Aksha, Akṣa: 15 definitions

Introduction

Aksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Akṣa can be transliterated into English as Aksa or Aksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

1) Akṣa (अक्ष) refers to the “pleasure of (playing) dice”, which is considered as very harmful (kaṣṭatama), according to the Manusmṛti 7.50. Accordingly, “[...] hunting (mṛgayā), dice (akṣa), sleeping during the day (divāsvapna), censoriousness (parivāda), women (strī), intoxication (mada), musical triad (tauryatrika) and listless wandering (vṛthāṭyā) constitute the ten-fold set arising from the love of pleasure (kāmaja). [...] in the set arising from love of pleasure (kāmaja),—drinking (pāna), dice (akṣa), women (strī) and hunting (mṛgayā) are to be regarded as the four most pernicious (kaṣṭatama), in the order in which they are named”.

Akṣa (‘dice’) refers to “gambling with dice”. That these two lead to evil consequences is well known.

2) Akṣa (अक्ष) is a Sanskrit technical term referring the piece of wood in the wheel (the axle), of a chariot (yāna). (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.291-292)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Akṣa (अक्ष) refers to the “pleasure of (playing) dice”, which is considered as very harmful (kaṣṭatama), according to the Manusmṛti 7.50. Accordingly, “[...] in the set arising from love of pleasure (kāmaja),—drinking (pāna), dice (akṣa), women (strī) and hunting (mṛgayā) are to be regarded as the four most pernicious (kaṣṭatama), in the order in which they are named”.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of Dharmashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Akṣa (अक्ष).—(Akṣakumāra). Genealogy. Descended in order from Viṣṇu as follows: Brahmā-Pulastya-Viśravas-Rāvaṇa-Akṣa. (Uttararāmāyaṇa). Birth. Three sons were born to Rāvaṇa, King of the demons, by his wife Mandodarī. They were Meghanāda, Atikāya and Akṣakumāra. Akṣakumāra was a redoubtable hero and a fierce fighter but was killed by Hanūmān in Laṅkā. (Sarga 47, Sundara Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa). (See full article at Story of Akṣa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Akṣa (अक्ष).—We find another warrior of this name among the soldiers who came to help Skanda in the Kaurava-Pāṇḍava battle. (Śloka 58, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva, Mahābhārata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Akṣa (अक्ष).—The game of dice. Ṛtuparṇa, an expert in it Taught the game to Nala; to be avoided by a king.

1b) A dānava.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 11.

1c) A son of Satyabhāmā and Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 247; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 238.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Akṣa (अक्ष).—Latitude - The term akṣa is an abbreviation of the complete term, akṣonnati, meaning the inclination of the Earth's axis to the plane of the celestial horizon, i.e., the latitude of the place. Note: Akṣa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of Jyotisha from relevant books on Exotic India

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

1) Akṣa (अक्ष) is another name for  Karṣa: a unit of measurement of weight (1 akṣa equals 12mg; 2 karṣas = 1 śukti = 24g), as defined in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning akṣa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

A relative overview of weight-units is found below, akṣa/karṣa indicated in bold. In case of liquids, the metric equivalents would be the corresponding litre and milliliters.

1 Ratti or Guñjā = 125mg,
8 Rattis - 1 Māṣa = 1g,
4 Māṣa - 1 Kaḻañc = 4g,
12 Māṣas - 1 Karṣa = 12g,
1 Karṣa /Akṣa - 1 Niṣka = 12g,
2 Karṣas - 1 Śukti = 24g,
2 Śukti - 1 Pala = 48g,
2 Palas - 1 Prasṛti = 96g,
2 Prasṛtis - 1 Kuḍava = 192g,
2 Kuḍava - 1 Mānikā = 384g,
2 Mānikās - 1 Prastha (Seru) = 768g,
4 Prasthas - 1 Āḍhaka (Kaṃsa) = 3.072kg,
4 Āḍhakas or Kalaśas - 1 Droṇa = 12.288kg,
2 Droṇas - 1 Surpa = 24.576kg,
2 Surpas - 1 Droṇī (Vahi) = 49.152kg,
4 Droṇīs - 1 Khari = 196.608kg,
1 Pala = 48g,
100 Palas - 1 Tulā = 4.8kg,
20 Tulās - 1 Bhāra = 96kg.

2) Akṣa (अक्ष) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Terminalia bellerica Roxb.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning akṣa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Akṣa (अक्ष) is the name of the caitya-tree under which the parents of Puṣpadanta are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to the Digambara tradition. According to the Śvetāmbara tradition the tree is known as Mali. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Puṣpadanta is the ninth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Sugrīva and his mother is Rāmā, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Akṣa.—same as suvarṇa (q. v.). Note: akṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Akṣa.—same as suvarṇa (q. v.). Note: akṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

akṣa (अक्ष).—m (S) A die for playing with. 2 Axis, axle. 3 A seed used for rosaries, Elæocarpus. 4 Terrestrial latitude.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

akṣa (अक्ष).—m A die. Axis. A seed used for ro- saries. Terrestrial latitude.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Akṣa (अक्ष).—[aś-saḥ]

1) An axis, axle, pivot; अक्षभङ्गे च यानस्य (akṣabhaṅge ca yānasya)....न दण्डं मनुरब्रवीत् (na daṇḍaṃ manurabravīt) Ms.8.291,292; दृढधूः अक्षः (dṛḍhadhūḥ akṣaḥ) Kāś. V. 4.74; Śi.12.2, 18.7; ज्योतिश्चक्राक्षदण्डः (jyotiścakrākṣadaṇḍaḥ) Dk. 1 Axle-pole.

2) The pole of a cart.

3) A cart, car; also a wheel.

4) The beam of a balance.

5) Terrestrial latitude.

6) A die for playing with; cube; यानाक्षमधिकृत्य ब्रूत इति गम्यते न तु विदेवना- क्षमिति (yānākṣamadhikṛtya brūta iti gamyate na tu videvanā- kṣamiti) | ŚB. on MS.6.8.35.

7) The seed of which rosaries are made.

8) A weight equal to 16 māṣas and called कर्ष (karṣa).

9) Name of the plant Terminalia Belerica (bibhītaka- Mar. behaḍā) the seed of which is used as a die; also the nut of this plant; यथा वै द्वे वामलके द्वे वा कोले द्वौ वाक्षौ मुष्टिरनुभवति (yathā vai dve vāmalake dve vā kole dvau vākṣau muṣṭiranubhavati) Chān. Up; so धाराभिरक्षमात्राभिः (dhārābhirakṣamātrābhiḥ).

10) A shrub producing the rosary seed, Eleocarpus Ganitrus (rudrākṣa); the seed of this plant, as also of another plant (indrākṣa).

11) A serpent; hence a curve.

12) Garuḍa.

13) Name of a son of Rāvaṇa.

14) The soul.

15) Knowledge (usually, sacred).

16) Law; a lawsuit; legal procedure.

17) A person born blind.

18) the lower part of the temples (karṇa- netrayormadhye śaṅkhādadhobhāgaḥ).

19) The base of a column; अथवाक्षं नवांशोच्चं जन्म चैकेन कारयेत् (athavākṣaṃ navāṃśoccaṃ janma caikena kārayet) | Māna.14.17.

20) The window-like part of a swing, a hammock, a palanquin, an axle of a chariot; पार्श्वयोर्वारणं कुर्यात् तस्याधोऽक्षं सुसंयुतम् (pārśvayorvāraṇaṃ kuryāt tasyādho'kṣaṃ susaṃyutam) | Māna.5.165,166.

21) Gambling (in general). cf. अक्षो द्यूते वरूथाङ्गे नयवादौ बिभीतके । कर्षे व्याप्तौ कृषे (akṣo dyūte varūthāṅge nayavādau bibhītake | karṣe vyāptau kṛṣe) (?) चक्रे आधारव्यव- हारयोः । आत्मजे पाशके दैत्यभेदे चेन्द्रियवालयोः (cakre ādhāravyava- hārayoḥ | ātmaje pāśake daityabhede cendriyavālayoḥ) | Nm.

-kṣam (aśnute vyāpnoti viṣayān svavṛttyā saṃyogena vā)

1) An organ of sense; निरोधाच्चेतसोऽक्षाणि निरुद्धान्यखिलान्यपि (nirodhāccetaso'kṣāṇi niruddhānyakhilānyapi) Pt.2.154; संयताक्षो विनीतः (saṃyatākṣo vinītaḥ) Mātaṅga L.12.1. (The word saṃyatākṣa here means 'having control over his senses', but 'having eyes closed' M. W.); m. also (niyacchedviṣayebhyo'kṣān Bhāg.; an object of sense.

2) The eye, (only at the end of comp.; jalajākṣa, kamalākṣa, &c.)

3) Sachal salt, sea-salt.

4) Blue vitriol (from its crystallized shape) (Mar. moracūda) [cf. L. axis; Gr. akshon or axon, old Germ. ahsa; Germ. achse.]

Derivable forms: akṣaḥ (अक्षः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akṣa (अक्ष).—m.

(-kṣaḥ) 1. A die, cubic or oblong, for playing with. 2. Part of a car. 3. A wheel. 4. A car. 5. A snake. 6. Law suit, legal proceedings 7. Sacred knowledge, 8. The soul. 9. A seed of which Rosaries are made, in which sense it occurs mostly in composition, as, Rudraksha, Indraksha. 10, A Karsha or weight of sixteen mashas. 11. A tree bearing a medicinal fruit. (Terminalia belerica.) 12. A proper name, the son of Ravana. 13. A name of Gadura. 14. A person born blind. 15. Terrestrial latitude. n.

(-kṣaṃ) 1. An organ of sense. 2. Sea, salt. 3. Blue vitriol E. aśu to pervade, Unadi affix sa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akṣa (अक्ष).—[participle] aṣṭa reach, obtain.

--- OR ---

Akṣa (अक्ष).—1. [masculine] die for playing; [plural] game at dice.

--- OR ---

Akṣa (अक्ष).—2. [masculine] axle.

--- OR ---

Akṣa (अक्ष).—3. (adj. —° [feminine] ī) = akṣan.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Akṣa (अक्ष):—[from akṣ] 1. akṣa m. an axle, axis (in this sense also n., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])

2) [v.s. ...] a wheel, car, cart

3) [v.s. ...] the beam of a balance or string which holds the pivot of the beam

4) [v.s. ...] a snake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] terrestrial latitude (cf. -karṇa, -bhā, -bhāga)

6) [v.s. ...] the collar-bone, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] the temporal bone, [Yājñavalkya]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a measure (= 104 aṅgula);

9) [v.s. ...] 1 (also) a chariot, [Dharmaśarmābhyudaya]

10) [v.s. ...] cf. [Latin] axis; [Greek] ἄξων; Old [German] ahsa; [modern] [German] Achse; [Lithuanian] assis.

11) [from akṣ] 2. akṣa m. (√1. , [Uṇādi-sūtra]) a die for gambling

12) [v.s. ...] a cube

13) [v.s. ...] a seed of which rosaries are made (cf. indrākṣa, rudrākṣa)

14) [v.s. ...] the Eleocarpus Ganitrus, producing that seed

15) [v.s. ...] a weight called karṣa, equal to 16 māṣas

16) [v.s. ...] Beleric Myrobalan (Terminalia Belerica), the seed of which is used as a die

17) [v.s. ...] a Name of the number 5

18) [v.s. ...] n. sochal salt

19) [v.s. ...] blue vitriol (from its cube-like crystals), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [from akṣ] 3. akṣa n. an organ of sense

21) [v.s. ...] sensual perception, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] m. the soul, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] knowledge, religious knowledge, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) [v.s. ...] a lawsuit, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] a person born blind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) [v.s. ...] Name of Garuḍa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

27) [v.s. ...] of a son of Rāvaṇa

28) [v.s. ...] of a son of Nara, etc.

29) [from akṣ] 4a etc. See [column]3.

30) [from akṣi] 4b n. [only ifc. (f(ī). ) for akṣi], the eye.

31) Ākṣa (आक्ष):—mfn. ([from] 1. akṣa) belonging or referring to terrestrial latitude [commentator or commentary] on [Sūryasiddhānta]

32) n. ([from] 2. akṣa) = ākṣakī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of aksha or aksa in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: