Dosha, aka: Dosa, Doṣa, Dosā, Doṣā; 23 Definition(s)
Dosha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Doṣa and Doṣā can be transliterated into English as Dosa or Dosha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Doṣa (दोष) has been defined as that which is one of the components of Prāṇa (‘life’) and plays causative role in physiology and pathology. As it covers the wide range of the entire living world, ti has been applied to the other animate groups as well such as those relating to animals (aśvāyurveda, gajāyurveda, gavāyurveda etc.) and plants (vṛkṣāyurveda). Doṣas have wide range of functions. Similarly, though doṣas are all-pervasive they are predominantly manifested in certain sites such as vāta below the navel, pitta between the heart and navel and kapha in the region above the head.
When prāṇa (vitae) enters into the material body, the three doṣas—vāta, pitta and kapha—emerge to take up the physiological functions. Vāta consists of air (and ether), Pitta of fire and Kapha of water (in combination with earth.) They are called dhātu, doṣa and mala because of their maintaining, pathogenic and excretory phases. The three Doṣas (kapha, pitta and vāta) generally pervade the entire body and are particularly located in head, navel and below respectively. As the world is maintained by air, the sun and the moon by their functions of movements, receiving and releasing, the body is maintained by the three Doṣas (vāta, pitta and kapha) with respective functions. Doṣa is so-called as it defines Prakṛti (human constitution) as well as produces abnormality thus playing vital role in physiology and pathology of living beings.Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
The concept of Doṣa has been evolved by the great sages of Āyurveda to differentiate with livings and non-livings. Though Śarīra (human body) is made up of Pañca Mahābhūta, it attains life only when Ātma (spirit), Indriya (senses) and Mana join to it. Doṣa are the biological units of the living body which are responsible for its all functions. Doṣa are three viz. Vāta, Pitta and Kapha, and each of which is also made up of Mahābhūta. Vāyu and Ākāṣa Mahābhūta form Vāta-doṣa, Agni Mahābhūta forms Pitta-doṣa, and Pṛthvī and Jala Mahābhūta form Kapha-doṣa.
The word Doṣa is derived from the verb ‘duṣa’ which means to vitiate. In the normal state of equilibrium they support the body and when vitiated produce the disease. Doṣa play important role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
1) Doṣa (दोष).—A Vasu; husband of Śarvarī and father of Śimśumāra; a kalā of Viṣṇu.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11-14.
2) Doṣā (दोषा).—A queen of Puṣpārṇa and mother of Prado1ṣa, Niśitha and Vyuṣṭha.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 13. 13-14.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Doṣa (दोष) refers to the ten “faults” in a poetical work (kāvya), accoridng to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. They are opposed by the ten guṇas (‘merit’) which provide sweetness and depth of meaning.
The following are defined as the ten faults (doṣa):
- gūḍhārtha (circumlocution),
- arthāntara (superfluous expression),
- arthahīna (want of significance),
- bhinnārtha (defective significance),
- ekārtha (tautology),
- abhiplutārtha (want of synthesis),
- nyāyādapeta (logical defect),
- viṣama (metrical defect),
- visandhi (hiatus),
- śabdacyuta (slang).
2) Doṣa (दोष) or Pañcadoṣa refers to the “five faults” of a singer according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 32.519-525:—“The five faults of a singer are that his voice (lit. he) may be Kapila, unsteady, Sandaṣṭa (bitten), Kākī (crow-like), and Tumbakī (nasal)... These are the essential facts about the qualities, and faults of voice, related by me”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Doṣa (दोष, “faults”) refers to “poetic faults” as opposed to guṇa (poetic merits), and are ten in number. These faults are divided into two types—sphuṭa or permanent and asphuṭa which are not permanent. The blemishes like cyutasaṃskṛti etc. are permanent. So the words and meanings which will go to constitute poetry must be devoid of these permanent blemishes.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
1) Doṣa (दोष).—A fault of pronunciation; cf एताः स्वरदोषभावनाः अतोन्ये व्यञ्जनदोषाः (etāḥ svaradoṣabhāvanāḥ atonye vyañjanadoṣāḥ) M.Bh. on I. 1.1 Vart.18
2) Doṣa.—Defect shown in connection with an expression or explanation.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)
Doṣa (दोष, “fault”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “doṣa (fault) causes activity; rāga, dveṣa, moha etc. are the roots of all activities”.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
General definition (in Hinduism)
The review of ancient rasa literature revealed that the ancient Rasācāryas have recognised number of doṣas for almost all the drugs of mineral origin including metals, minerals and mercury. Not only these ancient scholars have recognised the bad effects of each doṣas of the drugs and tried to remove them specifically and have evolved or described suitable processes, techniques and drugs also for that purpose.Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
There are three kinds of morbid elements (doṣa) of the body, viz. vāta, pitta and śleṣman , and two morbid elements which affect the mind (sattva), viz. rajas and tamas. By the disorder of the first three the body becomes diseased, and by that of the second two the mind becomes affected.Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy
Doṣā (दोषा, ‘evening’), is frequently referred to from the Rigveda1 onwards, usually as contrasted with uṣas, ‘dawn’. In the Chāndogya-upaniṣad the word is contrasted with prātar, ‘early’. See also Ahan.Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
M Repulsion, hatred, anger.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Part of the Dosa Team.
Dosa has destructive nature. It is very ugly. It hurts anyone anything. Dosa destroys its home and its environment. In the presence of dosa everything wicked and unhumanly things can be committed. Dosa cetasika is the head of all dosa related cetasikas and dosa cittas. When there is issa, there also arises dosa and this is also true in case of macchariya or in case of kukkucca.Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
'hatred', anger, is one of the 3 unwholesome, roots (mūla). - d. citta: hate consciousness; s. Tab. I (30, 31).Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Dosa, aversion, is another akusala cetasika. When the citta dislikes the object it experiences there is dosa, aversion.
Dosa is aggressive, just like a snake which has been hit. The function of dosa is spreading of itself or writhing as
when poison takes effect. Dosa is harmful for mind and body. Because of dosa our appearance becomes ugly: we may become red in the face, our features become unpleasant and the comers of our mouth droop.
Dosa can also appear as fear. When there is fear one dislikes the object which is experienced. Fear is harmful for mind and body.
Dosa arises with two types of citta, of which one is "unprompted" (asankharika) and one "prompted" (sasankharika).Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
India history and geogprahy
Doṣa.—(LP), doing anything wrongly. (IE 7-1-2), ‘three’. (EI 9), black or red spots on the tongue supposed to be a foreboding of death. Cf. daṇḍa-doṣa; fines; see also pradhāna-apradhāna-doṣa- samanvita used as an epithet of the gift village (Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 274). Here doṣa apparently means daṇda-doṣa. Note: doṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
dosa : (m.) anger; corrupting; defect; fault.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Dosā, (f.) (Sk. doṣā & doṣas, cp. Gr. du/w, du/omai to set (of the sun)) evening, dusk. Only in Acc. as adv. dosaṃ (=doṣāṃ) at night J.VI, 386. (Page 332)
— or —
1) Dosa, 2 (Sk. dveṣa, but very often not distinct in meaning from dosa1. On dveṣa see under disa) anger, ill-will, evil intention, wickedness, corruption, malice, hatred. In most freq. combn of either rāga (lust) d. & moha (delusion), or lobha (greed) d. moha (see rāga & lobha), to denote the 3 main blemishes of character. For defn see Vism.295 & 470. Interpreted at Nd2 313 as “cittassa āghāto paṭighāto paṭigho ... kopo ... kodho ... vyāpatti.” — The distinction between dosa & paṭigha is made at DA.I, 116 as: dosa=dubbalakodha; paṭigha=balavakodha.—In combn lobha d. moha e.g. S.I, 98; M.I, 47, 489; A.I, 134, 201; II, 191; III, 338; It.45 (tīṇi akusalamūlāni). With rāga & moha: Dh.20; It.2=6; with rāga & avijjā; It.57; rāga & māna Sn.270, 631 etc.—See for ref.: Vin.I, 183; D.III, 146, 159, 182, 214, 270; S.I, 13, 15, 70; V, 34 sq.; M.I, 15, 96 sq., 250 sq., 305; A.I, 187; II, 172, 203; III, 181; Sn.506; It.2 (dosena duṭṭhāse sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ); Ps.I, 80 sq., 102; Pug.16, 18; Dhs.418, 982, 1060; Vbh.86, 167, 208, 362; Nett 13, 90; Sdhp.33, 43.—Variously characterised as: 8 purisa-dosā Vbh.387; khila, nīgha, mala S.V, 57; agati (4 agati-gamanāni: chanda, d. moha, bhaya) D.III, 228, cp. 133, 182; ajjhattaṃ A.III, 357 sq.; its relation to kamma A.I, 134; III, 338; V, 262; to ariyamagga S.V, 5, 8.—sadosa corrupted, depraved, wicked D.I, 80; A.I, 112; adosa absence of illwill, adj. kind, friendly, sympathetic A.I, 135, 195, 203; II, 192; Vbh.169, 210; Dhs.33 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 21, 99); VvA.14 (+alobha amoha).
—aggi the fire of anger or ill-will D.III, 217; S.IV, 19 sq.; It.92 (+rāgaggi moh°); J.I, 61; —antara (adj.) bearing anger, intending evil in one’s heart Vin.II, 249; D.III, 237; M.I, 123; A.I, 59; III, 196 sq.; V, 81 (opp. metta-citta); perhaps at PvA.78 (for des°); —kkhaya the fading away, dying out of anger or malice S.III, 160, 191; IV, 250; V, 8; Vbh.73, 89; —gata=dosa (+paṭigha) S.IV, 71; —garu full of anger S.I, 24; —dosa (: dosa1) spoilt by anger Dh.357; —saññita connected with ill-will It.78; —sama like anger Dh.202; —hetuka caused by evil intention or depravity A.V, 261 (pāṇātipāta). (Page 332)
2) Dosa, 1 (Sk. doṣa to an Idg. *deu(s) to want, to be inferior etc. (cp. dussati), as in Gr. dέomai, deu/omai) corruption, blemish, fault, bad condition, defect; depravity, corrupted state; usually —°, as khetta° blight of the field Miln.360; tiṇa° spoilt by weeds Dh.356; PvA.7; visa° ill effect of poison Th.1, 758, 768; sneha° blemish of sensual affection Sn.66. Four kasiṇa-dosā at Vism.123; eighteen making a Vihāra unsuitable at Vism.118 sq.—J.II, 417; III, 104; Miln.330 (sabba-d.-virahita faultless); DA.I, 37, 141.—pl. dosā the (three) morbid affections, or disorder of the (3) humours Miln.43; adj. with disturbed humours Miln.172, cp. DA.I, 133. (Page 331)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
dōṣa (दोष).—m (S) Fault, flaw, defect, excess, blemish, imperfection (of men, animals, things). 2 Sin, offence, transgression: also culpability or blameworthiness. 3 Disorder of the humors of the body: also defect in the functions of bile, circu- lation, or wind. 4 Fault of composition or speech. It comprehends three kinds,--padadōṣa Fault of words; vākyadōṣa Fault of the sentence; arthadōṣa Fault of the sense or meaning. See under vākyadōṣa. dōṣa dēṇēṃ -kāḍhaṇēṃ -āṇaṇēṃ -lāvaṇēṃ -ṭhēvaṇēṃ To find fault with; to blame, impeach, accuse, charge.
--- OR ---
dōṣā (दोषा).—f S (Poetry.) Night. Ex. dōṣā pravarttalī sakaḷa || brahmāṇḍakaraṇḍā bharalēṃ kājaḷa ||.
--- OR ---
dōṣā (दोषा).—ad S By night, at night.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
dōṣa (दोष).—m Fault; sin. Disorder of the bumours of the body.
--- OR ---
dōṣā (दोषा).—f Night. ad By night, at night.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Doṣa (दोष).—[duṣ bhāve karaṇe vā ghañ]
1) (a) A fault, blame, censure, defect, blemish, weak point; पत्रं नैव यदा करीर- विटपे दोषो वसन्तस्य किम् (patraṃ naiva yadā karīra- viṭape doṣo vasantasya kim) Bh.2.93; Pt.1.242; नात्र कुलपति- र्दोषं ग्रहीष्यति (nātra kulapati- rdoṣaṃ grahīṣyati) Ś.3. 'will not find fault or take exception'; so पुनरुक्तदोषा (punaruktadoṣā) R.14.9. विसृज्य शूर्पवद्दोषान् गुणान् गृह्णन्ति साधवः । दोषग्राही गुणत्यागी चालनीव हि दुर्जनः (visṛjya śūrpavaddoṣān guṇān gṛhṇanti sādhavaḥ | doṣagrāhī guṇatyāgī cālanīva hi durjanaḥ) || Udb. (b) An error, a mistake.
2) A crime, sin guilt, offence; जायामदोषामुत संत्यजामि (jāyāmadoṣāmuta saṃtyajāmi) R.14.34; Ms.8.25; Y.3.79; also अधर्मदोष (adharmadoṣa); cf. Rām.3.66.16.
3) Noxious quality, badness, injurious nature or quality; as in आहारदोष (āhāradoṣa); cf. Ms.1.14.
4) Harm, evil, danger, injury; बहुदोषा हि शर्वरी (bahudoṣā hi śarvarī) Mk.1.58; अनुसरति हि शशाङ्कं राहु-दोषेऽपि तारा (anusarati hi śaśāṅkaṃ rāhu-doṣe'pi tārā) Pratimā1.25. को दोषः (ko doṣaḥ) 'what harm is there'.
5) Bad or injurious consequence, detrimental effect; तत्किमयमातपदोषः स्यात् (tatkimayamātapadoṣaḥ syāt) Ś.3; अदाता वंशदोषेण कर्मदोषाद्दरिद्रता (adātā vaṃśadoṣeṇa karmadoṣāddaridratā) Chāṇ.49; Ms.1.14.
6) Morbid affection, disease.
7) Disorder of the three humours of the body, or the three humours when in a disordered state,
8) (In Nyāya. &c.) A fault of a definition : (i. e. avyāpti, ativyāpti and asaṃbhava).
9) (In Rhet.) A fault or defect of composition (such as paradoṣa, padāṃśadoṣa, vākyadoṣa, rasadoṣa, and arthadoṣa which are defined and illustrated in the 7th Ullāsa of K. P.).
1) A calf.
12) Evening, dusk; cf. दोषा (doṣā); दोषे हृषीकेश उतार्धरात्रे निशीथ एकोऽवतु पद्मनाभः (doṣe hṛṣīkeśa utārdharātre niśītha eko'vatu padmanābhaḥ) Bhāg.6.8.21.
Derivable forms: doṣaḥ (दोषः).
--- OR ---
Doṣa (दोष).—See under दुष् (duṣ).
See also (synonyms): doṣika, doṣin.
--- OR ---
Doṣā (दोषा).—ind. At night; दोषाऽपि नूनमहिमांशुरसौ किलेति (doṣā'pi nūnamahimāṃśurasau kileti) Śi.4. 46,62. -f.
1) The arm.
2) The darkness of night, night; घर्मकालदिवस इव क्षपितदोषः (gharmakāladivasa iva kṣapitadoṣaḥ) K.37 (where the word means 'a fault or sin' also).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Doṣa (दोष).—m. (once app. nt., na ca doṣam asti LV 138.19, verse, but perh. doṣa-m-, ‘hiatus-bridging’ m; = Pali dosa; see duṣyati, dūṣaṇa), hatred, malice, aversion, for Sanskrit dveṣa, which also occurs, sometimes in variants of the same passage; usually distinguishable from the homonym doṣa (Sanskrit id.), esp. by association with rāga and synonyms (also moha), or contrast with love (kāma, preman, sneha): premā ca doṣaś ca na me kahiṃ cit SP 128.9 (verse), I have no love or hatred for any; nirjita-kāma-doṣāḥ Divy 399.3—4; [Page272-b+ 71] na ca snchu nāpi doṣas LV 355.10; associated, often com- pounded, with rāga, and generally also with moha, LV 291.1; 313.3; 403.5 (but also rāga-dveṣa-moha LV 374.19); Mv ii.41.18; Suv 23.10; Gv 54.5; 195.19; Śikṣ 164.6 (cited from Suv 33.9 where text with all mss. dveṣa); Dbh 35.16; MadhK 457.4, in explanation of dveṣa, see s.v. dūṣaṇa; dveṣa Śikṣ 232.12, resumed by doṣa 13; maitrīm utpā- dayitvā doṣaṃ vivarjayiṣyāmi Śikṣ 200.15; among misc. vices, LV 357.6; 372.17.
--- OR ---
Doṣā (दोषा).—adv. (Sanskrit chiefly Vedic; compare Sanskrit doṣām, Pali dosaṃ), last evening: Mv ii.258.5 (prose).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 392 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Tridoṣa (त्रिदोष).—n. (-ṣaṃ) Disorder of the three humours of the body, vitiation of the bile, ...
Dṛṣṭadoṣa (दृष्टदोष).—mfn. (-ṣaḥ-ṣā-ṣaṃ) Found out, exposed detected. E. dṛṣṭa, and doṣa fault.
Hastadoṣa (हस्तदोष).—m. (-ṣaḥ) A slip of the hand.
Svapnadoṣa (स्वप्नदोष).—n. (-ṣaṃ) Pollutio nocturna. E. svapna, doṣa fault.
Kanyādoṣa (कन्यादोष).—m. (-ṣaḥ) A blemish in a virgin, disease, bad repute, &c. E. kanyā, a...
Paṅktidoṣa (पङ्क्तिदोष).—anything that defiles a social circle. Derivable forms: paṅktidoṣaḥ (प...
Nirdoṣa (निर्दोष).—a. 1) faultless, defectless; न निर्दोषं न निर्गुणम् (na nirdoṣaṃ na nirguṇam...
Doṣāropa (दोषारोप).—charge, accusation. Derivable forms: doṣāropaḥ (दोषारोपः).Doṣāropa is a San...
Doṣadṛṣṭi (दोषदृष्टि).—a. looking at faults, censorious, Doṣadṛṣṭi is a Sanskrit compound consi...
Doṣākara (दोषाकर).—mfn. (-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Defective, faulty. m. (-raḥ) The moon. E. doṣā night, and...
Doṣagrāhin (दोषग्राहिन्).—mfn. (-hī-hiṇī-hi) Malicious, malignant, censorious. E. doṣa a fault,...
Doṣātilaka (दोषातिलक).—m. (-kaḥ) A lamp. E. doṣa night, and tilaka excellence.
Tvagdoṣa (त्वग्दोष).—m. (-ṣaḥ) Leprosy. E. tvak, and doṣa fault.
Doṣajña (दोषज्ञ).—mfn. (-jñaḥ-jñā-jñaṃ) Knowing faults, &c. m. (-jñaḥ) 1. A Pandit, a teach...
śabdadōṣa (शब्ददोष).—m (S) A blemish or an imperfection in words or a word (not as inherent or ...
Search found 78 books and stories containing Dosha, Dosa, Doṣa, Dosā or Doṣā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Abhidhamma in Daily Life (by Nina Van Gorkom)
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 8 - Vāyu, Pitta and Kapha < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 16 - Springs of action in the Caraka-samhitā < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Cetasikas (by Nina van Gorkom)
Chapter 18 - Aversion < [Part III - Akusala Cetasikas]
Chapter 2 - Feeling < [Part I - The Universals]
Chapter 19 - Envy, Stinginess, Regret < [Part III - Akusala Cetasikas]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter LIX - Symptoms and Treatment of the defects of Urine (Mutra-dosha) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter XVIII - Preparations and medicinal measures for ocular affections in general < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter XLIX - Symptoms and Treatment of Vomiting (Chardi) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 3061 < [Chapter 25 - Examination of the Doctrine of ‘Self-sufficient Validity’]
Verse 1502-1503 < [Chapter 19a - Other forms and means of Knowledge (A): Verbal cognition]
Verse 1822-1828 < [Chapter 21 - Examination of the doctrine of ‘Traikālya’]
Vipassana Meditation Course (by Chanmyay Sayadaw)