Vidya, aka: Vidyā; 18 Definition(s)


Vidya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

1) Vidyā (विद्या):—Second of the five factors of limitation (kañcuka) that occur in the second stage during the unity of Śiva and Śakti (subject and object). Their unity is initiated upon the cosmic process of creation.

2) Vidyā (विद्या):—Third of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Mahimā, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. These eight sub-manifestations (mātṛ) are associated with the (element) earth. The first five from (including Vidyā) represent the five kalās. All these eight mātṛs are characterized as carrying a diamond in their hand. They are presided over by the Bhairava Jhaṇṭa and his consort named Aindryā. Mahimā is the seventh of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents the earth.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Vidya: Normally Siva is Omniscient (Sarvajnatva). Maya has put a crimp on this all-knowing facility and rendered the individual soul with limited knowledge.

Source: Kashmir Saivism
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Vidyā (विद्या, “Knowledge”):—One of the female offspring from Mahākālī (tamas-form of Mahādevī). Mahākālī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahālakṣmī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Kālī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named tamas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Vidyā (विद्या, “knowledge”):—One of the names attributed to Devī, as chanted by the Vedas in their hymns, who were at the time incarnated in their personified forms. See the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa chapter 5.51-68, called “the narrative of Hayagrīva”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Vidyā (विद्या) refers to one of the five Kalās mentioned in Śāradātilaka I.26. Kalā represents one of the six adhvans being purified during the Kriyāvatī-dīkṣā: an important Śākta ritual. Dīkṣā is one of the most important rituals of the Śāktas and so called because it imparts divine knowledge and destroys evil.

Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta
Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Dharmashastra (religious law)

The term ‘knowledge,’ ‘vidyā,’ stands for that by means of which all things are known; i.e., the reading of the text as well as the grasping of the meaning. The meaning is that he who does not bring any benefit should not be taught the text of the Veda, nor should the explanation of tho meaning of Vedic texts be expounded to him. (see the Manubhāṣya, II.112)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Dharmashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1) Vidyā (विद्या).—A maid of Devī Umā. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Stanza 48).

2) Vidyā (विद्या).—A deity. This deity is worshipped as the deity of three Vedas which are the most important of the religious or Vedic literature. Mention is made about this deity in the preface of Ṛgvedabhāṣya by Sāyaṇa, as follows.

2) Once Vidyā approached a Brahmin and said "I am your wealth. Your duty is to impart me to disciples who are pure, celibate, law-abiding and active, and who protect the treasure. I hate disciples who are jealous."

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Vidyā (विद्या) refers to a “learning”, which is mentioned as obtainable through the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] a person desirous of learning (vidyā-kāma) shall worship half that number [for details, see text]. A person desirous of eloquence shall worship Śiva with ghee”.

Source: Siva Purana - English Translation

1a) Vidyā (विद्या).—Leads to happiness: Role of teacher and pupil. A means to attain final beatitude;1 of 18 groups—also 14 groups;2 survive antarkṣaya.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 10. 12; 11. 4-7; VI. 16. 27.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 35. 88-9; III. 15. 29; IV. 12. 57; 18. 46; 34. 69.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 2. 13.

1b) A śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 98; 44. 57, 140.

1c) Not to have marital alliances with Viśvāmitras, Khili Khilis, etc.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 198. 21.

1d) 14 including Mimāṃsa, Nyāya, Purāṇa, Dharmaśāstra,—18 in number,—also includes Āyurveda. Dhanurveda, Gāndharva, and Arthaśāstra;1 four Anvīkṣikī. Trayī, Vārta and Daṇḍanīti;2 another division—Parā and Aparā.3

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 6. 27-8;
  • 2) Ib. V. 10. 27.
  • 3) Ib. V. 1. 35.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vidyā (विद्या) refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.82.47). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vidyā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Vidyā (विद्या) refers to a weapon (knowledge, science, learning, scholarship). It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda
Dhanurveda book cover
context information

Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Dhanurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Vidyā (विद्या, “valid knowledge ”) refers to one of two types of Buddhi (cognition) according to Praśastapāda in the Vaiśeṣikadarśanam with Praśastapādabhāṣya.—According to Praśastapāda, buddhi is divided into two kinds:—vidyā (valid knowledge) and avidyā (invalid knowledge). Valid knowledge has four kinds–perception, inference, recollection and supernormal occult perception. Invalid knowledge has also four kinds–doubt, illusion, indefinite knowledge and dream.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Nyaya from relevant books on Exotic India

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Vidyā is synonymous with mantra. Although grammatically it is a female word, the Tibetan has it translated as a male noun.

Source: 84000: The Basket’s Display

India history and geogprahy

Vidyā.—(CII 4), the right knowledge. (IE 7-1-2), ‘fourteen’. Note: vidyā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

vidyā (विद्या).—f (S) Knowledge, learning, science, esp. sacred. Science is classed into fourteen divisions; viz. the four vēda, the six aṅgēṃ, the eighteen purāṇēṃ, the two mīmāṃsā, nyāya, and dharma; or, in detail, ṛgvēda, yajurvēda, sāmavēda, atharvavēda, śikṣā, vyākaraṇa, chanda, nirukti, jyōtiṣa, kalpa, aṭharā purāṇēṃ which see under purāṇa, pūrvamīmāṃsā, uttaramīmāṃsā, nyāyaśāstra, dharmaśāstra. Pr. caudā vidyā causaṣṭa kaḷā. 2 Laxly. An art (as of writing, drawing, singing &c.) vidyāvinayasampanna (A phrase or an epithet of praise of Brahmans. It constantly occurs in notes.) Skilled profoundly in science, and accomplished in the virtues of humility and modesty.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vidyā (विद्या).—f Knowledge, learning. Science. An art.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vidyā (विद्या).—[vid-kyap]

1) Knowledge, learning, lore, science; (tāṃ) विद्यामभ्यसनेनेव प्रसादयितुमर्हसि (vidyāmabhyasaneneva prasādayitumarhasi) R.1.88; विद्या नाम नरस्य रूपमधिकं प्रच्छन्नगुप्तं धनम् (vidyā nāma narasya rūpamadhikaṃ pracchannaguptaṃ dhanam) &c. Bh.2.2. (According to some Vidyās are four :-ānvīkṣikī trayī vārtā daṇḍanītiśca śīśvatī Kāmandaka); चतसृष्वपि ते विवेकिनी नृप विद्यासु निरूढिमागता (catasṛṣvapi te vivekinī nṛpa vidyāsu nirūḍhimāgatā) Ki.2.6; to these four Manu adds a fifth आत्मविद्या (ātmavidyā); त्रैविद्येभ्यस्त्रयीं विद्यां दण्डनीतिं च शाश्वतीम् । आन्वीक्षिकीं चात्मविद्यां वार्तारम्भांश्च लोकतः (traividyebhyastrayīṃ vidyāṃ daṇḍanītiṃ ca śāśvatīm | ānvīkṣikīṃ cātmavidyāṃ vārtārambhāṃśca lokataḥ) || Ms.7.43. But the usual number of Vidyās is stated to be fourteen, i. e. the four Vedas, the six Aṅgas, Dharma, Mimāṃsā, Tarka or Nyāya and the Purāṇas; see चतुर्दशविद्या (caturdaśavidyā) under चतुर् (catur); and N.1.4. In N.1.5 the number is spoken of as being eighteen by including Medicine, Military Art, Music and Polity; अगाहताष्टादशतां जिगीषया (agāhatāṣṭādaśatāṃ jigīṣayā).)

2) Right knowledge, spiritual knowledge; विद्याकल्पेन मरुता मेघानां भूयसामपि (vidyākalpena marutā meghānāṃ bhūyasāmapi) (kvāpi pravilayaḥ kṛtaḥ) U.6.6; cf. अविद्या (avidyā).

3) A spell, an incantation; गन्धधूपादिभिश्चार्चेद् द्वादशाक्षर- विद्यया (gandhadhūpādibhiścārced dvādaśākṣara- vidyayā) Bhāg.8.16.39.

4) A mystical name of the letter इ (i).

5) A small bell.

6) The goddess Durgā.

7) Magical skill.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vidyā (विद्या).—f.

(-dyā) 1. Knowledge, learning, science, whether sacred or profane, though more especially the former: it is sometimes classed into fourteen divisions; viz:—the four Vedas; the six Angas, or grammar, astronomy, &c.; the Puranas as the eleventh class; and the Mimansa or theology, Nyaya or logic, and Dharma or law, as the remaining three. 2. The goddess Durga. 3. A tree, (Premna spinosa.) 4. A magical pill or bolus, by putting which into the mouth a person has the power of ascending to heaven. 5. Spell, incantation. E. vid to know, aff. kyap .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of vidya in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Relevant definitions

Search found 465 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Vidyādhara is a Sanskrit word referring “a knower of charms” and is known in Pali as Vijjādhara...
Mahāvidyā (महाविद्या).—f. (-dyā) The name of the following ten goddess:— “kālī tārā mahāv...
Brahmavidyā (ब्रह्मविद्या).—f. (-dyā) Knowledge of spirit. E. brahma, and vidyā science.
Vastuvidyā (वस्तुविद्या).—read so (or with pw 7.373 vāstu°, but see vastu) for vastra-v°, scien...
Śrīvidyā (श्रीविद्या) is one of Shakta Tantrism’s most influential and theologically sophist...
Caturvidya (चतुर्विद्य).—m. (-dyaḥ) A priest who has studied the four Vedas. E. catur four, vid...
Śilpavidyā (शिल्पविद्या).—f. (-dyā) Art, mechanical or manual skill. E. śilpa, and vidyā knowle...
Pure wisdom (Śuddha-vidyā): mantra as conscious reality. “I am this.” (idam-evāham). Associa...
Vidyābhyāsa (विद्याभ्यास).—m. (-saḥ) Study, diligent application. E. vidyā, abhyāsa exercise.
Ātmavidyā (आत्मविद्या).—knowledge of the soul, spiritual knowledge; आन्वीक्षिकीं चात्मविद्याम् ...
Vidyā-dhana.—(HRS), explained as land assigned as a re- ward for learning; same as vidyā-bhoga ...
Āṅgavidya (आङ्गविद्य).—a. [aṅgavidyāṃ veda aṇ] Occurring in, or being familiar with, अङ्गविद्या...
Limited knowledge (vidyā): “the illusion that what we can know of the absolute is limited”. ...
Viṣavidyā (विषविद्या).—f. (-dyā) The administration of antidotes, the cure of poisons by drugs ...
Gandharvavidyā (गन्धर्वविद्या).—the science of music. Gandharvavidyā is a Sanskrit compound con...

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: