Loha: 33 definitions
Loha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Loh.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
1) Loha (लोह) is a synonym for the Sanskrit word Dhātu, translating to “metal”, a term often used in Rasaśāstra literature (e.g. the Rasaprakāśasudhākara).
2) Loha (लोह, “Iron”) is the name for a variation of ‘metal’ (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Pūtiloha, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra.
Iron has 3 main varieties:
The three main varieties of Loha (iron) are:
- Kānta (further subdivided in Romaka, Bhrāmaka, Cumbaka and Drāvaka),
- and Muṇḍa .
These three are inferior in colour and properties strictly in preceeding order i.e. tīkṣṇa is inferior to kānta and muṇḍa to tīkṣṇa. It has been claimed by the experts.
Niruttha-loha-bhasma used internally mixed with vyosa (trikaṭu powder), vella (veḍaṅga) cūrṇa, madhu, and ghee in a dose of one taṅka (3 māṣakas–3gms) prevent jarā (old age), mṛtyu (death) and vyādhi (diseases), it gives putras (male child) to both the sexes and cures the diseases caused due to the effect of old age of the persons, as said by experts.Source: PMC: Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient India
Loha or Ayasa (Iron) is another metal known during the period of Charaka; it was used in different dosage forms named Curna, Vati, Avaleha, Varti, Asavarishta etc. Rasa Shastra classics explain that Loha is par excellence a rejuvenator as it stimulates functional activity of all the organs, promotes life, strength, destroys a number of diseases, and acts as a restorative. The utility of this metal in therapeutics was only identified modern medicine in the first half of the 17th century, when its salts were recognized as the best haematenics. According to descriptions in Rasa Vagbhata, there are three varieties of Loha viz. Munda, Tikshna and Kanta, the latter being the best variety to use.
Different formulations of ‘Loha’ are useful in a wide range of diseases: Sula, Arsha, Gulma, Pliha Roga, Yakrit Roga, Ksaya, Pandu, Kamala etc. Normal dose levels given for ‘Loha Bhasma’ are 30 mg. to 240 mg.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Loha (लोह) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “aloe”, a species of plant from the Thymelaeaceae family of flowering plants, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The official botanical name is Aquilaria agallocha (synonyms: Aquilaria malaccensis and Aquilaria secundaria) and is commonly referred to in English as the “Agarwood” among others. Aquilaria has been used to enhance cerebral function, balance the mind/body connection and the nervous system
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Loha (लोह).—An Asura. When the Pāṇḍavas were living incognito they kept their weapons in a secret place. Availing of this opportunity Loha made an attack on the Pāṇḍavas. At once the devas made him blind and thus helped the Pāṇḍavas. That place later became famous as Lohaṇapura. (Skanda Purāṇa 1, 2, 65)
2) Loha (लोह).—An ancient place of India. Arjuna conquered this place during his victory march. (Śloka 25, Chapter 27, Sabhā Parva).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Loha (लोह) or Lauha refers to “metal”, representing a type of material for construction of a Liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.22 while explaining the importance of the partaking of the Naivedya of Śiva:—“[...] in regard to Bāṇaliṅga, metallic Liṅga [viz., Loha-liṅga], Siddhaliṅga and Svayambhūliṅga and in all other idols, Caṇḍa, one of the attendants of Śiva, is not authorised. Where Caṇḍa is not authorised, the food-offering can be partaken of by men with devotion. But no man shall partake of the food-offering where Caṇḍa is authorised. [...]”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Loha (लोह).—The sixth hell under the earth.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 150, 182-5; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 149.
1b) The loadstone attracting iron, illustrative of the supreme spirit attracting one who meditates on it.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 7. 30.
Loha (लोह) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.24.24, IX.44.70) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Loha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Lohā is one of the eighty-four Siddhas associated with eighty-four Yogic postures (āsanas), according to popular tradition in Jodhpur, Rājasthān. These posture-performing Siddhas are drawn from illustrative sources known as the Nava-nātha-caurāsī-siddha from Vȧrāṇasī and the Nava-nātha-caruāsī-siddha-bālāsundarī-yogamāyā from Puṇe. They bear some similarity between the eighty-four Siddhas painted on the walls of the sanctum of the temple in Mahāmandir.
The names of these Siddhas (e.g., Lohā) to 19th-century inscription on a painting from Jodhpur, which is labelled as “Maharaja Mansing and eighty-four Yogis”. The association of Siddhas with yogis reveals the tradition of seeing Matsyendra and his disciple Gorakṣa as the founders of haṭhayoga.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Loha (लोह) refers to “metal”, representing materials used for the making of images (Hindu icons), as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The materials listed in the Āgamas for the making of images are wood, stone, precious gems, metals, terracotta, laterite, earth, and a combination of two or three or more of the materials specified above. Icons are made from the mixture of pañca-loha (five metals), namely, copper, gold, silver, brass and white lead. The materials recommended in the śilpaśāstra for the fashioning of images are unburnt clay, burnt clay as in brick or terracotta, sudhā (a special kind of mortar/plaster), composite earth, wood, stone, metal (loha), ivory, dhātu (mineral), pigment, and precious stones. Wood is considered superior to earth, stone as better than wood, metal (loha) better than stone, and precious stone is the most preferred of all. In case of loha (metal) icons, gold is accorded the first place, second comes silver, then copper.Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images
Loha (लोह) refers to “icons made with metal”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Vaiṣṇava Āgamas prescribe different materials for different types of icons installed in the temple. [...] Marīci and Bhṛgu state that the dhruva icons of Viṣṇu are made of processed earth (mṛd) with brick (iṣṭakā), wood (dāru), stone (śilā) and metal (loha) every succeeding one being superior to the one preceding in sequential order.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Loha (लोह) refers to “metal (material, element of the foundation deposit) §§ 2.9, 24.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)
Loha (लोह) refers to a “piece of iron”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a cow [which has entered the site] urinates or drops dung, there are pieces of silver or gold [beneath the site, respectively]. If a cat urinates or drops dung, [the officiant] should prognosticate a piece of iron (loha) or an inauspicious thing (? aśam) [beneath the site,] respectively”.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)
Loha (लोह) (or Ayas) refers to “iron”, representing the material to be used for the images (pratimā) of the planet Saturn, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[Images of and offerings to grahas]—The materials which are used to compose the images (pratimā) of the grahas are prescribed: red copper (Sun), crystal (Moon), red sandal-wood (Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Venus), iron (Saturn) [i.e., ayas], lead (Rāhu) and white copper (Ketu). Such prescriptions for the planetary images are not found in gṛhya texts except in the Āśvalāyanagṛhyapariśiṣṭa (2.3) where the materials are almost the same as those in Yājñavalkyasmṛti, the only difference being the use of saffron for Mercury instead of gold. According to the Śāntikalpa (13.3), red copper (Sun and Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Moon and Venus), and black iron (Saturn, Rāhu, and Ketu) are used.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Loha (लोह) refers to “iron”: a metal that was typically mined, extracted and used (both domestic and industrial) in ancient India. Mining was an important industry at that time as well. It is also known as Ayas. The Jaina canonical texts mention about the extraction of various kinds of minerals, metals (e.g., loha) and precious stones. The term ‘āgara’ occurring intire texts denotes the mines which provided many kinds of mineral products. The references in the texts of various professions and trade in metallic commodities clearly show a highly developed industry of mining and metallurgy in that period.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Loha.—cf. so-loha-lavaṇa-akara (IE 8-5), ‘together with mines of metals and salt pits [the right of which normally belonged to the king]’. Note: loha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Biology (plants and animals)Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)
Loha in India is the name of a plant defined with Aquilaria agallocha in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Aloexylum agallochum Lour. (among others).
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
loha : (nt.) metal; copper.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Loha, (nt.) (Cp. Vedic loha, of Idg. *(e)reudh “red”; see also rohita & lohita) metal, esp. copper, brass or bronze. It is often used as a general term & the individual application is not always sharply defined. Its comprehensiveness is evident from the classification of loha at VbhA. 63, where it is said lohan ti jātilohaṃ, vijāti°, kittima°, pisāca° or natural metal, produced metal, artificial (i.e. alloys), & metal from the Pisāca district. Each is subdivided as follows: jāti°=ayo, sajjhaṃ, suvaṇṇaṃ, tipu, sīsaṃ, tambalohaṃ, vekantakalohaṃ; vijāti°=nāga-nāsika°; kittima°=kaṃsalohaṃ, vaṭṭa°, ārakūṭaṃ; pisāca°=morakkhakaṃ, puthukaṃ, malinakaṃ, capalakaṃ, selakaṃ, āṭakaṃ, bhallakaṃ, dūsilohan. The description ends “Tesu pañca jātilohāni pāḷiyaṃ visuṃ vuttān’eva (i.e. the first category are severally spoken of in the Canon). Tambalohaṃ vekantakan ti imehi pana dvīhi jātilohehi saddhiṃ sesaṃ sabbam pi idha lohan ti veditabbaṃ. ” — On loha in similes see J. P. T. S. 1907, 131. Cp. A. III, 16=S. V, 92 (five alloys of gold: ayo, loha, tipu, sīsaṃ, sajjhaṃ); J. V, 45 (asi°); Miln. 161 (suvaṇṇam pi jātivantaṃ lohena bhijjati); PvA. 44, 95 (tamba°=loha), 221 (tatta-loha-secanaṃ pouring out of boiling metal, one of the five ordeals in Niraya).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
lōha (लोह).—n S Iron, crude or wrought. 2 m Abridged from lōhabhasma. A medicinal preparation from rust of iron.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
lōha (लोह).—n Iron. lōhacumbaka m The loadstone. A term for a perseveringly importu- nate applicant; also for a churlish, miserly fellow.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Red, reddish.
2) Made of copper, coppery.
3) Made of iron; भ्रमतश्च वराहस्य लोहस्य प्रमुखे समम् (bhramataśca varāhasya lohasya pramukhe samam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1. 135.23.
-haḥ, -ham 1 Copper.
4) Any metal; वस्तून्योषधयः स्नेहा रसलोहमृदो जलम् (vastūnyoṣadhayaḥ snehā rasalohamṛdo jalam) Bhāgavata 2. 6.24.
5) Gold; यथा सौम्यैकेन लोहमणिना (yathā saumyaikena lohamaṇinā) Ch. Up.6.1.5.
7) A weapon; अद्भ्योऽग्निर्त्रह्मतः क्षत्रमश्मनो लोह- मुत्थितम् (adbhyo'gnirtrahmataḥ kṣatramaśmano loha- mutthitam) Manusmṛti 9.321.
8) A fish-hook.
-haḥ The red goat; कालशाकं महाशल्काः खड्गलोहामिषं मधु (kālaśākaṃ mahāśalkāḥ khaḍgalohāmiṣaṃ madhu) Manusmṛti 3.272.
-ham Aloewood.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-haḥ-haṃ) 1. Iron, either crude or wrought. 2. Steel. 3. Any metal. 4. A weapon. 5. Aloe-wood or Agallochum. 6. Blood. m.
(-haḥ) A red coloured goat. f.
(-hā) 1. Red, redish. 2. Made of copper or iron. E. lū to cut, aff. ha .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Loha (लोह).—i. e. luh, instead of rudh (see rudhira), + a, I. m. and n. 1. Iron, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 321; [Pañcatantra] 100, 23 (cf. my transl.). 2. Steel. 3. Any metal, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 92, M.M. 4. A weapon. 5. A fish-hook, Kām. Nītis. 1, 44. 6. Blood. 7. Aloe-wood. Ii. m. An iron-coloured kid, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 272.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Loha (लोह).—[adjective] reddish, of copper or iron. [masculine] [neuter] reddish metal, copper, also iron & metal i.[grammar]; [neuter] an iron vessel.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Loha (लोह):—mfn. ([probably] [from] a √ruh for a lost √rudh, ‘to be red’; cf. rohi, rohiṇa etc.) red, reddish, copper-coloured, [???; Mahābhārata]
2) made of copper, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] ([Scholiast or Commentator])
3) made of iron, [Kauśika-sūtra]
4) m. n. red metal, copper, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.
5) m. (in later language) iron (either crude or wrought) or steel or gold or any metal
6) a weapon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) a fish-hook, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) blood, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) the red goat (cf. lohāja), [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya]
10) ([probably]) a kind of bird, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
11) Name of a man [gana] naḍādi
12) ([plural]) Name of a people, [Mahābhārata]
13) n. any object or vessel made of iron, [Kāvya literature]
14) aloe wood, Agallochum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Loha (लोह):—[(haḥ-haṃ)] 1. m. n. Iron; any metal, a weapon; aloe wood; blood. m. A red coloured goat.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Loha (लोह) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Loha.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Loha (लोह) [Also spelled loh]:—(a) see [lauha].
2) Lohā (लोहा):—(nm) iron; (a) very hard; very strong; —, [kaccā] pig-iron; —, [pakkā] steel; —[karanā/pheranā] to iron (a cloth); —[bajanā] a battle/war to be waged, fighting with swords to ensue; —[mānanā, kisī kā] to acknowledge/confess supremacy; to concede somebody’s superiority/superior skill; —[lenā, kisī se] to cross swords (with), to wage war; —[honā] to turn into steel, to become as hard as steel; [lohe kā dila] strong heart; unfeeling/ruthless heart; [lohe kī chātī] strong heart; unfeeling heart; [lohe ke cane] an assiduous job; a hard nut to crack; •[cabānā] to undertake an assiduous task; [lohe ko lohā kāṭatā hai] diamond cuts diamond, cunning outwits cunning.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Loha (लोह) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Loha.
2) Loha (लोह) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Lauha.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
Lōha (ಲೋಹ):—[adjective] red; reddish; copper-coloured.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] any of a class of chemical elements, as iron, gold or aluminum, having specific ductility, malleability, luster, and conductivity of heat and electricity etc.; a metal.
2) [noun] sometimes, refers to a specific metal as iron (raw or otherwise), gold, copper, bronze, etc.
3) [noun] the headgear used to control a horse, consisting of buckled leather straps, a metal bit, and reins; a bridle.
4) [noun] the blood.
5) [noun] a kind of weapon.
6) [noun] the tree Aquilaria agallocha of Thymelaeaceae family, whose heart wood contains resinous substance and when burnt gives fragrance; eagle-wood; black aloe wood.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+169): Loha-carma-kara, Loha-kat, Loha-vanija, Lohabaddha, Lohabana, Lohabandha, Lohabandi Uda, Lohabhanauda, Lohabhanda, Lohabhani Uda, Lohabharaka, Lohabhasma, Lohabhihara, Lohabhisara, Lohabhisarika, Lohabhisarikapuja, Lohacala, Lohacalamahatmya, Lohacaraka, Lohacarini.
Ends with (+28): Aloha, Anyaloha, Apaloha, Ashmaloha, Ashtaloha, Avaloha, Bahuloha, Bhuriloha, Carmiloha, Diptaloha, Kalaloha, Kantaloha, Kapilaloha, Kapiloha, Krishiloha, Krishnaloha, Mahaloha, Mishraloha, Mundaloha, Nilaloha.
Full-text (+349): Lohakara, Krishnaloha, Lohaja, Lohabhisara, Nilaloha, Raviloha, Mahaloha, Diptaloha, Pancaloha, Lohacurna, Lohavarman, Lohakanta, Lauhayana, Lohabhihara, Lohajit, Pitaloha, Kapiloha, Lohamaya, Lohavara, Lohabaddha.
Search found 34 books and stories containing Loha, Lōha, Lohā; (plurals include: Lohas, Lōhas, Lohās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (study) (by A. Yamuna Devi)
Daily Life (3): Perfumes < [Chapter 3 - Social Aspects]
Economics (3): Goods of trade < [Chapter 3 - Social Aspects]
Politics and Administration (3): Saṃsphoṭa (War) < [Chapter 3 - Social Aspects]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Varta-loha < [Chapter X - Mixed metals (3): Varta-loha]
Part 2 - Purification and Incineration of Varta-loha < [Chapter X - Mixed metals (3): Varta-loha]
Part 3 - Triloha-rasayana < [Chapter XI - Mixed metals (4): Triloha]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
Cosmetics, Costumes and Ornaments in Ancient India (by Remadevi. O.)
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