Gitartha Samgraha (critical Study)

by Partha Sarathi Sil | 2020 | 34,788 words

This page relates ‘Significance of the Sangraha shlokas of the Gitarthasangraha’ of the study on Abhinavagupta’s Gitartha Samgraha commentary on the Bhagavad Gita: one of the core texts of Indian Philosophy. The Gitartha Sangraha is written in the light of Kashmir Shaivism and brings to Shaiva metaphysics and Yoga integrated in the Bhagavadgita. This study deals with Abhinava’s vision about the purpose of human existence and the accomplishment of salvation (i.e., self-realisation).

1. Significance of the Saṅgraha ślokas of the Gītārthasaṅgraha

Abhinavagupta has presented one recapitulating śloka at the every chapter of his Gītārthasaṅgraha. By introducing the recapitulating ślokas, he has serially brought out the hidden purport of all the eighteen chapters in a systematic manner keeping in consonance with the doctrine of Kashmir Śaivism in one hand also the deeper meaning of the Gītā on the other.

In the benedictory six verses of Gītārthasaṅgraha, Abhinavagupta has stated the subject matter of his composition, its utility and how he has been inspired to undertake the work. The ultimate four ślokas of the composition contain the chronology of his preceptors and also the Śiva of the Śaiva philosophy infused inseparably with the divine Śakti[1]. From the standpoint of investigative research, the Gītārthasaṅgraha may be properly regarded as a commentary in one hand and also an explanation of the Gītā. Abhinavagupta himself has termed it as an explanation. The name of the composition has termed it as explanation.[2] The name of the composition has been mentioned as Gītārthasaṅgraha[3] in the benedictory stanza, while the name has been stated as Bhagavadgītārthasaṅgraha in the second śloka[4] of the concluding four stanzas. In the Kashmiri edition of the Mahābhārata’s Bhīṣmaparvan, the well known conversation between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna in śloka form is admitted as the Bhagavadgītā and as those ślokas are discussed in the present composition, it is quite likely that Gītārthasaṅgraha and the Bhagavadgītārthasaṅgraha are no different from each other.

While explaining 8th Chapter of the Bhagavadgītā which represents the philosophical thought of the Kashmir Śaivites, Abhinavagupta has taken the meaning of the word ‘saṅgraha’ as means[5], and he has established the non-dualistic Śaivism in the Gītārthasaṅgraha with citations from the Spandakārikās[6]. Considering all the sacrificial rites as the form of Brahman, Abhinavagupta has mentioned the collected ślokas of the inseparable existence of divine Śakti and non-dual Brahman[7]. In this way Parameśvara has been mentioned Vāsudeva in some places of the Gītārthasaṅgraha and somewhere as Maheśvara.

It is very difficult to understand the nature of vidyā and avidyā. So, with a view to understanding both them the worshipper by dint of his sadhana and reasoning gets rid of resolution and irresolution. Abhinavagupta has grasped the essence of the entire first chapter of the Bhagavagītā in his recapitulating verse; The name of the first chapter is ‘Arjunaviṣāda-yoga’. Here the bow, gāndīva slackens off Arjuna’s hand. He is perplexed to see his own relatives as opponents. Perturbed Arjuna here is s symbol of infirm sādhaka standing between resolution and irresolution. He, however, could be able to concentrate slowly to his duty by resorting to the refuge of Lord Kṛṣṇa. This is why we find in the recapitulating śloka of the first chapter where the advice has been given to be free from any discrimination so that the sādhaka can enter into the adobe of nirvikalpa (free from thought -constructs) by accomplishing the appropriate deeds. In other words, it is an advice to engage oneself in the thought of god forsaking the mundane enjoyments. The second chapter deals with vice and virtue[8]. By using the word ‘ubhe’ he has meant vice and virtue. These two things are opposed to each other. Yet destruction of both of them speaks of the skill of yogin, ascetic[9]. He becomes absorbed in Brahman being freed from the bondage of rebirth by the desires of objects like rūpa, rasa etc.[10] Yet it is necessary to wipe out the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind. The mind is the root of every action. So Abhinavagupta has told about the variegated movements of the mind in the recapitulating śoka of the second chapter. Man enjoys the objects even after forsaking them. Again, there are some reverse instances[11]. This is why importance has been laid on the supremacy of mind in course of introduction of this recapitulating śloka. The sense organs have their attachment or hatred towards objects. So attachment is felt to those objects which produce happiness and the objects which generate sorrow are disliked. A mundane realises everything in the way. So, a person who is free from greed is praised in the recapitulating śloka of the third chapter, named ‘Karmayoya’. He is not touched by greed or hatred. The dearest to a mundane is his wife, and the wealth is also desired by all. He always tries to keep his body in joy. But he who has realised the true nature of ātman, considers all these things as trifles. Anger and others arise from the sense organs[12]. So it is necessary to know that parama-ahaṅkāra which is greater than intellect. That is why work, devoid of desire for outcome, is advised in the recapitulating śloka of the karmayoga.

In the fourth chapter, accomplishment of the desire of the sense organs, are discussed. In this way liberation of soul has been advised in the sannyāsayoga. When action is performed leaving aside all desires, the result enters in the knowledge and it is brunt there[13]. The action performed by the sense organs for keeping the body fit does not get attached with mind and intellect unlike a mundane[14]. If there is any desire in respect of the consequences of action, then a person becomes enchained by virtue or vice[15]. Therefore the recapitulating śloka mentions the way of emancipation by performing deeds with the help of sense organs but having no desire for the consequences of action. The fifth chapter’s capitulating śloka speeks of the way how emancipation can be avoided easily. The devotee, who finds everything in the world as his own self, can proceed towards the path of emancipation through his worldly behaviours. He performs the vow of a sannyasin through his earthly performance of activities. The parameśvara is the experient of this entire world as all the fruits of yojña etc are offered to god[16]. In the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇā as well as in other places the śāstric activities or sacrifices as referred are meant primarily for Parameśvara. All the activities which are performed by the self controlled person with complete devotion and with the desire of emancipating himself ease the path of liberation[17]. The all pervasive foundational consciousness never perishes[18]. While describing the fifth chapter, Abhinavagupta has explained the doctrine of Śaivism by citing the instance of potter’s making of pots with mud in one hand and on the other he has given advice about the activities to be performed by the devotee striving after emancipation to attain Brahman. He has shown the actions which are to be done as per the desire of the sense organs in the fourth chapter and in the fifth chapter the advancement of it by opening the path to attain Brahman has been advised. In the fifth chapter he has shown in the recapitulating śloka that incessant repetition of god’s name is the only way to salvation. This chapter named ‘Ātma-saṃyama-yoga’, has discussed serially about yoga and its explanation following Patañjali, the characteristics of one fallen from the practice of Yoga, refutation of śunyavāda[19] and lastly the god has been praised[20]. It has been certified here that Brahman is established on equality[21]. In this way the necessary steps for attainment of Brahman have been described one by one at the end of this chapter.

The Seventh chapter is named ‘Jñāna-vijñāna-yoga’. Surrendering to god is the main theme of this chapter. The Sādhaka, devotee can be fulfil all his good wishes by complete devotion. So, Abhinavagupta has told about complete devotion to god following the Kashmir Śaivism in his Gītārthasaṅgraha, chapter Seven. Lord Vāsudeva is pervaded everywhere[22]. He is existent as spiritual, supernatural and material sacrifices[23]. Māyā, the principle of insentient material power is His action[24]. So one should come to his refuge. According to the Trika doctrine, if a person, forsaking desires, prays to any god, he can get the favour of that god[25]. This is why he has praised the complete devotion in the capitulating śloka of the Seventh chapter. The prime thing of sacred and miscellaneous knowledge is to approach the Parameśvara and it is attained by devotion. In the recapitulating śloka of the eigth chapter it is stated that Parameśvara is existent in all the tattvas or principles. Due to god’s existence everywhere, there is no difference between inside and outside. The Īsopaniṣad also speaks of Bhrahman’s existence in the same manner. Abhinavagupta has primarily focused in the eigth chapter on six mystical circles of the body, ṣaṭcakra in connection with Sādhaka and also on the movement of the moon[26]. He has also mentioned about appearance of piśāca belonging to the mysterious śāstra[27]. To explain the Bhagavadgītā he has shown that after achieving the Prarameśvara, man does not have the fear of moving round the cycle of birth and death[28]. He has expressed faith on the tradition of guru[29] and laid much importance on keeping faith on god at the end of the capitulating śloka, because the entire world is absorbed in god. Next in the recapitulating śloka of the ninth chapter, he has mentioned about the parāśakti, the highest power of the non-dual Brahman. Parāśakti is the basis of entire manifestation. So, it is necessary to concentration for that power.

The most notable thing of this chapter is that according to Abhinavagupta, the devotee is able to know the Veda in the dual state, but he is unable to know his own self as Śambhu[30]. So he has made it to understand that for knowing the non-dual Parameśvara, the method of Trika instruction should be followed. In this chapter he has refuted the theory of differentiation and at last he stated about non-dual Brahman and his divine power. In the recapitulating śloka of the chapter ten he has said about worshiping of Brahman, devoid of resolve and thought construct. In this state existence of objects in the sense organs appearing through sight is also considered as obstacle. With a view to strengthening the context of refutation of the theory of differentiation it is stated in the Gītārthasaṅgraha that the entire universe is existent in a single particle of the Parameśvara[31]. Removal of resolve and thought construct is the prime subject in the tenth chapter. In the recapitulating śloka of the chapter eleven it is stated that only the true devotee can have the knowledge of pure experient and impure provable. In this way the fourth state of consciousness of the equal form has been said. In this chapter Vāsudeva tattva has been mentioned[32]. This tattva is another name of Śiva. In the recapitulating śloka the main constituent element of god’s universal form has been expressed. When the devotee can realise his own self, everything appears as non-dual to him. Here is the reflection of arising the knowledge of Brahmaṇḍa i.e. the universe in the piṇḍa i.e. the body. In that twelfth chapter the characteristic of Dhyāna-yoga has been shown. To be passionate to god is the true knowledge. In this way here a combination of knowledge and devotion can be found. That is why god’s presence is said in the concluding śloka of the twelfth chapter[33]. Attainment of Brahman as existent in this delighted state indicates that it is the consequence of Bhakti, devotion. In chapter thirteen Abhinavagupta has given the real characteristic of yoga and he has told about attainment of devotion by yoga[34]. It is possible to attain emancipation from their world through the worship[35] of god with devotion[36]. At the end of this chapter judgement made on prakṛti, the principle of matter and puruṣa, the sentient principle of consciousness and also the relation between them has heightened the position of non-dual Śaivism. The recapitulation śloka of the fourteenth chapter describes mainly the condition of the emancipated person while still alive. Delighted by the Bhakti[37] rasa the worshiper transcends the gunas by god’s grace while living in this world. In this recapitulating śloka the result of attaining god’s grace is described. The main theme of the chapter is the sublimity of devotion. The complete destruction of duality and appearance of god are indicated in the recapitulating śloka of chapter fifteen[38]. Here is virtually the end of the Gītāśāstra which preaches non-dualism. These recapitulating ślokas describe sādhaka’s attainment of the position of Brahman by removing ignorance. The substance of the chapter sixteen relating to divine and demonic wealth (daivī and āsurī saṃpada) has been narrated at the end of the chapter in the recapitulating śloka. The person subdued by ignorance, becomes incapable to judge which virtue is and which is sin. So, here the śāstra has to be followed. The śāstras generate intellect. The hatred generated by mental perturbation is but hate to god[39]. So the śloka says that transparent discernment comes from the śāstra and it is the main theme of the śloka. Difference of attachment to work as well as accomplishment of work between a householder and a prudent has been shown in the recapitulating śloka of the Seventeenth chapter. The same work done by a prudent brings emancipation for its being offered to the god. After mentioning the context of śabdabrahman, vākśakti and svatantra-śakti, power of divine freedom, Abhinavagupta has described the nature of Brahman[40]. He has praised in the Gītārthasaṅgraha the offering of deeds to god for attaining that state of Brahman. At last in the eighteenth chapter attainment of the state of Viṣṇu and then heightening to the position of Śivatva is mentioned in the recapitulating śloka. The conflict of knowledge and ignorance which was stated as divine and demonical in the first chapter of the Gītārthasaṅgraha, that has come to an end in this recapitulating śloka by way of removing ignorance. It is not only the theme of this chapter, but the theme of the whole of the Bhagavadgītā is reflected in it. In this way

Abhinavaguta has presented a great gift by way of as if, collecting honey from each of the chapters and establishing the doctrine of the Kashmir Śaivism.

Saṃgrahaślokās of Gītārthasaṅgraha

vidyācidyobhayāghātasaṃghaṭṭavivaśīkṛtaḥ |
yuktyā dvayamapi tyaktvā nirviveko bhavenmuniḥ ||1 ||

A wise person, who was compelled into the troubling union between knowledge and ignorance, should, having analysed and rejected both, enter the state free from thought.

aho nu cetasaścitrā gatistyāgena yatkila |
ārohatyeva viṣayāñchrayaṃtāṃstu parityajet || 2 ||

The most amazing, indeed, is the movement of the mind. Through the process of giving up one object it jumps to other ones, taking thus recourse to new objects that are again and again.

dhanāni dārāndehaṃ ca yo'nyatvenādhigacchati |
kiṃ nāma tasya kurvanti krodhādyāścittavibhramāḥ ||3 ||

One who approaches one’s health, wife or even one’s body with a sense of difference from his real nature, what kind of hard could be done to such a person by the changing nature of mind?

vidhatte karma yatkiñcidakṣecchāmātrapūrvakam |
tenaiva śubhabhājaḥ syustṛptāḥ karaṇadevatāḥ ||4 ||

Whichever act, preceded by the desire in the sense organs, one might perform, this act will make gods in the form of sense organs fulfilled and in return they will bless people with auspicious results.

sarvāṇyevātra bhūtāni samatvenānupasyataḥ |
jaḍavadvyavahāro'pi mokṣāyaivāvakalpate ||5 ||

He who perceives all creatures as being equal is fit for liberation, even if he is ignorant in the matters of worldly affairs.

bhagavannāmasaṃprāptimātrātsarvamavāpyate |
phalitāḥ śālayaḥ samyagvṛṣṭimātre'valokite ||6 ||

Only by attaining God’s name everything is achieved, just as rice grains blossom when the rainy season comes.

sphuṭaṃ bhagavato bhaktirahitā kalpamañjarī |
sādhakecchāsamucitāṃ yenāśāṃ paripūriyet ||7 ||

Pure devotion is the wish-fulfilling tree by means of which one may fulfill hopes proper to be desired by the sādhaka.

sarvatattvagatatvena vijñāte parameśvare |
antarbahirna sāvastha na yasyāṃ bhāsate vibhuḥ ||8 ||

When the Lord is known to be present in all the tattvas, then for a yogin there is no place either externally or internally where Parameśvara is not present.

advaite brahmaṇi parā sarvānugrahaśālinī |
śaktirvijṛmbhate tena yatanīyaṃ tadāptaye ||9 ||

That all merciful Parāśakti, which blesses all living beings, blossoms and expands in that unitary consciousness called Brahman; therefore, one should strive to attain that highest reality.

icchāyāmindriye vāpi yadevāyāti gauravam |
haṭhādvilāpayaṃstattatpraśāntaṃ brahma bhāvayet ||10 ||

Whatever might be the object of one’s experience and whatever might form the content of one’s desire, one should while persistently dissolving all of that, meditate on the Brahman, which is the highest peace.

śuddhāśuddhavimiśrotthasaṃvidaikyavimarśanāt |
bhūrbhuvaḥ svastrayaṃ paśyansamatvena samo muniḥ ||11 ||

Having the realization of the oneness of consciousness, which is manifested as pure, pure-cum-impure and impure, a meditator possessing a balanced mind observes the three states of consciousness with equilibrium.

paramānandavaivaśyasañjātāveśasampadaḥ |
svayaṃ sarvāsvavasthasu brahmāsattā hyayatnataḥ ||12 ||

The yogin absorbed in God and taken by the bliss of the absorption spontaneously experiences the reality of the Brahman in all states and conditions of life.

pumānprakṛtirityeṣa bhedaḥ saṃmūḍhacetasām |
paripūrṇāstu manyante nirmalātmamayaṃ jagat ||13 ||

The difference between Puruṣa and Prakṛti exists only for those who are confused, but those who are perfect realize the entire universe as the pure atman.

lasadbhaktirasāveśahīnāhaṃkāravibhramaḥ |
sthite'pi guṇasaṃmarde guṇātītaḥ samo yatiḥ ||14 ||

A yogin, who has become free from error caused by ahaṅkāra, as a result of the nectar of blooming devotion, such a yogin although living in the midst of the three guṇas is beyond their influence.

hatvā dvaitamahāmohaṃ kṛtvā brahmamayīṃ citim |
laukike vyavahāre'pi munirnityaṃ samāviśet ||15 ||

The sage who has transcended the great delusion caused by the notion of duality and who has realized his consciousness as being pervaded by the Brahman, that wise men even while performing worldly activities should permanently remain absorbed in the highest reality.

abodhe svātmabuddhyaiva kāryaṃ naiva vicārayet |
kintu śāstroktavidhinā śāstraṃ bodhavivardhanam ||16 ||

At the time of indecision one should not use one’s own mind to decide the course of action, but rather should rely on the śāstras whose purpose is to increase knowledge.

sa eva kārakāveśaḥ kriyā saivāviśeṣiṇī |
tathāpi vijñānavatāṃ mokṣārthe paryavasati ||17 ||

He, Śiva alone assumes the form of different instruments; his Śakti, which is free from all attributes, is action. In this way, to those who possess knowledge, all actions, such as charity, austerity or sacrifice, culminate in mokṣa.

bhaṅktvā jñānavimohamantharamayīṃ sattvādibhinnāṃ dhiyaṃ prāpya svātmavibhūtasundaratayā viṣṇuṃ vikalpāgatim |
yaktiṃcitsvarasodyadindriyanijavyāpāramātrasthiterhelātaḥ kurute tadasya sakalaṃ saṃpadyate śaṅkaram ||18 ||

Whatever action might be performed by a Yogin–who has freed his mind dominated by the three guṇas, which are of the nature of knowledge, confusion and inertia, and who has attained Viṣṇu, who is beyond thought, through the beauty of the realization of his own self–that action is performed effortlessly because he is engaged only in such activities of the sense organs, which arise in him on their own. To such a Yogin Śiva is everything.[42]

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

abhinavarūpā śaktistadgupto yo maheśvaro devaḥ |
tadubhayayāmalarūpamabhinavaguptaṃ śivaṃ vande || Gītārthasaṅgraha,concluding verses, 4.

[2]:

tāsvanyaiḥ prāktanairvyākhyāḥ kṛtā yadyapi bhūyasā |
nyāyyastathāpyudamo me tadgūḍhārthaprakāśakaḥ || Gītārthasaṅgraha, Maṅgala Versse-5.

[3]:

bhaṭṭendurājādāmnāya vivicya ca ciraṃ dhiyā |
kṛto'bhinavaguptena so'yaṃ Gītārthasaṅgraha || Gītārthasaṅgraha, Maṅgala verse -6.

[4]:

taccaraṇakamalamadhūpo bhagavadgītārthasaṃgrahaṃ vyadadhāt |
abhinavaguptaḥ saddivajaloṭakakṛtacodanāvaśataḥ || Gītārthasaṅgraha,concluding verse -2.

[5]:

samyag gṛhyate niścīyate'neneti saṅgrahaḥ upāyaḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 8/11.

[6]:

seyaṃ kriyātmikā śaktiḥ śivasya paśuvartinī |
bandhayitrī svamārgastha jñātā siddhyupapādikā ||(spa., 3ni.16ślo
.)
.... iti tatra tatra vitatya vicāritacarametat itīhoparamyate | tapāmyahamityadi advaitakathāprasaṅgenoktam | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 9/20.

[7]:

advaite brahmaṇi parā sarvānugrahaśālinī |
śaktirvijṛmbhate tena yatanīyaṃ tadāptaye || Gītārthasaṅgraha, Saṅgraha śloka-9.

[8]:

ubhe iti parasparavyabhicāraṃ darśayati | tasmāt yathāhi sukṛtaduṣkṛte naśyatastathākaraṇameva paramaṃ kauśalamiti bhāvaḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 2/52.

[9]:

yogabuddhiyuktāḥ karmaṇāṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā janmabandhaṃ tyajanti brahmasattāmāpnuvanti | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 2/53.

[10]:

yadyapi āhārye rūpādibhirviṣayaiḥ sambandho'sya nāsti, tathāpi tasya viṣaya antaḥkaraṇagatamuparāgalakṣaṇaṃ rasaṃ varjayitvā nivartate | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 2/61.

[11]:

evaṃ ca vartamānaḥ sukhaṃ tantrayitumivotpadyate, vastutastu duḥkhamohamayaḥ tāmasatvāt, Gītārthasaṅgraha, 3/39.

[12]:

evamindriyotpannena krodhena kathaṃ manaso buddherātmano vā kṣobhaḥ? iti paryālocayedityarthaḥ | rahasyavidāṃ tvayamāśayaḥ buddheryaḥ paratra vartate paro'haṃkāraḥ sarvamaham ityabhedātmā, sa khalu paramo'bhedaḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 3/48.

[13]:

ataeva kāmeṣu kāmyamāneṣu phaleṣu saṅkalpa vihāya kriyamāṇāni karmāṇi kathitakathayiṣyamāṇasvarūpe jñānāgnāvanupraviśya dahyante | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 4/19.

[14]:

śarīropayogī indriyavyāpārātmakaṃ karma śārīraṃ, yanmanobuddhibhyāṃ na tathānurañjitam, Gītārthasaṅgraha, 4/21.

[15]:

anyathā jaḍānāṃ karmaṇāṃ bandhane svātantryaṃ na tathā hṛdayaṃgamam, Gītārthasaṅgraha, 4/21.

[16]:

yajñaphaleṣu bhoktā tyaktaphalatvāt | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 5/29.

[17]:

evaṃvidho yogī sarvavyavahārān vartayannapi mukta eva | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 5/28.

[18]:

teṣāṃ sarvataḥ sarvāsvavasthasu brahmasattā pāramārthikī na nirodhakālamapekṣate | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 5/26.

[19]:

kiṃcidapi viṣayāṇāṃ tyagagrahaṇādikaṃ na cintayet yastvanyairvākhyātaṃ na kiṃcidapi cintayet iti tadasmabhyaṃ na rucitaṃ śūnyavādaprasaṅgāt | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 6/26.

[20]:

abhyāsena mokṣapakṣaḥ kramātkramaṃ viṣayīkriyate iti dvayorupādanam | uktaṃ ca tatra bhavatā bhāṣyakṛtā’ubhayādhīnaścittavṛttinirodhaḥ”, (Y.D.,1.12),Gītārthasaṅgraha, 6/36.

[21]:

sāmye hi te pratiṣṭhitāḥ | sāmyaṃ ca brahma | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 6/10.

[22]:

ataeva sa vāsudeva eva sarvam ityevaṃ dṛḍhapratipattipavitrakṛtahṛdayaḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 7/19.

[23]:

ādhyātmikādhidaivikādhidaivikādhiyajñikāni ca mamaiva rūpāntarāṇi | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 7/30.

[24]:

daivaḥ krīḍākaraḥ, tatra bhavā daivī krīḍā mayeyamityarthaḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 7/14.

[25]:

kintu siddhānto'yamatra yaḥ kāmanāparihāreṇa yatkiṃciddevatārūpamālambate tasya tat śuddhamuktabhāvena paryavasati | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 7/24.

[26]:

tatra candramaso bhogyāṃśānupraveśād bhogāyāvṛttiḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 8/25.

[27]:

prabhāṭīkā, Gītārthasaṅgraha, 8/25.

[28]:

evaṃ sṛṣṭau pralaye ca punarbhāvaḥ,.. sarvato lokebhyaḥ punarāvṛttirna tu māṃ prāpya iti sphuṭayati | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 8/19.

[29]:

asmadguravastvāhuḥ sarvānugrāhakatayā madhye ābhyantarakālakṛtamutkrānti, Gītārthasaṅgraha, 8/27.

[30]:

yaduktaṃ mayaivavedānveda na veda śāṃbhavapadaṃ dūyeta nirvedavān |
svargārthī yajamānatāṃ pratijahajjāto yajanyājakaḥ || Gītārthasaṅgraha, 9/27.

[31]:

upasaṃhāre bhedābhedavādaṃ yadyadvibhūtimatsattvam ityanenābhidhāya paścāt bhedamevopasaṃharati—’athavā bahunaitena..’ viṣṭabhyāham”ekāṃśena jagatsthitaḥ’ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 10/42.

[32]:

avidyamānānyajñeyaramaṇīyā yeṣāṃ bhakti parisphurati teṣāṃ māṃ prapadyate, vāsudevaḥ sarvam ityadipūrvābhihitopadeśacamatkārāt viśvātmakaṃ vāsudevatattvamayatnataḥ eva bodhapadavīmavatarayatīti śivam | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 11/60.

[33]:

tatsarvaṃ mayi saṃnyasye ātmanivedanadvāreṇetyaśayaḥ.... pārameśvareṣu hi siddhāntaśāstreṣu ātmanivedane'yamevābhiprāyaḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 12/11.

[34]:

ananyayogeneti paramātmano maheśvarādanyadaparaṃ na kiṃcidasti ityananyarūpo yo niścayaḥ sa eva yogaḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 13/12.

[35]:

yena kenacidupāyena bhagavatattvamupāsyamānamuttārayati | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 13/26.

[36]:

tena niścayena mayi bhaktiḥ | yena kenacidupāyena bhagavatattvamupāsyamānamuttārayati | Ibid.

[37]:

sa evāvyabhicāriṇyā bhagavato maheśvarasyāgrahaśaktyā pavitrokṛto nānya iti jñeyam | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 14/26.

[38]:

guhyatamam sarvādvayapratipādakatvāt.... iti śabdena śāstrasya samāptiḥ sūcitāḥ | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 15/20.

[39]:

krodhādiruṣitatvādeva lokāndviṣanto māmeva dviṣanti | Gītārthasaṅgraha16/18.

[40]:

oṃ tat sat ityebhistribhiḥ śabdabrahmaṇo nirdeśaḥ saṃmukhīkaraṇam | tatra oṃ ityanena śāstrārtho'yamādehasaṃbandhamūrīkārya iti sūcyate | tat iti sarvanāmapadena sāmānyamātrābhidhāyinā viśeṣaparāmarśamātrāsamarthena phalānabhisaṃdhānaṃ brahmaṇyucyate.... sat ityamuyā śrutya praśaṃsābhidhīyate | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 17/27.

[41]:

yajñaphaleṣu bhoktā tyaktaphalatvāt | Gītārthasaṅgraha, 5/29.

[42]:

Translations are quoted from Boris Marjanovic’s edition

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