Kashaya, aka: Kāṣāya, Kāśaya, Kāsāya, Kasaya, Kasāya, Kaṣāya, Kāsaya; 17 Definition(s)

Introduction

Kashaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kāṣāya and Kāśaya and Kaṣāya can be transliterated into English as Kasaya or Kashaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[Kashaya in Ayurveda glossaries]

Kaṣāya (कषाय):—Another name for Kvātha (“decoction”), which is a filtered liquid obtained by coiling coars powder of drugs. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

KashāyaA taste, which brings about the dryness of the mouth, numbs the palate, obstructs the throat, and gives rise to a drawing, pressing sensation in the region of the heart, is called astringent (Kashāya).

The specific properties of earth (bhumi or pṛthivī) and air (vāyu or pavana) should be regarded as dominant in an astringent taste.

The pungent, astringent and bitter ones are dry and light in character.
The tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent are cold in their properties.
Tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent are possessed of the virtue of subduing the deranged Pittam.
Tastes such as pungent, bitter and astringent tend to subdue the deranged Kapham.

Virtue of Kashyapa—An astringent taste is possessed of astringent, healing, styptic (Stambhana), purifying, liquefacient, drying and contracting virtues. It lessens secretions from mucous membranes.

An astringent taste, though possessed of the abovesaid properties, may bring on the peculiar type of heart disease known as (Hridroga) parchedness of the mouth, distention of the abdomen, loss of speech, wry-neck (Manya-stambha), throbbing or quivering and tingling sensations in the body with contraction of the limbs and convulsions, etc.

(Source): archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Astringent (Kasaya) increases vata, decreases pitta and kapha—Cool, dry, and light, the astringent rasa has a cooling virya and a pungent vipak. It is less cold than bitter but very dry and firm, which makes it a taste for vata to avoid. Many beans and legumes are astringent in nature, as are broccoli and cauliflower, all of which are known to create gas and thus aggravate the vata dosha.

(Source): Gaiam life: The Six Tastes of Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana

[Kashaya in Purana glossaries]

1) Kāśaya (काशय).—The kingdom of Kāśa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 92. 6.

2) Kāṣāya (काषाय).—Pseudo-ascetics.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 15. 62; Vāyu-purāṇa 79. 90.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Kashaya in Natyashastra glossaries]

Kāṣāya (काषाय, “dark red”) refers to a derivative color, composed of the blue (nīla) and the red (rakta) colors, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. According to the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation), there are four main colors (varṇa) from which various derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa) are derived. Colors are used in aṅgaracanā (painting the limbs), which forms a section of nepathya (costumes and make-up).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

[Kashaya in Theravada glossaries]

Inhabitant of Kasi (J.ii.402). Cf. Kasiyo.

(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[Kashaya in Mahayana glossaries]

Kaṣāya (कषाय, “corruption”) refers to one of the three kinds of contemplations (anupaśyanā) among ordinary people (pṛthagjana), according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “To try to escape from desire (kāma) and form (rūpa), they contemplate the coarseness (pāruṣya), deceitfulness (vañcana) and corruption (kaṣāya) of the desire realm (kāmadhātu) and the form realm (rūpadhātu)”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[Kashaya in Buddhism glossaries]

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “astringent”) refers to one of the “six kinds of tastes” (rasa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., kaṣāya). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

2) Kaṣāya (कषाय) or Pañcakaṣāya refers to the “five stains” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 91):

  1. kleśa-kaṣāya (the stain of defilements),
  2. dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya (the stain of views),
  3. sattva-kaṣāya (the stain on beings),
  4. āyuḥ-kaṣāya (the stain of age),
  5. kalpa-kaṣāya (the stain of practice).
(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

kaṣāya [kasāya, kasāva] fundamental faults. These faults are of five kinds.

  1. defilement regarding the span of human life (āyuḥ-kaṣāya). It means the shortening of the life-span of human beings as a whole.
  2. defilement regarding the condition of human being (sattva-kaṣāya). It is the state when people are mostly in a sorrowful condition.
  3. defilement regarding view (dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya). It means wrong and perverse thoughts and ideas become predominant.
  4. defilement regarding passions (kleśa kaṣāya) means violation of moral conduct is exalted.
  5. defilement of age (kalpa-kaṣāya). It is the age in which wars and natural calamities frequently take place.
(Source): DLMBS: Buddhānusmṛti

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Kashaya in Jainism glossaries]

Kaṣāya (कषाय).—What is meant by passion (kaṣāya)? Just like the decoction (dye) of the vegetables / fruits / flowers is imparted to the cloth; similarly the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) impart taint to the soul shrouding its true nature and the kārma particles move towards it for bondage.

What is the function of passions? The function of passions is ‘to be the cause’ of kārma bondage with the soul.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Kaṣāya (कषाय, “passions”) refers to a category of dispositions (bhāva) due to the rising of karmas (audayika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.6. What is the meaning of passions (kaṣāya)? Passions are those entities which subside the potency/ energy of the soul. How many types of passion are there? There are four types of passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

1) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “passions”) refers to one of the five causes of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.1.—What is meant by passions (kaṣāya)? The dispositions, which cause distractions in the soul from its own nature and so are the cause of the transmigration, are passions. How many types of passions are there? Passions are of twenty five sub types, namely four levels i.e. virulent, mild, moderate (pratyākhāna) and subtle (saṃjavalana) of anger, pride, deceit, greed, and nine quasi passions namely jest, liking for certain objects, dislike for certain objects, grief or sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men, hankering after women and hankering after neutral gender. Till which stage of spiritual purification are passions existent? Passions exist from first till tenth stage of spiritual purification in some form or another.

2) Kaṣāya also represents one of the two main divisions of  Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)”, which is one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which in turn represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha).

Kaṣāya (conduct deluding karmas caused by passions) is of sixteen sub types namely:

  1. four virulent levels (anantānubaṃdhi) of the four passions,
  2. four mild levels (apratyākhāna) of the four passions,
  3. four moderate levels (pratyākhāna) of the four passions,
  4. four subtle levels (saṃjvalana or sañjvalana) of the four passions.

The four passions present at each level are: 

  1. krodha, ‘anger’;
  2. māna, ‘pride’;
  3. māyā, ‘deceit’;
  4. lobha, ‘greed’;

3) Kaṣāya (कषाय, “astringent”) refers to one of the five types of Rasa (taste) which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma (eg., kaṣāya).

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Kashaya in Pali glossaries]

kasāya : (nt.) a decoration; a distillation.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Kasāya, and Kasāva (Derivation uncertain. The word first appears in the late Vedic form kaṣāya, a decoction, distillation, essence; used figy of evil. The old Pali form is kasāva) 1. a kind of paste or gum used in colouring walls Vin. II, 151.—2. an astringent decoction extracted from plants Vin. I, 201, 277; J. V, 198.—3. (of taste), astringent Dhs. 629; Miln. 65; DhA. II, 31. ‹-› 4. (of colour) reddish-yellow, orange coloured Vin. I, 277.—5. (ethical) the fundamental faults (rāga, dosa, moha) A. I, 112; Dh. 10; Vbh. 368.—a° faultless, flawless, in akasāvattaṃ being without defect A. I, 112 (of a wheel, with —sa° ibid.);—sa° faulty DhA. I, 82;—mahā° wicked J. IV, 387. In cpds. both forms, viz. (kasāya)—yoga an astringent remedy J. V, 198 (kasāva° ibid.);—rasa reddishyellow dye J. II, 198; (kasāva)—ôdaka an astringent decoction Vin. I, 205;—gandha having a pungent smell Vin. I, 277;—rasa having an astringent taste ibid.;—vaṇṇa of reddish-yellow colour ibid. (Page 201)

— or —

Kāsāya, and Kāsāva (adj.) (Sk. kāṣāya from the Pāli; kāsāya prob. fr. Sk. śyāma or śyāva brown=Pāli sāma, with kā=kad, a kind of, thus meaning a kind of brown, i.e. yellow. See further under sāma and cp. kāla) 1. Kāsāya as attr. of vatthāni, the yellow robes of the Buddhist mendicant, in phrase kāsāyāni v° acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā, describing the taking up of the “homeless state” D. I, 60, 61, 63, 115; M. II, 67; A. I, 107; II, 208; IV, 118, 274, 280; Pug. 57; Nd2 172. °vattha (adj.) with yellow robes Sn. 64; cp. ‘nivattha J. III, 179 (dressed in yellow, of the executioner: see Fick, Soziale Gliederung p. 104 & cp. kāsāya-nivāsana J. III, 41; kāsāviya J. IV, 447); PvA. 20; °vāsin dressed in yellow Sn. 487.—2. Kāsāva (vattha) the yellow robe (never in above formula) Vin. I, 287; S. IV, 190=V. 53=301; Dh. 9, 10=Th. 1, 969, 970=J. II, 198 =V. 50; Miln. 11. °kaṇṭhā (pl.) the “yellow necks” those whose necks are dressed in yellow Dh. 307 (= DhA. III, 480)=It. 43; °pajjota glittering with yellow robes Vbh. 247; Miln. 19. (Page 212)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Kashaya in Marathi glossaries]

kaṣāya (कषाय).—m (S) A decoction of medicinal herbs; an extract or essence.

--- OR ---

kaṣāya (कषाय).—a (S) Of an astringent flavor or taste. 2 Of a red-ochre color.

--- OR ---

kāṣāya (काषाय).—a S Of a red-ochre color.

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kāsayā (कासया).—ad (Poetry.) Why? wherefore? for what? Ex. ēka mhaṇatī saṃśaya kāyasā || hātacyā kāṅkaṇā kā0 ārasā ||. kāsayācā Of what? of which? of what kind, sort, fashion?

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaṣāya (कषाय).—m A decoction of medicinal herbs, an extract or essence.

--- OR ---

kāṣāya (काषाय).—a Of a red-ochre colour.

--- OR ---

kāsāyā (कासाया).—ad Why? Wherefore?

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Kashaya in Sanskrit glossaries]

Kaṣāya (कषाय).—a.

1) Astringent, Ś.2.

2) Fragrant, स्फुटितकमलामोदमैत्रीकषायः (sphuṭitakamalāmodamaitrīkaṣāyaḥ) Me.31; U.2.21; Mv.5.41.

3) Red, dark-red; चूताङ्कुरास्वादकषायकण्ठः (cūtāṅkurāsvādakaṣāyakaṇṭhaḥ) Ku.3.32.

4) (Hence) Sweet-sounding, Māl.7; cf. also सगद्गदं बाष्पकषायकण्ठः (sagadgadaṃ bāṣpakaṣāyakaṇṭhaḥ) Bu. Ch.1.68.

5) Brown.

6) Improper, dirty.

-yaḥ, -yam 1 Astringent flavour of taste (one of the six rasas): see कटु (kaṭu); यो वक्त्रं परिशोषयति जिह्वां स्तम्भयति कण्ठं बध्नाति हृदयं कषति पीडयति च स कषायः (yo vaktraṃ pariśoṣayati jihvāṃ stambhayati kaṇṭhaṃ badhnāti hṛdayaṃ kaṣati pīḍayati ca sa kaṣāyaḥ) Suśr. cf. also 'बध्नातीव च यः कण्ठं कषायः स विकास्यपि (badhnātīva ca yaḥ kaṇṭhaṃ kaṣāyaḥ sa vikāsyapi)' ()| Ibid.

2) The red colour.

3) A decoction with one part of a drug mixed with four, eight, or sixteen parts of water (the whole being boiled down until one quarter is left); Ms.11.153.

4) Plastering, smearing; कर्णार्पितो लोध्रकषायरूक्षे (karṇārpito lodhrakaṣāyarūkṣe) Ku.7.17; anointing.

5) Perfuming the body with unguents; शिरोरुहैः स्नानकषायवासितैः (śiroruhaiḥ snānakaṣāyavāsitaiḥ) Ṛs.1.4.

6) Gum, resin, extract or exudation from a tree.

7) Dirt, uncleanness.

8) Dulness, stupidity; विगतभयकषायलोभमोहः (vigatabhayakaṣāyalobhamohaḥ) Mb.12.179.26.

9) Attachment to worldly objects; Ch. Up.7.26.2; भक्त्या निर्मथिताशेषकषायधिषणोऽर्जुनः (bhaktyā nirmathitāśeṣakaṣāyadhiṣaṇo'rjunaḥ) Bhāg.1.15.29.

1) Decay, ruin.

-yaḥ 1 Passion, emotion.

2) Kaliyuga.

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Kāṣāya (काषाय).—(- f.) [kaṣāyeṇa raktaṃ aṇ teva raktaṃ rāgāt P.IV.2.1.] Red, dyed of a reddish colour; काषाय- वसनाधवा (kāṣāya- vasanādhavā) Ak.

-yam A red cloth or garment; सीता काषायवासिनी (sītā kāṣāyavāsinī) Rām.7.97.13. इमे काषाये गृहीते (ime kāṣāye gṛhīte) M.5; R.15.77; न काषायैर्भवेद्यतिः (na kāṣāyairbhavedyatiḥ) 'it is not the hood that makes a monk.'

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 74 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Pancakashaya
Pañcakaṣāya (पञ्चकषाय).—a decoction from the fruits of five plants (jambu, śālmali, vāṭyāla, ba...
Mahakashaya
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Sattvakashaya
Sattvakaṣāya (सत्त्वकषाय) refers to the “stain on beings” and represents one of the “five stain...
Kalpakashaya
Kalpakaṣāya (कल्पकषाय) refers to the “stain of practice” and represents one of the “five stains...
Ayuhkashaya
Āyuḥkaṣāya (आयुःकषाय) refers to the “stain of age” and represents one of the “five stains” (kaṣ...
Kashayavasana
Kaṣāyavasana (कषायवसन).—The yellowish-red garment of monks, mendicants.Derivable forms: kaṣāyav...
Kleshakashaya
Kleśakaṣāya (क्लेशकषाय) refers to the “stain of defilements” and represents one of the “five st...
Kashayakushila
Kaṣāyakuśīla (कषायकुशील).—One of the two type of kuśīla ascetics (nirgrantha-muni);—Who are kaṣ...
Drishtikashaya
Dṛṣṭikaṣāya (दृष्टिकषाय) refers to the “stain of views” and represents one of the “five stains”...
Kashayavedaniya
Kaṣāyavedanīya (कषायवेदनीय).—One of the two types of cāritramohanīya (conduct deluding karmas);...
Pakvakashaya
Pakvakaṣāya (पक्वकषाय).—a. whose passion has become extinguished. Pakvakaṣāya is a Sanskrit com...
Himakashaya
Himakaṣāya (हिमकषाय) is the extractive obtained by straining of 48 g. (1 part) of powdered d...
Rasa
Rasa (रस) refers to the “soul of poetry” according to Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century)....
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Sthana
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