Kashaya, Kāṣāya, Kāśaya, Kāsāya, Kaṣāya, Kaśāya, Kāsaya, Kaṣāyā, Kasāya, Kasaya: 41 definitions


Kashaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kāṣāya and Kāśaya and Kaṣāya and Kaśāya and Kaṣāyā can be transliterated into English as Kasaya or Kashaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kaṣāya (कषाय):—Another name for Kvātha (“decoction”), which is a filtered liquid obtained by coiling coars powder of drugs. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Kashaya (“astringent”) is a taste, which brings about the dryness of the mouth, numbs the palate, obstructs the throat, and gives rise to a drawing, pressing sensation in the region of the heart. The specific properties of earth (bhumi or pṛthivī) and air (vayu or pavana) should be regarded as dominant in an astringent taste. The pungent, astringent (kashaya) and bitter ones are dry and light in character. The tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent (kashaya) are cold in their properties. Tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent (kashaya) are possessed of the virtue of subduing the deranged Pitta. Tastes such as pungent, bitter and astringent (kashaya) tend to subdue the deranged Kapha.

Virtue of Kashyapa—An astringent taste is possessed of astringent, healing, styptic (stambhana), purifying, liquefacient, drying and contracting virtues. It lessens secretions from mucous membranes.

An astringent taste (kashaya-rasa), though possessed of the abovesaid properties, may bring on the peculiar type of heart disease known as (hridroga) parchedness of the mouth, distention of the abdomen, loss of speech, wry-neck (manya-stambha), throbbing or quivering and tingling sensations in the body with contraction of the limbs and convulsions, etc.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Kaṣāyā (कषाया) is another name for Kṣudradurālabhā, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.56-58 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kaṣāyā and Kṣudradurālabhā, there are a total of twelve Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kaṣāya (कषाय, “decoction”) is a Sanskrit technical term appearing in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva..—Kvātha, niryūha and śṛta are the other names of kaṣāya.—At first medicinal plants are dried in shade, cut into pieces or pounded, if necessary. According to the hardness of the drugs, four, eight or sixteen times of water is added and then boiled till about one fourth remains. It is then filtered through a cloth and the filtrate is used as medicine.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय):—Boiled & filtered decoction of herbs, used for the therapeutics & pharmaceutical manufacturing

2) Astringent; One among the six Rasas.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Kaṣāya (कषाय) refers to one of the various Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and formulations.—Ayurvedic medicine are of different types. They can be used as single drugs, i.e. plants, metals and mineral drugs and animal drugs used in a single.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Kāśaya (काशय).—The kingdom of Kāśa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 92. 6.

2) Kāṣāya (काषाय).—Pseudo-ascetics.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 15. 62; Vāyu-purāṇa 79. 90.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kāṣāya (काषाय, “dark red”) refers to a derivative color, composed of the blue (nīla) and the red (rakta) colors, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. According to the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation), there are four main colors (varṇa) from which various derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa) are derived. Colors are used in aṅgaracanā (painting the limbs), which forms a section of nepathya (costumes and make-up).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kāṣāya (काषाय) or Kāṣāyavastra refers to “ochre clothes”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(The Śāmbhava yogi) has the authority (to perform the rites), knows the scripture and has a consort. [...] Intent on the practice of mantras, he wears ochre clothes [i.e., kāṣāya-vastra-dhārin]. He wanders in search of alms amongst Brahmins and others in the group of eight Houses born of Kula. Craving the practice of accomplishments (siddhisādhana), he is the Āṇavayogin”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Kaṣāya (कषाय) represents the number 4 (four) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 4—kaṣāya] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Kashaya in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “defilements”) refers to one of the “four obstacles to Rājayoga”, according to the Yuktabhavadeva.—Similar instances of laya as an obstacle to Yoga are also seen in late medieval yoga texts, such as the Yuktabhavadeva (1.38-39), which lists sleep, distraction, defilements (kaṣāya) and the enjoyment of pleasure as the four obstacles to Rājayoga. These obstacles were derived from two verses of Gauḍapāda’s Māṇḍūkyopaniṣatkārikā (3.44-45), which Bhavadevamiśra quoted without attribution.

2) Kāṣāya (काषाय) refers to “ochre garments”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Putting on ochre garments (kāṣāya-grahaṇa), carrying a skull, plucking out clumps of hair, maintaining non-vedic religious observances, ashes, ascetic clothing and matted locks, behaving as if mad, [the ascetic practice of] nakedness, [studying] the Vedas, Tantras and so on and the meeting [of learned people] for [reciting] poetry in the assembly: All [this] is exertion for the sake of filling one's stomach and is not the cause of the highest good. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Inhabitant of Kasi (J.ii.402). Cf. Kasiyo.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “corruption”) refers to one of the three kinds of contemplations (anupaśyanā) among ordinary people (pṛthagjana), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “To try to escape from desire (kāma) and form (rūpa), they contemplate the coarseness (pāruṣya), deceitfulness (vañcana) and corruption (kaṣāya) of the desire realm (kāmadhātu) and the form realm (rūpadhātu)”.

2) Kāśāya (काशाय) refers to the “yellow robe”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 21).—Accordingly, “The immoral person is not respected (satkṛta) by people; his house is like a cemetery into which people do not go; he loses all his virtues like a rotten tree that people despise; [...] Even though he has the external appearance of a Bhikṣu, one would say he is a corpse in the midst of sleepers. He is like a false pearl among real pearls, like a castor-bean tree in a sandalwood forest. Even though outwardly he looks like an honest man, inwardly he is without good qualities. Even though he is called Bhikṣu because he has a shaved head, the yellow robe (kāśāya) and presents his ‘ticket’ in the proper order, in reality he is not a Bhikṣu”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “astringent”) refers to one of the “six kinds of tastes” (rasa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., kaṣāya). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

2) Kaṣāya (कषाय) or Pañcakaṣāya refers to the “five stains” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 91):

  1. kleśa-kaṣāya (the stain of defilements),
  2. dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya (the stain of views),
  3. sattva-kaṣāya (the stain on beings),
  4. āyuḥ-kaṣāya (the stain of age),
  5. kalpa-kaṣāya (the stain of practice).
Source: DLMBS: Buddhānusmṛti

kaṣāya [kasāya, kasāva] fundamental faults. These faults are of five kinds.

  1. defilement regarding the span of human life (āyuḥ-kaṣāya). It means the shortening of the life-span of human beings as a whole.
  2. defilement regarding the condition of human being (sattva-kaṣāya). It is the state when people are mostly in a sorrowful condition.
  3. defilement regarding view (dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya). It means wrong and perverse thoughts and ideas become predominant.
  4. defilement regarding passions (kleśa kaṣāya) means violation of moral conduct is exalted.
  5. defilement of age (kalpa-kaṣāya). It is the age in which wars and natural calamities frequently take place.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Kaśāya (कशाय) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kaśāya] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kaṣāya (कषाय) refers to the four passions (kaṣāyas) of creatures, according to chapter 4.5 [dharmanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Dharma-nātha said in his sermon on the kaṣāyas:—“[...] This very soul, consisting of pure thought, has a body from union with karma, but may become perfect soul, spotless, having its karma consumed by the fire of meditation. This same soul, overcome by passions (kaṣāya) and the senses is saṃsāra (worldly existence); and wise men call the very same, when it overcomes the passions and senses, mokṣa (emancipation). [...]”.

Creatures’ passions (kaṣāyas) are four-fold:

  1. anger (krodha),
  2. conceit (māna),
  3. deceit (māyā),
  4. greed (lobha).

The respective opposites are:

  1. forbearance (kṣānti),
  2. humility (mārdava),
  3. sincerity (ārjava),
  4. content (antoṣa).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Kaṣāya (कषाय).—What is meant by passion (kaṣāya)? Just like the decoction (dye) of the vegetables / fruits / flowers is imparted to the cloth; similarly the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) impart taint to the soul shrouding its true nature and the kārma particles move towards it for bondage.

What is the function of passions? The function of passions is ‘to be the cause’ of kārma bondage with the soul.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Kaṣāya (कषाय, “passions”) refers to a category of dispositions (bhāva) due to the rising of karmas (audayika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.6. What is the meaning of passions (kaṣāya)? Passions are those entities which subside the potency/ energy of the soul. How many types of passion are there? There are four types of passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “passions”) refers to one of the five causes of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.1.—What is meant by passions (kaṣāya)? The dispositions, which cause distractions in the soul from its own nature and so are the cause of the transmigration, are passions. How many types of passions are there? Passions are of twenty five sub types, namely four levels i.e. virulent, mild, moderate (pratyākhāna) and subtle (saṃjavalana) of anger, pride, deceit, greed, and nine quasi passions namely jest, liking for certain objects, dislike for certain objects, grief or sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men, hankering after women and hankering after neutral gender. Till which stage of spiritual purification are passions existent? Passions exist from first till tenth stage of spiritual purification in some form or another.

2) Kaṣāya also represents one of the two main divisions of  Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)”, which is one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which in turn represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha).

Kaṣāya (conduct deluding karmas caused by passions) is of sixteen sub types namely:

  1. four virulent levels (anantānubaṃdhi) of the four passions,
  2. four mild levels (apratyākhāna) of the four passions,
  3. four moderate levels (pratyākhāna) of the four passions,
  4. four subtle levels (saṃjvalana or sañjvalana) of the four passions.

The four passions present at each level are: 

  1. krodha, ‘anger’;
  2. māna, ‘pride’;
  3. māyā, ‘deceit’;
  4. lobha, ‘greed’;

3) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “astringent”) refers to one of the five types of Rasa (taste) which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma (e.g., kaṣāya).

Source: University of Cambridge: Jainism

Kasāya (कसाय) in Prakrit refers to “passions” and represents one of the twenty-four Daṇḍakas (“parameters relating to the description of living beings”).—The most common list of daṇḍakas has 24 terms in Prakrit. This has been the starting point of a variety of works, among which the Caturviṃśatidaṇḍaka by Gajasāra stands as a classic.

Source: academia.edu: Tessitori Collection I

Kasāya (कसाय) refers to the “passions” (of the Gods, Humans, Animals, etc.), as defined in the “Arhadvijñaptirūpā Vicāraṣaṭtriṃśikā” by Gajasāra, which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The Vicāraṣaṭtriṃśikā (in Prakrit) was first presented in tabular form (yantra) according to the commentators, and then put in the form of a text. [...] Each category is then examined through twenty-four parameters [e.g., passions (kasāya)].

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kaṣāya.—(CII 4), a spirituous liquor. Note: kaṣāya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Kashaya in India is the name of a plant defined with Acacia nilotica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Mimosa arabica Lam. (among others).

2) Kashaya is also identified with Fagonia cretica It has the synonym Fagonia desertorum Andr..

3) Kashaya is also identified with Fagonia indica It has the synonym Fagonia persica DC. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Diagn. Pl. Orient. (1843)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1990)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2005)
· An English and Oriya dictionary. (1873)
· Encycl. (Lamarck) (1783)
· Contributions from the United States National Herbarium (1905)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kashaya, for example diet and recipes, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, health benefits, extract dosage, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kashaya in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kasāya : (nt.) a decoration; a distillation.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kasāya, and Kasāva (Derivation uncertain. The word first appears in the late Vedic form kaṣāya, a decoction, distillation, essence; used figy of evil. The old Pali form is kasāva) 1. a kind of paste or gum used in colouring walls Vin. II, 151.—2. an astringent decoction extracted from plants Vin. I, 201, 277; J. V, 198.—3. (of taste), astringent Dhs. 629; Miln. 65; DhA. II, 31. ‹-› 4. (of colour) reddish-yellow, orange coloured Vin. I, 277.—5. (ethical) the fundamental faults (rāga, dosa, moha) A. I, 112; Dh. 10; Vbh. 368.—a° faultless, flawless, in akasāvattaṃ being without defect A. I, 112 (of a wheel, with —sa° ibid.);—sa° faulty DhA. I, 82;—mahā° wicked J. IV, 387. In cpds. both forms, viz. (kasāya)—yoga an astringent remedy J. V, 198 (kasāva° ibid.);—rasa reddishyellow dye J. II, 198; (kasāva)—ôdaka an astringent decoction Vin. I, 205;—gandha having a pungent smell Vin. I, 277;—rasa having an astringent taste ibid.;—vaṇṇa of reddish-yellow colour ibid. (Page 201)

— or —

Kāsāya, and Kāsāva (adj.) (Sk. kāṣāya from the Pāli; kāsāya prob. fr. Sk. śyāma or śyāva brown=Pāli sāma, with kā=kad, a kind of, thus meaning a kind of brown, i.e. yellow. See further under sāma and cp. kāla) 1. Kāsāya as attr. of vatthāni, the yellow robes of the Buddhist mendicant, in phrase kāsāyāni v° acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā, describing the taking up of the “homeless state” D. I, 60, 61, 63, 115; M. II, 67; A. I, 107; II, 208; IV, 118, 274, 280; Pug. 57; Nd2 172. °vattha (adj.) with yellow robes Sn. 64; cp. ‘nivattha J. III, 179 (dressed in yellow, of the executioner: see Fick, Soziale Gliederung p. 104 & cp. kāsāya-nivāsana J. III, 41; kāsāviya J. IV, 447); PvA. 20; °vāsin dressed in yellow Sn. 487.—2. Kāsāva (vattha) the yellow robe (never in above formula) Vin. I, 287; S. IV, 190=V. 53=301; Dh. 9, 10=Th. 1, 969, 970=J. II, 198 =V. 50; Miln. 11. °kaṇṭhā (pl.) the “yellow necks” those whose necks are dressed in yellow Dh. 307 (= DhA. III, 480)=It. 43; °pajjota glittering with yellow robes Vbh. 247; Miln. 19. (Page 212)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaṣāya (कषाय).—m (S) A decoction of medicinal herbs; an extract or essence.

--- OR ---

kaṣāya (कषाय).—a (S) Of an astringent flavor or taste. 2 Of a red-ochre color.

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kāṣāya (काषाय).—a S Of a red-ochre color.

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kāsayā (कासया).—ad (Poetry.) Why? wherefore? for what? Ex. ēka mhaṇatī saṃśaya kāyasā || hātacyā kāṅkaṇā kā0 ārasā ||. kāsayācā Of what? of which? of what kind, sort, fashion?

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaṣāya (कषाय).—m A decoction of medicinal herbs, an extract or essence.

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kāṣāya (काषाय).—a Of a red-ochre colour.

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kāsāyā (कासाया).—ad Why? Wherefore?

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kaṣāya (कषाय).—a.

1) Astringent, Ś.2.

2) Fragrant, स्फुटितकमलामोदमैत्रीकषायः (sphuṭitakamalāmodamaitrīkaṣāyaḥ) Meghadūta 31; Uttararāmacarita 2.21; Mv.5.41.

3) Red, dark-red; चूताङ्कुरास्वादकषायकण्ठः (cūtāṅkurāsvādakaṣāyakaṇṭhaḥ) Kumārasambhava 3.32.

4) (Hence) Sweet-sounding, Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 7; cf. also सगद्गदं बाष्पकषायकण्ठः (sagadgadaṃ bāṣpakaṣāyakaṇṭhaḥ) Bu. Ch.1.68.

5) Brown.

6) Improper, dirty.

-yaḥ, -yam 1 Astringent flavour of taste (one of the six rasas): see कटु (kaṭu); यो वक्त्रं परिशोषयति जिह्वां स्तम्भयति कण्ठं बध्नाति हृदयं कषति पीडयति च स कषायः (yo vaktraṃ pariśoṣayati jihvāṃ stambhayati kaṇṭhaṃ badhnāti hṛdayaṃ kaṣati pīḍayati ca sa kaṣāyaḥ) Suśr. cf. also 'बध्नातीव च यः कण्ठं कषायः स विकास्यपि (badhnātīva ca yaḥ kaṇṭhaṃ kaṣāyaḥ sa vikāsyapi)' ()| Ibid.

2) The red colour.

3) A decoction with one part of a drug mixed with four, eight, or sixteen parts of water (the whole being boiled down until one quarter is left); Manusmṛti 11.153.

4) Plastering, smearing; कर्णार्पितो लोध्रकषायरूक्षे (karṇārpito lodhrakaṣāyarūkṣe) Kumārasambhava 7.17; anointing.

5) Perfuming the body with unguents; शिरोरुहैः स्नानकषायवासितैः (śiroruhaiḥ snānakaṣāyavāsitaiḥ) Ṛtusaṃhāra 1.4.

6) Gum, resin, extract or exudation from a tree.

7) Dirt, uncleanness.

8) Dulness, stupidity; विगतभयकषायलोभमोहः (vigatabhayakaṣāyalobhamohaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.179.26.

9) Attachment to worldly objects; Ch. Up.7.26.2; भक्त्या निर्मथिताशेषकषायधिषणोऽर्जुनः (bhaktyā nirmathitāśeṣakaṣāyadhiṣaṇo'rjunaḥ) Bhāgavata 1.15.29.

1) Decay, ruin.

-yaḥ 1 Passion, emotion.

2) Kaliyuga.

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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—(- f.) [kaṣāyeṇa raktaṃ aṇ teva raktaṃ rāgāt P.IV.2.1.] Red, dyed of a reddish colour; काषाय- वसनाधवा (kāṣāya- vasanādhavā) Ak.

-yam A red cloth or garment; सीता काषायवासिनी (sītā kāṣāyavāsinī) Rām.7.97.13. इमे काषाये गृहीते (ime kāṣāye gṛhīte) M.5; R.15.77; न काषायैर्भवेद्यतिः (na kāṣāyairbhavedyatiḥ) 'it is not the hood that makes a monk.'

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kaṣāya (कषाय).—m. (= Sanskrit id., [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 2c; Pali kasāya), sediment, and so impurity, degradation, etc.: five such, āyuḥ-, dṛṣṭi-, kleśa-, sattva-, kalpa-k° Mahāvyutpatti 2335—40; (order varies) Dharmasaṃgraha 91; Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 43.4—5; Bodhisattvabhūmi 252.17—19; pañca- kaṣāya-kāle Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 58.11; Lalitavistara 248.13; pañcasu kaṣāya-kāle Lalitavistara 257.21 (verse); pañcakaṣāye loke Śikṣāsamuccaya 60.14; pañcakaṣāye kāle buddho…śākyamunir utpannaḥ (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 5.23; kaṣāya- kālaḥ Bodhisattvabhūmi 15.3; ahaṃ (sc. the Buddha)…utpanna sattvāna kaṣāyamadhye Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 56.8 (verse); see also s.v. kalpa- kaṣāya; in verse m.c. for kāṣāya, q.v., Kāśyapa Parivarta 117.5 (twice, once in text, the other time required by meter for text kāṣāya); five k° in a different sense, astringent substances (as Sanskrit), products of five plants, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.iv.5.

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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—(= Sanskrit kaṣāya; compare Sanskrit kāṣāya, Pali kāsāya, which = Sanskrit kaṣāya in other mgs.), (1) nt., decoction: Mahāvastu iii.70.11…kaṭukāgrāṇi kāṣāyāṇi; (2) impurity, in sakāṣāyasya ca kāṣāya-dhāraṇaṃ Kāśyapa Parivarta 117.1—2 (prose), the wearing of the yellow (robe; Sanskrit kāṣāya and Pali kāsāya are used in this sense!) on the part of one characterized by impurity; Tibetan of impure thoughts, which also translates sakaṣāyacittasya (kāṣāya-dhāraṇaṃ) 117.5 (verse), where note short a in -kaṣāya, m.c.; read also kaṣāya-dhāraṇaṃ, m.c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣāya (कषाय).—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) 1. Astringent. 2. Fragrant. 3. Red, dull red. 4. Brown, of a colour composed of red and yellow. mn.

(-yaḥ-yaṃ) 1. An astringent flavour or taste. 2. A decoction or infusion. 3. Gum, resin, extract, exudation from a tree, &c. 4. Plastering, anointing. 5. Colouring or perfuming the person. 6. Attachment to worldly objects. m.

(-yaḥ) 1. A plant, (Bignonia Indica.) 2. Passion, emotion. f.

(-yā) A plant, a small sort of Hedysarum. E. kaṣ to injure, āya aff.

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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Red, dyed of a reddish colour. E. kaṣāya and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣāya (कषाय).— (probably vb. kṛṣ), I. adj., f. . 1. Being of an astringent taste, Mahābhārata 14, 1411. 2. Fragrant, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 32. 3. Red, subst. m. and n., red colour, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 272; Mahābhārata 14, 1263; of a colour composed of red and yellow, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 113, 3. Ii. m. and n. 1. An astringent juice, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 153. 2. A decoction, [Suśruta] 2, 175, 9. 3. Ointment, Mahābhārata 13, 5970. 4. Dirt, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 6, 45; impurity, 4, 22, 20. 5. Stupor, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 218, 1.

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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—i. e. kaṣāya + a, adj., f. . 1. Red, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 3, 18. 2. s. A red cloth, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣāya (कषाय).—[adjective] astringent, sharp (of taste), fragrant, red, dark-red. [masculine] red colour, passion, emotion; decoct, extract, ointment (also [neuter]); [neuter] a yellowish-red garment.

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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—[adjective] dyed brown-red; [feminine] ī a kind of wasp or bee; [neuter] a brown-red garment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaśāya (कशाय):—m. Name of a preceptor, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 4-3, 106] ([varia lectio] kaṣāya).

2) Kaṣāya (कषाय):—mfn. astringent, [Mahābhārata xiv, 1280 and 1411; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) fragrant, [Meghadūta 31]

4) red, dull red, yellowish red (as the garment of a Buddhist Bhikṣu), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Mṛcchakaṭikā; Yājñavalkya]

5) mn. ([gana] ardharcādi) an astringent flavour or taste, [Suśruta]

6) a yellowish red colour, [Yājñavalkya i, 272; Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 4-2, 1]

7) an astringent juice, extract of juice, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti xi, 153]

8) a decoction or infusion, [Suśruta] (the result of boiling down a mixture consisting of one part of a drug and four or, according to some, eight or sixteen parts of water until only one quarter is left, [Suśruta])

9) any healing or medicinal potion, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

10) exudation from a tree, juice, gum, resin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) ointment, smearing, anointing, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) colouring or perfuming or anointing the person with cosmetics, [Mahābhārata]

13) dirt, filth

14) stain or impurity or sin cleaving to the soul, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

15) dulness, stupidity, [Vedāntasāra]

16) defect, decay, degeneracy (of which, according to Buddhists, there are five marks, viz. āyus-k, dṛṣṭi-k, kleśa-k, sattva-k, kalpa-k)

17) attachment to worldly objects, [Horace H. Wilson]

18) m. red, redness

19) a kind of snake, [Suśruta ii, 265, 14]

20) emotion, passion (rāga, of which the Jainas reckon four kinds, [Hemacandra’s Yoga-śāstra iv, 6 and 77])

21) the Kali-yuga, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) the tree Bignonia Indica, [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 28, 21]

23) Name of a teacher ([varia lectio] kaśāya) [gana] śaunakādi

24) mfn. (as, ā, am) the tree Grislea tomentosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) Kaṣāyā (कषाया):—[from kaṣāya] f. a thorny shrub, a species of small Hedysarum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) Kaṣāya (कषाय):—n. a dull or yellowish red garment or robe, [Mahābhārata ii, 675] (cf. kāṣāya, pañca-kaṣāya; a-niṣkaṣāya, full of impure passions, [Mahābhārata xii, 568.])

27) Kāśaya (काशय):—[from kāś] m. Name of a son of Kāśa or Kāśi, [Harivaṃśa 1734]

28) [v.s. ...] of the country of the Kāśis [commentator or commentary] on [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 117.]

29) Kāṣāya (काषाय):—mfn. ([from] kaṣ), brown-red, dyed of a reddish colour, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Kauśika-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

30) n. a brown-red cloth or garment, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Yājñavalkya iii, 157.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय):—[(yaḥ-yaṃ)] 1. m. n. An astringent taste; a decoction; gum; anointing; attachment; a plant. a. Astringent; fragrant; dullred; brown, red and yellow.

2) Kāṣāya (काषाय):—[(yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) a.] Dyed red.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kaṣāya (कषाय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kasāya, Kāsāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kashaya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kashaya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kaśāya (कशाय):—(a) ruddle-coloured; astringent.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Kasāya (कसाय) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kaśā.

2) Kasāya (कसाय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kaṣāya.

3) Kāsaya (कासय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Karṣaka.

Kāsaya has the following synonyms: Kāsava.

4) Kāsāya (कासाय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kāṣāya.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kaṣāya (ಕಷಾಯ):—

1) [adjective] perfumed; giving out good smell.

2) [adjective] of the colour of blood; red.

3) [adjective] that is astringent.

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Kaṣāya (ಕಷಾಯ):—

1) [noun] a pleasing smell or odour; sweet scent, as of flowers or a substance that is fragrant; fragrance; a perfume.

2) [noun] the red or dull-red colour.

3) [noun] astringent flavour or taste.

4) [noun] that whose voice or tone is melodious.

5) [noun] any substance distilled from a herb or herbs used in making medicines.

6) [noun] hot water percolated through coffee powder or water in which tea leaves are boiled and filtered.

7) [noun] any of various solid or semisolid, viscous, usu. clear or translucent, yellowish or brownish organic substances exuded from various plants and trees.

8) [noun] a secret, sneaky way (as the one made by thieves).

9) [noun] a symbol for the number four, 4.

10) [noun] a feeling of hatred, unhealthy competition, etc. (betwen two persons).

11) [noun] (Jain.) that which causes the feelings as joy, pleasure, pain, distress, hatred etc., considered as a blemish.

12) [noun] saffron-coloured cloth, usu. worn by monks.

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Kasāya (ಕಸಾಯ):—[noun] = ಕಸಾಯಿ [kasayi]1.

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Kāṣāya (ಕಾಷಾಯ):—[adjective] of the colour of ochre; esp., dark yellow or reddish brown.

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Kāṣāya (ಕಾಷಾಯ):—

1) [noun] = ಕಾಷಾಯವಸ್ತ್ರ [kashayavastra].

2) [noun] that which is causal or causative for producing joy and sorrow as its effect.

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Kāsāya (ಕಾಸಾಯ):—[noun] red or reddish brown cloth, usu. worn by ascetics and mendicants.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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