Kashaya, Kāṣāya, Kāśaya, Kāsāya, Kāsaya, Kaṣāya, Kaśāya, Kasāya, Kasaya, Kaṣāyā: 24 definitions
Kashaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Kāṣāya and Kāśaya and Kaṣāya and Kaśāya and Kaṣāyā can be transliterated into English as Kasaya or Kashaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Kaṣāya (कषाय):—Another name for Kvātha (“decoction”), which is a filtered liquid obtained by coiling coars powder of drugs. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Kashaya (“astringent”) is a taste, which brings about the dryness of the mouth, numbs the palate, obstructs the throat, and gives rise to a drawing, pressing sensation in the region of the heart. The specific properties of earth (bhumi or pṛthivī) and air (vayu or pavana) should be regarded as dominant in an astringent taste. The pungent, astringent (kashaya) and bitter ones are dry and light in character. The tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent (kashaya) are cold in their properties. Tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent (kashaya) are possessed of the virtue of subduing the deranged Pitta. Tastes such as pungent, bitter and astringent (kashaya) tend to subdue the deranged Kapha.
Virtue of Kashyapa—An astringent taste is possessed of astringent, healing, styptic (stambhana), purifying, liquefacient, drying and contracting virtues. It lessens secretions from mucous membranes.
An astringent taste (kashaya-rasa), though possessed of the abovesaid properties, may bring on the peculiar type of heart disease known as (hridroga) parchedness of the mouth, distention of the abdomen, loss of speech, wry-neck (manya-stambha), throbbing or quivering and tingling sensations in the body with contraction of the limbs and convulsions, etc.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Kaṣāyā (कषाया) is another name for Kṣudradurālabhā, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.56-58 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kaṣāyā and Kṣudradurālabhā, there are a total of twelve Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Kāśaya (काशय).—The kingdom of Kāśa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 92. 6.
2) Kāṣāya (काषाय).—Pseudo-ascetics.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 15. 62; Vāyu-purāṇa 79. 90.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Kāṣāya (काषाय, “dark red”) refers to a derivative color, composed of the blue (nīla) and the red (rakta) colors, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. According to the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation), there are four main colors (varṇa) from which various derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa) are derived. Colors are used in aṅgaracanā (painting the limbs), which forms a section of nepathya (costumes and make-up).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Inhabitant of Kasi (J.ii.402). Cf. Kasiyo.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Kaṣāya (कषाय, “corruption”) refers to one of the three kinds of contemplations (anupaśyanā) among ordinary people (pṛthagjana), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “To try to escape from desire (kāma) and form (rūpa), they contemplate the coarseness (pāruṣya), deceitfulness (vañcana) and corruption (kaṣāya) of the desire realm (kāmadhātu) and the form realm (rūpadhātu)”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “astringent”) refers to one of the “six kinds of tastes” (rasa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., kaṣāya). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
2) Kaṣāya (कषाय) or Pañcakaṣāya refers to the “five stains” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 91):
- kleśa-kaṣāya (the stain of defilements),
- dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya (the stain of views),
- sattva-kaṣāya (the stain on beings),
- āyuḥ-kaṣāya (the stain of age),
- kalpa-kaṣāya (the stain of practice).
kaṣāya [kasāya, kasāva] fundamental faults. These faults are of five kinds.
- defilement regarding the span of human life (āyuḥ-kaṣāya). It means the shortening of the life-span of human beings as a whole.
- defilement regarding the condition of human being (sattva-kaṣāya). It is the state when people are mostly in a sorrowful condition.
- defilement regarding view (dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya). It means wrong and perverse thoughts and ideas become predominant.
- defilement regarding passions (kleśa kaṣāya) means violation of moral conduct is exalted.
- defilement of age (kalpa-kaṣāya). It is the age in which wars and natural calamities frequently take place.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Kaśāya (कशाय) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kaśāya] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas
Kaṣāya (कषाय).—What is meant by passion (kaṣāya)? Just like the decoction (dye) of the vegetables / fruits / flowers is imparted to the cloth; similarly the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) impart taint to the soul shrouding its true nature and the kārma particles move towards it for bondage.
What is the function of passions? The function of passions is ‘to be the cause’ of kārma bondage with the soul.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
Kaṣāya (कषाय, “passions”) refers to a category of dispositions (bhāva) due to the rising of karmas (audayika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.6. What is the meaning of passions (kaṣāya)? Passions are those entities which subside the potency/ energy of the soul. How many types of passion are there? There are four types of passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “passions”) refers to one of the five causes of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.1.—What is meant by passions (kaṣāya)? The dispositions, which cause distractions in the soul from its own nature and so are the cause of the transmigration, are passions. How many types of passions are there? Passions are of twenty five sub types, namely four levels i.e. virulent, mild, moderate (pratyākhāna) and subtle (saṃjavalana) of anger, pride, deceit, greed, and nine quasi passions namely jest, liking for certain objects, dislike for certain objects, grief or sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men, hankering after women and hankering after neutral gender. Till which stage of spiritual purification are passions existent? Passions exist from first till tenth stage of spiritual purification in some form or another.
2) Kaṣāya also represents one of the two main divisions of Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)”, which is one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which in turn represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha).
Kaṣāya (conduct deluding karmas caused by passions) is of sixteen sub types namely:
- four virulent levels (anantānubaṃdhi) of the four passions,
- four mild levels (apratyākhāna) of the four passions,
- four moderate levels (pratyākhāna) of the four passions,
- four subtle levels (saṃjvalana or sañjvalana) of the four passions.
The four passions present at each level are:
- krodha, ‘anger’;
- māna, ‘pride’;
- māyā, ‘deceit’;
- lobha, ‘greed’;
3) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “astringent”) refers to one of the five types of Rasa (taste) which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma (eg., kaṣāya).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Kaṣāya.—(CII 4), a spirituous liquor. Note: kaṣāya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kasāya : (nt.) a decoration; a distillation.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Kasāya, and Kasāva (Derivation uncertain. The word first appears in the late Vedic form kaṣāya, a decoction, distillation, essence; used figy of evil. The old Pali form is kasāva) 1. a kind of paste or gum used in colouring walls Vin. II, 151.—2. an astringent decoction extracted from plants Vin. I, 201, 277; J. V, 198.—3. (of taste), astringent Dhs. 629; Miln. 65; DhA. II, 31. ‹-› 4. (of colour) reddish-yellow, orange coloured Vin. I, 277.—5. (ethical) the fundamental faults (rāga, dosa, moha) A. I, 112; Dh. 10; Vbh. 368.—a° faultless, flawless, in akasāvattaṃ being without defect A. I, 112 (of a wheel, with —sa° ibid.);—sa° faulty DhA. I, 82;—mahā° wicked J. IV, 387. In cpds. both forms, viz. (kasāya)—yoga an astringent remedy J. V, 198 (kasāva° ibid.);—rasa reddishyellow dye J. II, 198; (kasāva)—ôdaka an astringent decoction Vin. I, 205;—gandha having a pungent smell Vin. I, 277;—rasa having an astringent taste ibid.;—vaṇṇa of reddish-yellow colour ibid. (Page 201)
— or —
Kāsāya, and Kāsāva (adj.) (Sk. kāṣāya from the Pāli; kāsāya prob. fr. Sk. śyāma or śyāva brown=Pāli sāma, with kā=kad, a kind of, thus meaning a kind of brown, i.e. yellow. See further under sāma and cp. kāla) 1. Kāsāya as attr. of vatthāni, the yellow robes of the Buddhist mendicant, in phrase kāsāyāni v° acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā, describing the taking up of the “homeless state” D. I, 60, 61, 63, 115; M. II, 67; A. I, 107; II, 208; IV, 118, 274, 280; Pug. 57; Nd2 172. °vattha (adj.) with yellow robes Sn. 64; cp. ‘nivattha J. III, 179 (dressed in yellow, of the executioner: see Fick, Soziale Gliederung p. 104 & cp. kāsāya-nivāsana J. III, 41; kāsāviya J. IV, 447); PvA. 20; °vāsin dressed in yellow Sn. 487.—2. Kāsāva (vattha) the yellow robe (never in above formula) Vin. I, 287; S. IV, 190=V. 53=301; Dh. 9, 10=Th. 1, 969, 970=J. II, 198 =V. 50; Miln. 11. °kaṇṭhā (pl.) the “yellow necks” those whose necks are dressed in yellow Dh. 307 (= DhA. III, 480)=It. 43; °pajjota glittering with yellow robes Vbh. 247; Miln. 19. (Page 212)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kaṣāya (कषाय).—m (S) A decoction of medicinal herbs; an extract or essence.
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kaṣāya (कषाय).—a (S) Of an astringent flavor or taste. 2 Of a red-ochre color.
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kāṣāya (काषाय).—a S Of a red-ochre color.
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kāsayā (कासया).—ad (Poetry.) Why? wherefore? for what? Ex. ēka mhaṇatī saṃśaya kāyasā || hātacyā kāṅkaṇā kā0 ārasā ||. kāsayācā Of what? of which? of what kind, sort, fashion?Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kaṣāya (कषाय).—m A decoction of medicinal herbs, an extract or essence.
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kāṣāya (काषाय).—a Of a red-ochre colour.
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kāsāyā (कासाया).—ad Why? Wherefore?
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Astringent, Ś.2.
2) Fragrant, स्फुटितकमलामोदमैत्रीकषायः (sphuṭitakamalāmodamaitrīkaṣāyaḥ) Me.31; U.2.21; Mv.5.41.
3) Red, dark-red; चूताङ्कुरास्वादकषायकण्ठः (cūtāṅkurāsvādakaṣāyakaṇṭhaḥ) Ku.3.32.
4) (Hence) Sweet-sounding, Māl.7; cf. also सगद्गदं बाष्पकषायकण्ठः (sagadgadaṃ bāṣpakaṣāyakaṇṭhaḥ) Bu. Ch.1.68.
6) Improper, dirty.
-yaḥ, -yam 1 Astringent flavour of taste (one of the six rasas): see कटु (kaṭu); यो वक्त्रं परिशोषयति जिह्वां स्तम्भयति कण्ठं बध्नाति हृदयं कषति पीडयति च स कषायः (yo vaktraṃ pariśoṣayati jihvāṃ stambhayati kaṇṭhaṃ badhnāti hṛdayaṃ kaṣati pīḍayati ca sa kaṣāyaḥ) Suśr. cf. also 'बध्नातीव च यः कण्ठं कषायः स विकास्यपि (badhnātīva ca yaḥ kaṇṭhaṃ kaṣāyaḥ sa vikāsyapi)' ()| Ibid.
2) The red colour.
3) A decoction with one part of a drug mixed with four, eight, or sixteen parts of water (the whole being boiled down until one quarter is left); Ms.11.153.
4) Plastering, smearing; कर्णार्पितो लोध्रकषायरूक्षे (karṇārpito lodhrakaṣāyarūkṣe) Ku.7.17; anointing.
5) Perfuming the body with unguents; शिरोरुहैः स्नानकषायवासितैः (śiroruhaiḥ snānakaṣāyavāsitaiḥ) Ṛs.1.4.
6) Gum, resin, extract or exudation from a tree.
7) Dirt, uncleanness.
8) Dulness, stupidity; विगतभयकषायलोभमोहः (vigatabhayakaṣāyalobhamohaḥ) Mb.12.179.26.
9) Attachment to worldly objects; Ch. Up.7.26.2; भक्त्या निर्मथिताशेषकषायधिषणोऽर्जुनः (bhaktyā nirmathitāśeṣakaṣāyadhiṣaṇo'rjunaḥ) Bhāg.1.15.29.
1) Decay, ruin.
-yaḥ 1 Passion, emotion.
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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—(-yī f.) [kaṣāyeṇa raktaṃ aṇ teva raktaṃ rāgāt P.IV.2.1.] Red, dyed of a reddish colour; काषाय- वसनाधवा (kāṣāya- vasanādhavā) Ak.
-yam A red cloth or garment; सीता काषायवासिनी (sītā kāṣāyavāsinī) Rām.7.97.13. इमे काषाये गृहीते (ime kāṣāye gṛhīte) M.5; R.15.77; न काषायैर्भवेद्यतिः (na kāṣāyairbhavedyatiḥ) 'it is not the hood that makes a monk.'Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Kaṣāya (कषाय).—m. (= Sanskrit id., BR s.v. 2c; Pali kasāya), sediment, and so impurity, degradation, etc.: five such, āyuḥ-, dṛṣṭi-, kleśa-, sattva-, kalpa-k° Mvy 2335—40; (order varies) Dharmas 91; SP 43.4—5; Bbh 252.17—19; pañca- kaṣāya-kāle SP 58.11; LV 248.13; pañcasu kaṣāya-kāle LV 257.21 (verse); pañcakaṣāye loke Śikṣ 60.14; pañcakaṣāye kāle buddho…śākyamunir utpannaḥ Mmk 5.23; kaṣāya- kālaḥ Bbh 15.3; ahaṃ (sc. the Buddha)…utpanna sattvāna kaṣāyamadhye SP 56.8 (verse); see also s.v. kalpa- kaṣāya; in verse m.c. for kāṣāya, q.v., KP 117.5 (twice, once in text, the other time required by meter for text kāṣāya); five k° in a different sense, astringent substances (as Sanskrit), products of five plants, MSV i.iv.5.
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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—(= Sanskrit kaṣāya; compare Sanskrit kāṣāya, Pali kāsāya, which = Sanskrit kaṣāya in other mgs.), (1) nt., decoction: Mv iii.70.11…kaṭukāgrāṇi kāṣāyāṇi; (2) impurity, in sakāṣāyasya ca kāṣāya-dhāraṇaṃ KP 117.1—2 (prose), the wearing of the yellow (robe; Sanskrit kāṣāya and Pali kāsāya are used in this sense!) on the part of one characterized by impurity; Tibetan of impure thoughts, which also translates sakaṣāyacittasya (kāṣāya-dhāraṇaṃ) 117.5 (verse), where note short a in -kaṣāya, m.c.; read also kaṣāya-dhāraṇaṃ, m.c.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) 1. Astringent. 2. Fragrant. 3. Red, dull red. 4. Brown, of a colour composed of red and yellow. mn.
(-yaḥ-yaṃ) 1. An astringent flavour or taste. 2. A decoction or infusion. 3. Gum, resin, extract, exudation from a tree, &c. 4. Plastering, anointing. 5. Colouring or perfuming the person. 6. Attachment to worldly objects. m.
(-yaḥ) 1. A plant, (Bignonia Indica.) 2. Passion, emotion. f.
(-yā) A plant, a small sort of Hedysarum. E. kaṣ to injure, āya aff.
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(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Red, dyed of a reddish colour. E. kaṣāya and aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kaṣāya (कषाय).— (probably vb. kṛṣ), I. adj., f. yā. 1. Being of an astringent taste, Mahābhārata 14, 1411. 2. Fragrant, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 32. 3. Red, subst. m. and n., red colour, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 272; Mahābhārata 14, 1263; of a colour composed of red and yellow, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 113, 3. Ii. m. and n. 1. An astringent juice, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 153. 2. A decoction, [Suśruta] 2, 175, 9. 3. Ointment, Mahābhārata 13, 5970. 4. Dirt, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 6, 45; impurity, 4, 22, 20. 5. Stupor, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—i. e. kaṣāya + a, adj., f. yī. 1. Red, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 3, 18. 2. s. A red cloth, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 9.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Ends with: Akashaya, Aparakashaya, Ayuhkashaya, Drishtikashaya, Himakashaya, Kalpakashaya, Kankashaya, Karnakashaya, Kleshakashaya, Mahakashaya, Nokashaya, Pakkashaya, Pakvakashaya, Pancakashaya, Panchakashaya, Sakashaya, Sattvakashaya.
Full-text (+78): Kalpakashaya, Kashayakrit, Pancakashaya, Kashayavasana, Kasayatta, Rasa, Avashyaka, Five Stains, Kasaviya, Nikasava, Kvatha, Kashayanvita, Abhinikkhamati, Bhumyali, Kashayakushila, Sankasayati, Kashayika, Bhumyamalaki, Kashayacitra, Drishtikashaya.
Search found 37 books and stories containing Kashaya, Kāṣāya, Kāśaya, Kāsāya, Kāsaya, Kaṣāya, Kaśāya, Kasāya, Kasaya, Kaṣāyā, Kāsayā, Kāsāyā; (plurals include: Kashayas, Kāṣāyas, Kāśayas, Kāsāyas, Kāsayas, Kaṣāyas, Kaśāyas, Kasāyas, Kasayas, Kaṣāyās, Kāsayās, Kāsāyās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
Chapter 2: On samudghāta < [Book 2]
Part 3 - On the standard of pain of infernal beings < [Chapter 2]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 16 - Karma, Āsrava and Nirjarā < [Chapter VI - The Jaina Philosophy]
Part 21 - Jaina Yoga < [Chapter VI - The Jaina Philosophy]
Part 15 - Karma Theory < [Chapter VI - The Jaina Philosophy]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter LXIII - Different Combinations of six different Rasas < [Canto V - Tantra-bhusana-adhyaya (embellishing chapters)]
Chapter XXXVIII - Treatment of the diseases of the female organ of generation < [Canto II - Kaumarabhritya-tantra (pediatrics, gynecology and pregnancy)]
Chapter XLIX - Symptoms and Treatment of Vomiting (Chardi) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
A study of the philosophy of Jainism (by Deepa Baruah)
Chapter IV.b - Two bodies of the Self (subtle and gross) < [Chapter IV - The concept of Self]
Chapter V.a - Bondage (bandha) and its causes < [Chapter V - Bondage and Liberation]
Chapter V.c - Prabhācandra’s refutation of Bauddha and Sāṃkhya view of Karman < [Chapter V - Bondage and Liberation]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 4: Incarnation as Marīci < [Chapter I - Previous births of Mahāvīra]
Part 1: Marīci’s heresy < [Chapter VI]
Tattva 4: Pāpa (sin) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]