the Khyāti Section of the 9th century Nyāyamañjarī (composed in Kashmir by Bhaṭṭa Jayanta) which represents an ontological, epistemological and linguistic study of classical Indian philosophy.—Jayanta, who follows the framework of the theory of error created by Maṇḍana, discusses error in two separate parts in his Nyāyamañjarī.

Classical examples of erroneous cognition discussed in the khyāti theory are enumerated and classified into three types by Jayanta (§

  1. viṣaya-doṣa—caused by a problem in the object.
  2. indriya-doṣa—caused by a problem in the sense organ.
  3. mano-doṣa—caused by a problem in the internal organ.
Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Doṣa (दोष) refers to the “vices” (e.g., of the Kaliyuga), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “When Jupiter (bṛhaspati) reappears at the beginning of the constellation of Dhaniṣṭhā in the month of Māgha, the first year of the cycle of 60 years of Jupiter known as Prabhava commences. [...] The next year is known as Vibhava the third as Śukla, the fourth as Pramoda, and the fifth as Prajāpati: in each of these years mankind will be happier than in the next preceding year. In the same four years there will be good growth of the Śālī crop, of sugarcane, of barley and other crops in the land; mankind will be freed from all fears and they will live at peace, in happiness and without the vices of the Kaliyuga [i.e., kali-doṣa-mukta]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Doṣa (दोष) refers to “bad consequences”, according to the Mālinīvijayottaratantra, chapter 18 (“appropriate conduct of the accomplished Yogin”) verses 18.74-81 (as quoted in the Tantrāloka verse 4.213-221ab).—Accordingly, “[...] Moreover, the one whose consciousness is fixed on reality, partaking even in the pleasures of the senses, is not touched by bad consequences (doṣa), just as the petal of a lotus (is not affected) by water. The Yogin who has great understanding is the one who is similar to the person who, armed with mantras that counteract poison and the like, is not deluded by the poison even while devouring it”.

2) Doṣa (दोष) refers to “negative characteristics (=‘cons’)” (as opposed to Guṇa—‘pros’), according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Devī spoke]:—O God, what kind of a woman is a Yoginī? Who is Māyā and who is Pāśavī? Tell me, O Bhairava, the pros (guṇa) and cons (doṣa) of having sex with them. [Bhairava spoke]:—A woman who is on the Kula Path [of the Yoginī clans], who avoids the path of bound souls [i.e. the path of the uninitiated], who is elevated by intoxication induced by liquor, and is free of the bonds that fetter the soul, and whose mind is filled with the bliss of wine, is [called] a Yoginī in Śiva’s teaching”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Doṣa (दोष) refers to “pollution” (Cf. Mātṛdoṣa—‘pollution caused by the mothers’), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.88-89ab, while describing the ritual that protect the king and his kingdom]—“One should always perform [the recitation of the mantra] for the sake of peace in obligatory rites, special rites, and for fulfillment of special wishes. [The Mantrin should always] apply the forehead mark of white ash [infused] with seven recitations [of the Amṛteśa] mantra on [the king’s] washed face. [This] removes the pollution caused by the mothers (mātṛdoṣa)”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

The review of ancient rasa literature revealed that the ancient Rasācāryas have recognised number of doṣas for almost all the drugs of mineral origin including metals, minerals and mercury. Not only these ancient scholars have recognised the bad effects of each doṣas of the drugs and tried to remove them specifically and have evolved or described suitable processes, techniques and drugs also for that purpose.

Source: A History of Indian Philosophy

There are three kinds of morbid elements (doṣa) of the body, viz. vāta, pitta and śleṣman , and two morbid elements which affect the mind (sattva), viz. rajas and tamas. By the disorder of the first three the body becomes diseased, and by that of the second two the mind becomes affected.

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Doṣā (दोषा, ‘evening’), is frequently referred to from the Rigveda1 onwards, usually as contrasted with uṣas, ‘dawn’. In the Chāndogya-upaniṣad the word is contrasted with prātar, ‘early’. See also Ahan.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsAversion; hatred; anger. One of three unwholesome roots (mula) in the mind.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

M Repulsion, hatred, anger.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Part of the Dosa Team.


Dosa has destructive nature. It is very ugly. It hurts anyone anything. Dosa destroys its home and its environment. In the presence of dosa everything wicked and unhumanly things can be committed. Dosa cetasika is the head of all dosa related cetasikas and dosa cittas. When there is issa, there also arises dosa and this is also true in case of macchariya or in case of kukkucca.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'hatred', anger, is one of the 3 unwholesome, roots (mūla). - d. citta: hate consciousness; s. Tab. I (30, 31).

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

Dosa, aversion, is another akusala cetasika. When the citta dislikes the object it experiences there is dosa, aversion.

Dosa is aggressive, just like a snake which has been hit. The function of dosa is spreading of itself or writhing as
when poison takes effect. Dosa is harmful for mind and body. Because of dosa our appearance becomes ugly: we may become red in the face, our features become unpleasant and the comers of our mouth droop.

Dosa can also appear as fear. When there is fear one dislikes the object which is experienced. Fear is harmful for mind and body.

Dosa arises with two types of citta, of which one is "unprompted" (asankharika) and one "prompted" (sasankharika).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: A History of Indian Logic (Buddhist Philosophy)

Doṣa (दोष) refers to the “defects” (of speech) (within a debate), according to Upāyakauśalyahṛdaya, an ancient work on the art of debate composed by Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna.—The first chapter [i.e., “an elucidation of debate (vāda-visadīkaraṇa)”] consists of eight sections which treat respectively of (1) an example (udāharaṇa), (2) a tenet, truth or conclusion (siddhānta), (3) the excellence of speech (vākyapraśaṃsā), (4) the defect of speech (vākya-doṣa), (5) the knowledge of inference (anumāna or hetujñāna), (6) the appropriate or opportune speech (samayocita-vākya), (7) the fallacy (hetvābhāsa) and (8) the adoption of a fallacious reason (duṣṭa-vākyānusaraṇa).

Note: A speech is said to be defective [i.e., vākya-doṣa] if its words are inadequate, or redundant, or if it employs the same word to convey different meanings or different words to convey the same meaning.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: 84000: Sampuṭodbhava Tantra (Emergence from Sampuṭa)

Doṣā (दोषा) refers to one of the primary thirty-two energy-channels in the body, according to the Sampuṭodbhavatantra chapter 1.—Accordingly, “[Vajragarbha asked, ‘What subtle energy channels are in the body?’]—The Blessed One said, ‘There are one hundred and twenty of them, corresponding to the divisions within the four cakras. The chief ones, those with bodhicitta as their innate nature, are thirty-two in number. They are: [i.e., Doṣā] [...]’.”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Doṣa (दोष) (Cf. Sadoṣa) refers to “aversion”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Son of good family, how does the knowledge (jñāna) of the Bodhisattva becomes like open space? (1) Having pervaded the thoughts of all beings by knowledge, he knows the impassioned thought of all beings truly as it is, as an impassioned thought; (2) he knows the thought full of aversion truly as it is, as a thought full of aversion (sadoṣa-cittaapi sadoṣaṃ cittaṃ); (3) he knows the thought full of bewilderment truly as it is, as a thought full of bewilderment; (4) he knows the thought full of impurity truly as it is, as a thought full of impurity; (5) he never deviates from the nature of the dharma which is without desire, and teaches the dharma for other beings so that they overcome their desire;

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Doṣa.—(LP), doing anything wrongly. (IE 7-1-2), ‘three’. (EI 9), black or red spots on the tongue supposed to be a foreboding of death. Cf. daṇḍa-doṣa; fines; see also pradhāna-apradhāna-doṣa- samanvita used as an epithet of the gift village (Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 274). Here doṣa apparently means daṇda-doṣa. Note: doṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dosa : (m.) anger; corrupting; defect; fault.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dosā, (f.) (Sk. doṣā & doṣas, cp. Gr. du/w, du/omai to set (of the sun)) evening, dusk. Only in Acc. as adv. dosaṃ (=doṣāṃ) at night J.VI, 386. (Page 332)

— or —

1) Dosa, 2 (Sk. dveṣa, but very often not distinct in meaning from dosa1. On dveṣa see under disa) anger, ill-will, evil intention, wickedness, corruption, malice, hatred. In most frequent combination of either rāga (lust) d. & moha (delusion), or lobha (greed) d. moha (see rāga & lobha), to denote the 3 main blemishes of character. For definition see Vism.295 & 470. Interpreted at Nd2 313 as “cittassa āghāto paṭighāto paṭigho ... kopo ... kodho ... vyāpatti.” — The distinction between dosa & paṭigha is made at DA.I, 116 as: dosa=dubbalakodha; paṭigha=balavakodha.—In combination lobha d. moha e.g. S.I, 98; M.I, 47, 489; A.I, 134, 201; II, 191; III, 338; It.45 (tīṇi akusalamūlāni). With rāga & moha: Dh.20; It.2=6; with rāga & avijjā; It.57; rāga & māna Sn.270, 631 etc.—See for ref.: Vin.I, 183; D.III, 146, 159, 182, 214, 270; S.I, 13, 15, 70; V, 34 sq.; M.I, 15, 96 sq., 250 sq., 305; A.I, 187; II, 172, 203; III, 181; Sn.506; It.2 (dosena duṭṭhāse sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ); Ps.I, 80 sq., 102; Pug.16, 18; Dhs.418, 982, 1060; Vbh.86, 167, 208, 362; Nett 13, 90; Sdhp.33, 43.—Variously characterised as: 8 purisa-dosā Vbh.387; khila, nīgha, mala S.V, 57; agati (4 agati-gamanāni: chanda, d. moha, bhaya) D.III, 228, cp. 133, 182; ajjhattaṃ A.III, 357 sq.; its relation to kamma A.I, 134; III, 338; V, 262; to ariyamagga S.V, 5, 8.—sadosa corrupted, depraved, wicked D.I, 80; A.I, 112; adosa absence of illwill, adj. kind, friendly, sympathetic A.I, 135, 195, 203; II, 192; Vbh.169, 210; Dhs.33 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 21, 99); VvA.14 (+alobha amoha).

2) Dosa, 1 (Sk. doṣa to an Idg. *deu(s) to want, to be inferior etc. (cp. dussati), as in Gr. dέomai, deu/omai) corruption, blemish, fault, bad condition, defect; depravity, corrupted state; usually —°, as khetta° blight of the field Miln.360; tiṇa° spoilt by weeds Dh.356; PvA.7; visa° ill effect of poison Th.1, 758, 768; sneha° blemish of sensual affection Sn.66. Four kasiṇa-dosā at Vism.123; eighteen making a Vihāra unsuitable at Vism.118 sq.—J.II, 417; III, 104; Miln.330 (sabba-d.-virahita faultless); DA.I, 37, 141.—pl. dosā the (three) morbid affections, or disorder of the (3) humours Miln.43; adj. with disturbed humours Miln.172, cp. DA.I, 133. (Page 331)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dōṣa (दोष).—m (S) Fault, flaw, defect, excess, blemish, imperfection (of men, animals, things). 2 Sin, offence, transgression: also culpability or blameworthiness. 3 Disorder of the humors of the body: also defect in the functions of bile, circu- lation, or wind. 4 Fault of composition or speech. It comprehends three kinds,--padadōṣa Fault of words; vākyadōṣa Fault of the sentence; arthadōṣa Fault of the sense or meaning. See under vākyadōṣa. dōṣa dēṇēṃ -kāḍhaṇēṃ -āṇaṇēṃ -lāvaṇēṃ -ṭhēvaṇēṃ To find fault with; to blame, impeach, accuse, charge.

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dōṣā (दोषा).—f S (Poetry.) Night. Ex. dōṣā pravarttalī sakaḷa || brahmāṇḍakaraṇḍā bharalēṃ kājaḷa ||.

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dōṣā (दोषा).—ad S By night, at night.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dōṣa (दोष).—m Fault; sin. Disorder of the bumours of the body.

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dōṣā (दोषा).—f Night. ad By night, at night.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Doṣa (दोष).—[duṣ bhāve karaṇe vā ghañ]

1) (a) A fault, blame, censure, defect, blemish, weak point; पत्रं नैव यदा करीर- विटपे दोषो वसन्तस्य किम् (patraṃ naiva yadā karīra- viṭape doṣo vasantasya kim) Bhartṛhari 2.93; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.242; नात्र कुलपति- र्दोषं ग्रहीष्यति (nātra kulapati- rdoṣaṃ grahīṣyati) Ś.3. 'will not find fault or take exception'; so पुनरुक्तदोषा (punaruktadoṣā) R.14.9. विसृज्य शूर्पवद्दोषान् गुणान् गृह्णन्ति साधवः । दोषग्राही गुणत्यागी चालनीव हि दुर्जनः (visṛjya śūrpavaddoṣān guṇān gṛhṇanti sādhavaḥ | doṣagrāhī guṇatyāgī cālanīva hi durjanaḥ) || Udb. (b) An error, a mistake.

2) A crime, sin guilt, offence; जायामदोषामुत संत्यजामि (jāyāmadoṣāmuta saṃtyajāmi) R.14.34; Manusmṛti 8.25; Y.3.79; also अधर्मदोष (adharmadoṣa); cf. Rām.3.66.16.

3) Noxious quality, badness, injurious nature or quality; as in आहारदोष (āhāradoṣa); cf. Manusmṛti 1.14.

4) Harm, evil, danger, injury; बहुदोषा हि शर्वरी (bahudoṣā hi śarvarī) Mṛcchakaṭika 1.58; अनुसरति हि शशाङ्कं राहु-दोषेऽपि तारा (anusarati hi śaśāṅkaṃ rāhu-doṣe'pi tārā) Pratimā1.25. को दोषः (ko doṣaḥ) 'what harm is there'.

5) Bad or injurious consequence, detrimental effect; तत्किमयमातपदोषः स्यात् (tatkimayamātapadoṣaḥ syāt) Ś.3; अदाता वंशदोषेण कर्मदोषाद्दरिद्रता (adātā vaṃśadoṣeṇa karmadoṣāddaridratā) Chāṇ.49; Manusmṛti 1.14.

6) Morbid affection, disease.

7) Disorder of the three humours of the body, or the three humours when in a disordered state,

8) (In Nyāya. &c.) A fault of a definition : (i. e. avyāpti, ativyāpti and asaṃbhava).

9) (In Rhet.) A fault or defect of composition (such as paradoṣa, padāṃśadoṣa, vākyadoṣa, rasadoṣa, and arthadoṣa which are defined and illustrated in the 7th Ullāsa of K. P.).

1) A calf.

11) Refutation.

12) Evening, dusk; cf. दोषा (doṣā); दोषे हृषीकेश उतार्धरात्रे निशीथ एकोऽवतु पद्मनाभः (doṣe hṛṣīkeśa utārdharātre niśītha eko'vatu padmanābhaḥ) Bhāgavata 6.8.21.

Derivable forms: doṣaḥ (दोषः).

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Doṣa (दोष).—See under दुष् (duṣ).

See also (synonyms): doṣika, doṣin.

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Doṣā (दोषा).—ind. At night; दोषाऽपि नूनमहिमांशुरसौ किलेति (doṣā'pi nūnamahimāṃśurasau kileti) Śiśupālavadha 4. 46,62. -f.

1) The arm.

2) The darkness of night, night; घर्मकालदिवस इव क्षपितदोषः (gharmakāladivasa iva kṣapitadoṣaḥ) K.37 (where the word means 'a fault or sin' also).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Doṣa (दोष).—m. (once app. nt., na ca doṣam asti Lalitavistara 138.19, verse, but perhaps doṣa-m-, ‘hiatus-bridging’ m; = Pali dosa; see duṣyati, dūṣaṇa), hatred, malice, aversion, for Sanskrit dveṣa, which also occurs, sometimes in variants of the same passage; usually distinguishable from the homonym doṣa (Sanskrit id.), especially by association with rāga and synonyms (also moha), or contrast with love (kāma, preman, sneha): premā ca doṣaś ca na me kahiṃ cit Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 128.9 (verse), I have no love or hatred for any; nirjita-kāma-doṣāḥ Divyāvadāna 399.3—4; [Page272-b+ 71] na ca snchu nāpi doṣas Lalitavistara 355.10; associated, often com- pounded, with rāga, and generally also with moha, Lalitavistara 291.1; 313.3; 403.5 (but also rāga-dveṣa-moha Lalitavistara 374.19); Mahāvastu ii.41.18; Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 23.10; Gaṇḍavyūha 54.5; 195.19; Śikṣāsamuccaya 164.6 (cited from Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 33.9 where text with all mss. dveṣa); Daśabhūmikasūtra 35.16; Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā 457.4, in explanation of dveṣa, see s.v. dūṣaṇa; dveṣa Śikṣāsamuccaya 232.12, resumed by doṣa 13; maitrīm utpā- dayitvā doṣaṃ vivarjayiṣyāmi Śikṣāsamuccaya 200.15; among misc. vices, Lalitavistara 357.6; 372.17.

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Doṣā (दोषा).—adv. (Sanskrit chiefly Vedic; compare Sanskrit doṣām, Pali dosaṃ), last evening: Mahāvastu ii.258.5 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Doṣa (दोष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. Fault, defect, blemish. 2. Sin, offence, transgression. 3. Disorder of the humours of the body, or defect in the functions of bile, circulation, or wind. 4. A calf. E. duṣ to be defective, affix ghañ .

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Doṣā (दोषा).—f.

(-ṣā) 1. Night. 2. The arm. ind.

(-ṣā) 1. By night, at night. 2. At the beginning of the night. E. dam to tame, ṅīs affix, and ṭāp added.

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Dosa (दोस).—m.

(-doḥ) 1. The arm. 2. The side of a triangle, or square, &c. E. dam to subdue, affix ḍom .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Doṣa (दोष).—i. e. duṣ + a, m. 1. Defect, blemish, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 2108; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 205. 2. Fault, vice, Mahābhārata 5, 1048. 3. Damage, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 256. 4. Sin, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 3. 5. Crime, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 262. 6. Reproach, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 101, 32 Gorr.; doṣeṇa gam, To accuse, Chr. 16, 14. 7. Detrimental operation, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 13, 35. 8. Effect, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 79, 25. 9. Disorder of the humours of the body, or defect in the functions of bile, phlegm, and wind, [Suśruta] 2, 562, 4. 10. The humours of the body, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 4. 11. Evening, darkness, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 8, 19.

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Doṣā (दोषा).—an old instr. of doṣa, adv. At night, [Śiśupālavadha] 4, 46.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Doṣa (दोष).—1. [masculine] mostly doṣā [feminine] evening, dark; doṣām & doṣā ([instrumental]) in the evening, at dusk.

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Doṣā (दोषा).—[feminine] evening, dark; doṣām & doṣā ([instrumental]) in the evening, at dusk.

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Doṣa (दोष).—2. [masculine] ([neuter]) fault, defect, want; sin, transgression; harm, evil consequence; disadvantage, damage, bad condition.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Doṣa (दोष):—1. doṣa m. evening, darkness (only [Bhāgavata-purāṇa], where personified as one of the 8 Vasus and husband of Night, [ vi, 6, 11; 14 ])

2) Doṣā (दोषा):—[from doṣa] a f. See next.

3) [v.s. ...] 1. doṣā f. darkness, night, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc. (ṣām ind. & ṣā [instr.; cf. [gana] svar-ādi] ind. in the evening, at dusk, at night)

4) [v.s. ...] Night personified (and regarded with, [Prabodha-candrodaya] as wife of Puṣpārṇa and mother of Pradoṣa or Evening, Niśitha [!] or Midnight and Vyuṣṭa or Day-break), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 13, 13; 14] (cf. doṣas, paścā-doṣa, pra-doṣa, prati-doṣam) 1.

5) [from doṣa] ind., [instr.; cf. [gana] svar-ādi] in the evening, at dusk, at night

6) Doṣa (दोष):—2. doṣa m. rarely n. (√duṣ) fault, vice, deficiency, want, inconvenience, disadvantage, [Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) badness, wickedness, sinfulness, [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa]

8) offence, transgression, guilt, crime ([accusative] with √ or labh, to incur guilt), [???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) damage, harm, bad consequence, detrimental effect (naiṣa doṣaḥ, there is no harm; kotra d, what does it matter?), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

10) accusation, reproach (ṣaṃ√kṛ or ṣeṇa-√gam with [accusative], to accuse), [Rāmāyaṇa]

11) alteration, affection, morbid element, disease ([especially] of the 3 humours of the body, viz. pitta, vāyu, and śleṣman, cf. tridoṣa and dhātu, applied also to the humours themselves), [Suśruta]

12) (also ṣaka) a calf, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Doṣā (दोषा):—[from doṣan] 2. doṣā f. (for 1. See 1. doṣa) the arm, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Doṣa (दोष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. Fault, sin; defect in the functions of the body; a calf.

2) Doṣā (दोषा):—(ṣā) 1. f. The arm; Ind. by night.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Doṣa (दोष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Dosa, Dosā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dosha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Doṣa (दोष) [Also spelled dosh]:—(nm) a fault; flaw, guilt; defect; demerit; blame; disorder (of the humours of the body); ~[kārī] harmful, damaging; creating disorder; ~[traya] see [tridoṣa]; -[dṛṣṭī] a fault-finding eye; -[patra] a charge sheet; ~[pūrṇa/yukta] defective; faulty; guilty; —[denā] to accuse; to make an accusation; —[maḍhanā] to level a charge against; —[siddha kara denā] to bring home to, to substantiate a charge.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Dosa (दोस) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Doṣa.

2) Dosa (दोस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dosa.

3) Dosā (दोसा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Doṣā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dōṣa (ದೋಷ):—

1) [noun] something that mars the appearance, character, structure, etc.; a defect or failing; a fault.

2) [noun] lack of something necessary for completeness; deficiency; shortcoming.

3) [noun] something done wrongly as a misdeed, offence or an error; a mistake.

4) [noun] an offence against god, religion or good morals; a crime; a sin.

5) [noun] an evil or wicked conduct or behaviour; corruption; vice.

6) [noun] damage; harm; bad consequence.

7) [noun] that which is inauspicious.

8) [noun] darkness; night.

9) [noun] morbid elements esp. any of the three humours of the body i.e. ವಾತ, ಪಿತ್ತ [vata, pitta] and ಶ್ಲೇಷ್ಮ [shleshma]).

10) [noun] red or block spots on the tongue caused by a high fever.

11) [noun] medical care; treatment of a diseased person.

12) [noun] (rhet.) a wrong usage, treatment of a subject, wrong usage of idioms, figure of speech, etc. in a literary work.

13) [noun] (astrol.) an evil caused or that is going to be caused, by a particular movement of planet, star, etc.

14) [noun] (phil.) the emotion of anger, rage, hatred, covetousness, fondness, lust, etc.; passion.

15) [noun] that which makes an argument illogical or unreasonable; illogic.

16) [noun] (Jain.) any of the eighteen impediments in the path of meditation and acquiring true knowledge.

17) [noun] ದೋಷ ಕೊಡು [dosha kodu] dōṣa koḍu to make allegations against; to hold another as a culprit; to accuse.

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Dōsa (ದೋಸ):—[noun] = ದೋಷ [dosha].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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