Caraka, Cāraka: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Caraka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Charaka.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Carakas (चरक), the wandering mendicants expert in medicine, contributed a lot to the evolution of Ayurvedic theories and practises. The greatest fundamental discovery of this age was the Law of the Uniformity of Nature (loka-puruṣa-sāmānya) (Puruṣo’yam lokasammitaḥ—Caraka-saṃhitā Śārīrasthāna, 5.3) which paved the way for observing the intimate relation between microcosm and macrocosm and for applying the physical laws governing gravitation, hydraulics, thermodynamics, electricity, magnetism, motion etc. to the biological field. Moreover, minute observation of Nature and its phenomena led to postulation of many concepts.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Caraka (चरक) is another name for Parpaṭa, a medicinal plant identified with various varieties and species, according to verse 5.8-10 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Caraka and Parpaṭa, there are a total of eighteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Caraka (चरक).—Author of Carakasaṃhitā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Caraka (चरक).—A Paulaha and one of the seven sages of the period of Tāmasa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 48.

1b) See Carakādhvaryus.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 13; Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 10.

1c) Disciples of Vajina.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 23.

1d) Disciples of Yājñavalkya.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 24.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Caraka (चरक) is the name of an ancient king from the Solar dynasty (sūryavaṃśa) and a descendant of Mahāsaṃmata, according to the Dīpavaṃśa and the Mahāvaṃśa. Caraka is known as Kāru according to the Dulva (the Tibetan translation of the Vinaya of the Sarvāstivādins).

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

caraka : one who walks or frequents; 2. a spy. || cāraka (adj.), one who causes to move or act. (m.) a prison.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Caraka, 1. =cara2 (a messenger) J. VI, 369 (attha°); adj. walking through: sabbalokaṃ° J. V, 395.—2. any animal S. I, 106; PvA. 153 (vana°). (Page 263)

— or —

Cāraka, (cārika) (adj.) wandering about, living, going, behaving, always —°, like ākāsa°, niketa°, pure° (see pubbaṅgama), vana°, — f. cārikā journey, wandering, esp. as cārikaṃ carati to go on alms-pilgrimage (see carati Ib) Vin. I, 83; J. I, 82; II, 286; Dh. 326; Miln. 14, 22; °ñ pakkamati to set out wandering J. I, 87; Miln. 16. ‹-› S. I, 199; M. I, 117; A. III, 257; DA. I, 239 sq. (in detail on two cārikā); VvA. 165; EnA 295 (unchā°). (Page 265)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caraka (चरक).—m ( P) A sugarcane-mill. 2 Cant. The teeth and jaws; the mill of the mouth. 3 A wheel or lathe (for turner's work, for polishing pots and pans, for seeding or cleaning cotton &c.) 4 A mill freely. Applied to a coffee-mill, pepper-mill, puraṇa vāṭāyācā caraka &c. 5 Wheeling fig., continual going on of any matter; as khāṇyācā- lihiṇyācā-saimpākācā-pāhuṇyācā-ca0 cālalā āhē. carakīṃ dharaṇēṃ To turn in the lathe. 2 fig. To keep hard at; to make stick to (as to a business or a study).

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caraka (चरक) [or ख, kha].—ad In amazement or bewilderment. Ex. mājhī buddhi or akkala ca0 jhālī or mī ca0 jhālōṃ.

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carakā (चरका).—m (cara! the sound in searing or singeing.) The sound or the sudden smart attendant upon a burn: also a burn, sear, brand. v basa. 2 The hiss or the sear of vegetables &c. upon which hot phōḍaṇī is poured; of water into which heated metal is plunged &c. v basa, dē. 3 A thrill or sudden pang (as affecting the mind).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caraka (चरक).—m A sugarcane-mill. A wheel or lathe. carakī dharaṇēṃ To keep hard at; to make to stick to (as to a business or a study).

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caraka (चरक) [or kha, or ख].—ad In amazement or be- wilderment.

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carakā (चरका).—m A burn, sear, brand. A thrill or sudden pang (as affecting the mind).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caraka (चरक).—

1) A spy.

2) A wandering mendicant, a vagrant.

3) Name of a sage and physician supposed to be serpent-king Śeṣa come to the earth. [He composed a new book on medicine, based on other works of Agniveśa and other pupils of Ātreya].

4) Name of a lexicographer m. (pl.); cf. P.IV.3.17.

5) Name of a branch of the black Yajurveda.

Derivable forms: carakaḥ (चरकः).

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Cāraka (चारक).—a. [cārayati car-ṇic-ṇvul]

1) Acting, doing, proceeding; अपूर्वचारकः सौम्यो अनिकेतः समाहितः (apūrvacārakaḥ saumyo aniketaḥ samāhitaḥ) Mb.3.278.19.

-kaḥ 1 A spy.

2) A herdsman.

3) A leader, driver.

4) An associate.

5) A groom, cavalier.

6) A prison; निगडितचरणा चारके निरोद्धव्या (nigaḍitacaraṇā cārake niroddhavyā) Dk.32.

7) A bond, fetter.

8) Going, motion.

9) A wandering Brahmanical student.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Caraka (चरक).—m. (not noted in Pali; rare in Sanskrit, see [Boehtlingk] s.v. 1 c; but recorded in AMg. as caraga-, [compound] with parivvāyaga, just as in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]), one of a heretical sect of ascetics; regularly followed in composition by parivrājaka, the two possibly (as allegedly in AMg., above, see [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary]) denoting a single sect or class of persons, rather than two: usually preceded, immediately or otherwise, by anya- tīrthika (Lalitavistara 2.21; Mahāvastu iii.412.7) or anyatīrthya (Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 276.2); caraka-parivrājaka- Lalitavistara 2.21; 380.12; Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 276.2; Mahāvastu iii.412.7; Śikṣāsamuccaya 331.11. The proper Tibetan translation seems to be spyod pa pa; so both Lalitavistara passages (Foucaux reads dpyod pa pa for 2.21, but my photostat of the Lib. of Congr. ed. spyod…) and Saddharmapuṇḍarīka; spyod = car-. But Jäschke (Tibetan-English Dictionary) defines this by Mīmāṃsaka, the correct term for which is dpyod pa pa (both terms are given for Mīmāṃsaka in Mahāvyutpatti 3517; Mahāvyutpatti seems to omit caraka); dpyod = examine (mīmāṃs-); Tibetan tradition has confused the two.

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Carakā (चरका).—name of a goddess: Mahāsamājasūtra, Waldschmidt, Kl. Sanskrit Texte 4, 185.17.

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Cāraka (चारक).—(-cāraka), m. (to cārayati, q.v., 2), dispenser, one who deals out (Tibetan ḥgrim pa, or ḥdrim pa, both for more usual ḥbrim pa), in yavāgū- Mahāvyutpatti 9058, khādyaka- 9059, phala- 9060, yatkiṃcic- 9061; all referring to officials or servants in a monastery.

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Cārakā (चारका) or Cārikā.—3, q.v., course, stream (of a river).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caraka (चरक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. The author of a treatise upon medicine: applied also to the work. 2. A spy or secret emissary, &c. E. cara to go, Unadi affix. svārthe ka saṃjñāyāṃ kan vā .

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Cāraka (चारक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A groom, a horseman, a cavalier. 2. A binding, a fetter. 3. An associate, a companion. 4. A spy. 5. A herdsman E. car to go, in the causal form, and ṇic-ṇvul aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cāraka (चारक).—i. e. car + aka, I. adj. Acting, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 66, 18. Ii. m. 1. A spy, Mahābhārata 2, 172. 2. A prison, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 195, 11. Iii. f. rikā, A servant-girl, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 14, 65. pracchanna- (vb. cad), adj. Acting fraudulently, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 66, 18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caraka (चरक).—[masculine] wanderer, traveller, [especially] a religious student or a spy; [masculine] [Name] of an ancient physician, [plural] a branch of the Yajurveda.

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Cāraka (चारक).—[adjective] acting, proceeding, setting in motion (—°). [masculine] spy, scout.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Caraka (चरक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—grammarian. Quoted by Kṣīrasvāmin in Kṣīrataraṅgiṇī, and by Mohanadāsa Oxf. 143^a.

2) Caraka (चरक):—See Carakasaṃhitā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caraka (चरक):—[from car] m. a wanderer, wandering religious student, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv; Pāṇini 5-1, 11; Lalita-vistara i, 28]

2) [v.s. ...] a spy, [Naiṣadha-carita iv, 116]

3) [v.s. ...] a kind of ascetic, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka xv, 1]

4) [v.s. ...] a kind of medicinal plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a Muni and physician (the Serpent-king Śeṣa, who was the recipient of the Āyur-veda; once on visiting the earth and finding it full of sickness he became moved with pity and determined to become incarnate as the son of a Muni for alleviating disease; he was called Caraka because he had visited the earth as a kind of spy or cara; he then composed a new book on medicine, based on older works of Agni-veśa and other pupils of Ātreya, [Bhāvaprakāśa])

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a lexicographer

7) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] (cf. [Pāṇini 4-3, 107]) Name of a branch of the black Yajur-veda (the practises and rites-enjoined by which are different in some respects from those in [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iv; Lāṭyāyana v, 4, 20 [Scholiast or Commentator] on Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] and, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Vāyu-purāṇa i, 61, 10]

8) Cāraka (चारक):—[from cāra] mfn. ifc. proceeding, [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 66, 18]

9) [v.s. ...] (√car, [Causal]) setting in motion, [Mahābhārata xiv, 42, 29]

10) [v.s. ...] composed by Caraka, [Pāṇini 4-3, 107; Kāśikā-vṛtti]

11) [v.s. ...] m. a spy, [Mahābhārata ii, 172] ([Pañcatantra ii]) and, [iv, 911]

12) [v.s. ...] (√car, [Causal] [Pāṇini 7-3, 34; Kāśikā-vṛtti]) a driver, herdsman (cf. go-), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] = bhojaka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] an associate, companion (saṃcāraka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] a fetter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] a prison, [Lalita-vistara xv; Daśakumāra-carita vii]

17) [v.s. ...] Buchanania latifolia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caraka (चरक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. The author of a treatise upon medicine; a spy.

2) Cāraka (चारक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A groom, a cavalier, a companion; a fetter.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Caraka (चरक):—(wie eben)

1) m. [Die Uṇādi-Affixe 2, 33.] a) Wanderer, ein herumziehender Brahmanenschüler: madreṣu carakāḥ paryavrajāma [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 6, 3, 1.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 1, 11.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 2, 287,] [Nalopākhyāna 2.] anyatīrthikaśramaṇabrāhmaṇacarakaparivrājakānām [Rgva tch’er rol pa ed. Calc. 2, 20.] — b) Späher [Uṇādikoṣa im Śabdakalpadruma] — c) pl. Name einer Schule des schwarzen Yajus, deren Gebräuche von den im [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa] gelehrten in manchen Einzelnheiten abweichen, [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 4, 1, 2, 19. 2, 4, 1. 10.] [Harisvāmin] zu [13, 2, 7, 3.] dve sautrāmaṇyau kaukilī carakasautrāmaṇī ca [LĀṬY. 5, 4, 20.] [MAH.] zu [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 10, 31.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 256. fgg.] carakācārya [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 30, 18.] carakādhvaryu [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 3, 8, 2, 24] (die an dieser St. angegebene Abweichung der C. wird von [Taittirīyasaṃhitā 6, 3, 9, 6. 10, 2] vertreten). [4, 2, 3, 15. 8, 1, 3, 7.7, 1, 14. 24.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 3, 107] (auf einen Lehrer Caraka zurückgeführt). [Viṣṇupurāṇa 280.] — d) Nomen proprium eines alten Arztes [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 923. 937. 940. 941. 947. 951. 958.] [Akademische Vorlesungen 235. 239.] [Amarakoṣa 3, 6, 4, 33] erscheint caraka (hier wohl caraṇa zu lesen) unter den Wörtern, welche zugleich m. und n. sind und wird vom [Scholiast] erklärt als N. eines nach dem Name des Autors benannten medicinischen Buches. Nach einer im [Śabdakalpadruma] [?aus Bhāvaprakāśa] mitgetheilten Legende kam einst der Schlangenfürst Śeṣa, der schon früher im Besitz des Āyurveda war, auf die Erde um sich das Treiben auf derselben anzusehen. Als er hier Leiden und Tod erblickte, ergriff ihn Mitleiden und er sann auf Mittel, die Krankheiten zu entfernen. Er wurde der Sohn eines Muni und erhielt, weil er als Kundschafter (cara) gekommen war, den Namen Caraka. Aus verschiedenen Werken von Agniveśa und andern Schülern des Ātreya veranstaltete er ein neues, welches nach ihm benannt wurde. Vgl. [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 21, 3.] [ALBYROUNY] bei [Mémoire géographique 316. fg.], wo اكن بيش = agniveśa und اشوفى = aśvin ist. — e) eine best. Pflanze (s. parpaṭa) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] —

2) f. carakā gaṇa kṣipakādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 7, 3, 45, Vārttika von Kātyāyana. 6.] —

3) f. carakī a) ein best. giftiger Fisch [Suśruta 2, 258, 4.] — b) Nomen proprium einer Unholdin [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 52, 83.] — Vgl. cāraka .

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Cāraka (चारक):—

1) adj. (von car) handelnd, zu Werke gehend: pracchanna [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 66, 18]; vgl. pracchannacārin [51, 26.] —

2) m. a) Späher, Kundschafter (vgl. cāra) [Mahābhārata 2, 172] [?(= Pañcatantra II, 66). 4, 911.] — b) Treiber, Hüter (vom caus. von car) [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 7, 3, 34,] [Scholiast] = aśvādipāla [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 40.] [Medinīkoṣa k. 86.] Vgl. go . Führer, = saṃcāraka [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] = saṃcālaka ([Śabdakalpadruma] saṃcāraka) [Medinīkoṣa] an associate, a companion [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] = bhojaka Fütterer (vgl. car) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 21]; oder ist etwa bhogika Pferdeknecht zu lesen? — c) ein herumziehender Brahmanenschüler (vgl. caraka) [Rgva tch’er rol pa 355.] — d) Fessel (vgl. cāra) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] Gefängniss [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 806,] [Scholiast] [Daśakumāracarita] in [Benfey’ Chrestomathie aus Sanskritwerken 195, 11. 200, 20.] — e) Buchanania latifolia Roxb. (vgl. cāra) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — f) Nomen proprium eines Mannes: cārakatrirātra m. Bezeichnung einer Feier [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 2, 97,] [Scholiast] —

3) f. cārikā a) Dienerin (die da hinundhergeht): antaḥpura [Kathāsaritsāgara 14, 65.] [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 125.] — b) Schabe [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] —

4) adj. von Caraka verfasst: ślokāḥ [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 3, 107,] [Scholiast]

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Caraka (चरक):—

1) c) [Oxforder Handschriften 55,a,13.] carakādhvaryavaḥ [14.] vaiśaṃpāyanaśiṣyā vai carakādhvaryavo bhavan [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 12, 6, 61.] — d) grantha [Oxforder Handschriften 404,b, No. 35.] tantra [187,b,25.] prādurbhāva [310,b,22.] carako vaidyaśāstraṃ prasiddham [UJJVAL.] zu [Uṇādisūtra 2, 32.] kṛtaṃ subhāṣyaṃ carakasya yena (kṛṣṇena) [Oxforder Handschriften 318,a,27.] Caraka als Verfasser eines Wörterbuchs [143,a, No. 292.]

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Cāraka (चारक):—wohl Diener, Angestellter (vgl. cārikā) in phala .

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Cāraka (चारक):—adj. in Bewegung setzend: pañcabhūtātma [Mahābhārata 14, 1130] nach der Lesart der ed. Bomb.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Caraka (चरक):——

1) m. — a) Wanderer , ein herumziehender Brahmanenschüler. — b) Späher [Naiṣadhacarita 4,116.] — c) ein Asket besonderer Art [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 15,1.] — d) *eine best. Arzeneipflanze. — e) Nomen proprium — α) Pl. einer Schule des schwarzen Yajurveda. — β) eines alten Arztes [Naiṣadhacarita 4,116.] sūtrāṇi [Bühler, Bombay 1877 .No.555.] — γ) eines Lexiocographen. —

2) (*m. n.) Titel des von 1)e) — β) verfassten Lehrbuchs [Bhāvaprakāśa 1,50.] —

3) f. carakī — a) ein best. giftiger Fisch. — b) Nomen proprium einer Unholdin [Agnipurāṇa 40,18.]

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Cāraka (चारक):——

1) Adj. am Ende eines Comp. — a) verfahrend , zu Werke gehend. — b) ein Bewegung setzend [Mahābhārata 14,42,29.] — c) *von Caraka verfasst.

2) m. — a) Späher , Kundschafter. — b) *Treiber , Hüter. — c) *eine Art Priester ( bhojaka). — d) *Diener. — e) *Genosse , Begleiter. — f) *Fessel. — g) Gefängniss [Lalitavistarapurāṇa 250,2.252,16.] — h) *Buchanania latifolia.

3) f. rikā — a) Dienerin in antaḥpura. — b) das Leben fahrender Mönche u.s.w. [Lalitavistarapurāṇa 309,2.] — c) *Coccinelle [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa (roth) ] — d) *Schabe.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of caraka in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Carakā (चरका):—(nm) fraud, swindle, rigging; —[khānā] to be swindled/defrauded; —[denā] to defraud, to swindle; —[laganā] to be defrauded/swindled.

context information

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