Horse: 3 definitions

Introduction:

Horse means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Worship of horses formed a part of the Navarātra Tantric ritual (an autumnal festival of the warrior goddess Caṇḍikā).—The first seven days involve: kalaśapūjā (worship of deities including the goddess, the Mothers and waters from the sacred fords in a vase); a king bathing in the sanctified waters from the kalaśapūjā; fasting, worshiping Śiva thrice daily, animal sacrifice (paśubali); daily worship of the royal horses; fire oblations and feeding a maiden.—Various 8th century sources refer to rituals such as the worship of Horses, for example: Devīpurāṇa, Kālikāpurāṇa, Kṛtyakalpataru, Durgābhaktitaraṅgiṇī, Durgāpūjātattva, Durgāpūjāviveka, Bhadrakālīmantravidhiprakaraṇa in Sanderson (2007); account of the Durgā Pūjā in Kelomal, West Bengal (Nicholas 2013).

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Horses In ancient India were used the for rapid transportation, riding, chariot, and war, race, and even in agriculture activities like plowing etc. The horses were frequently mentioned in the Vedic age (1500-1000 BC). In the later Vedic period (1000-600 BC), Buddhist period (600 BC), and Mauryan period (400 BC), the use of horses was well documented. [...] Veterinary doctors and horse trainers were assigned free endowment. In the Gupta dynasty (300-550 AD), horses were given more importance than elephants in Samudragupta’s army because of their speed and easy maneuverability. [...] The treatment pertains to horses was described in detail in Garuḍapuraāṇa Ācārakhaṇḍa the chapter entitled Gajāśvāyurveda.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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India history and geography

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

1) Horses in ancient India were divided into eighteen kinds, according to Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...]

At page 23.22 there is an enumeration of 18 kinds of horses, e.g.,

  1. Mālā,
  2. Hāyaṇā,
  3. Kalayā,
  4. Khasā,
  5. Kakkasā,
  6. Ṭaṃkā,
  7. Ṭaṃkaṇā,
  8. Sārīrā,
  9. Sahajāṇā,
  10. Hūṇā,
  11. Seṃdhavā,
  12. Cittacalā,
  13. Caṃcalā,
  14. Pārā,
  15. Pārāvayā,
  16. Haṃsā,
  17. Haṃsagamaṇā, and
  18. Vatthavvayā.

Further, there is a very important reference of three kinds of horses named Vollāha, Kayāha and Serāha. These were Arabic names of horses introduced by Arab Horse-Traders. The first mention of Vollāha is found in the Samarāīccackahā of Haribhadrasūri in the beginning of the 8th century A.D.

2) Horses often formed part of a Caravan traveling from city city in ancient India, according to the Kuvalayamālā.—Page 134.32-33 f.: There is a description of a caravan with a large number of camels, bullocks, horses and donkeys. It had come from Vindhyāpurī and was going to Kāñcīpuri.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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