Rupa, aka: Rūpa; 30 Definition(s)


Rupa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

rūpa–Sanskrit term meaning 'form', 'aggregate' or 'a sum total of form.' and used in hindu iconology (eg. the Āgamas).

Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Rūpa (रूप, “supposition”) refers to ‘consequent supposition’ or hypotheses expressing doubt. Rūpa represents one of the thirteen garbhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. This element is also known by the name Vitarka. Garbhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the development part (garbha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

(Description of Rūpa): “a hypothesis with which novel meanings are combined, is called Supposition (rūpa)”.

2) Rūpa (रूप, “supposition”) refers to an aspect of the representation of objects and senses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “by holding on the head the patāka-hand with its fingers slightly moving, and looking intently at something with eyes, the wise one is to represent the form (rūpa)”.

3) Rūpa (रूप) is the name of a karaṇa (aspect of strokes) in playing the vipañcī (musical instrument), according. The vipañcī refers to an instrument with nine strings played with a plectrum (koṇa).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “when on the vīṇā, two heavy and two light syllables are played, it is the rūpa”.

4) Rūpa (रूप) or Rūpakaraṇa refers to one of the six karaṇas, comprising a set of rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33.

Accordingly, “Rūpa is when karaṇas are produced by two hands. Example.—gham khu khu ṇa khu gham kramam tthimam tthettaram ghaṭam ghatthi metthi gheṇṭa kaṭa guddharāṇa kiṭi gham ghe kaghatām ghe kakham”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Rūpa (रूप).—The terms like rūpaka or rūpa (representation) and prekṣā (spectacle), all denoting dramatic works, also characterise the Hindu dramas and show their difference from the drama of the Greeks who laid emphasis on action and not on the spectacle.

Though the Hindu plays are usually referred to as ‘drama’ all the ten varieties of play (rūpa) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra are not strictly speaking dramas in the modern sense. Due to the peculiar technique of their construction and production they would partially at least partake of the nature of pure drama, opera, ballet or merely dramatic spectacle.

The ten types of play:

  1. Nāṭaka,
  2. Prakaraṇa,
  3. Samavakāra, 
  4. Īhāmṛga,
  5. Ḍima,
  6. Vyāyoga,
  7. Prahasana,
  8. Utsṛṣṭikāṅka,
  9. Bhāṇa,
  10. Vīthī.
Source: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rūpa (रूप):—A Sanskrit technical term translating to “symptom”, referring to one of the “five characteristics of diagnosis” (pañcalakṣaṇanidāna). It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. These five characteristics are regarded as very important clues for diagnosis (nidāna) within Āyurveda.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Rūpa (रूप) is a Sanskrit word translating to “form”, “aggregate” or “a sum total of form”. It is used throughout texts and practice of Hindu iconology.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Rūpa (रूप, “colour”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Rūpa (रूप, “form”) refers to one of the twelve effects of āya (“profit”), according to the Mānasāra. Āya is the first of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular āya (eg., rūpa) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). The twelve effects of āya may all be assumed as auspicious.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Kavya (poetry)

Rūpa (रूप) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—An ancient poet. To whom nothing can be known certainly. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara only says that his poetic excellence examined in the Ujjain.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

1) Rūpa (रूप).—Word-form which is complete with प्रकृति (prakṛti) (the base) and प्रत्यय (pratyaya), i.e. the affix which is attached to it; cf. रूपनिर्ग्रहश्च शब्दस्य नान्तरेण लौकिकं प्रयोगम् (rūpanirgrahaśca śabdasya nāntareṇa laukikaṃ prayogam) M. Bh. on P. I. 1.22 Vārt. 3; cf. also the usual expression का रूपसिद्धिः (kā rūpasiddhiḥ) in the Mahābhāșya; cf. M. Bh. on I. 1.51, 1.2.58 etc. ; the word is also used in the sense of a word-base (धातु (dhātu) or प्रातिपदिक (prātipadika)); cf. स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा (svaṃ rūpaṃ śabdasyāśabdasaṃjñā) P. I. 1.68;

2) Rūpa.—The word form as characterized by its derivation and properties cf. तस्य रूपान्यत्वे वर्णान्यत्वम् (tasya rūpānyatve varṇānyatvam) explained as तस्य शब्दस्य अनुप्रदानादिभिः कारणौ रूपभेदे जन्यमाने वर्णभेदः संपद्यते (tasya śabdasya anupradānādibhiḥ kāraṇau rūpabhede janyamāne varṇabhedaḥ saṃpadyate) T. Pr. XXII. 2

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Rūpa (रूप).—1. Known number; unity; abbr. as rū in algebra. Note: Rūpa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Rūpa (रूप) represents one of the four stages of creation corresponding to the Ājñā-cakra, and is explained in terms of kuṇḍalinī by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka verse 25.62.—“The ‘solid mass’ (piṇḍa) is doubtlessly the kuṇḍalinī, equivalent to Śiva; the “position” (pada), on the other hand, is doubtlessly the haṃsaḥ, the inner Self of all. The “form” (rūpa) is doubtlessly the bindu of infinite lustre; the blissful union (sāmarasya) with Śiva is “form transcended” (atītarūpa)”.

Note: The terms piṇḍa, pada, rūpa and rūpātīta refer to four stages of creation. These four are also said to correspond to four Cakras: piṇḍa to mūlādhāra, pada to anāhata, rūpa to ājñā and rūpātīta to sahasrāra.

Source: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Rūpa (रूप, “colour”) or Rūpaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Rūpa (Colour) is the first quality amongst the twenty-four guṇas. It is a special quality. According to Praśastapāda, the colour is perceptible to the eye. Viśvanātha states in his Bhāṣāpariccheda that colour is cognized by the sense of vision. It is an aid to the cognition of substance, quality, action, generic attributes etc. It is an auxiliary cause of visual perception. Śivāditya defines rūpa as that quality which possesses the generality of colourness and is perceptible by the eye alone.

Colour (rūpa) is divided into seven kinds, viz., and white, blue, yellow, red, green, brown and variegated. Among these the last one is the mixture of the other qualities. The seven colours reside in earth, water and light. All the seven kinds exist in earth, pale-white resides in water and bright white is found in light.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Body; physical phenomenon; sense datum. The basic meaning of this word is "appearance" or "form." It is used, however, in a number of different contexts, taking on different shades of meaning in each. In lists of the objects of the senses, it is given as the object of the sense of sight. As one of the khandha, it refers to physical phenomena or sensations (visible appearance or form being the defining characteristics of what is physical). This is also the meaning it carries when opposed to nama, or mental phenomena.Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

N Form, appearance.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Rupa (“material”).—Apart from citta and cetasika which are realities, there is another reality. It is rupa. Rupa are the nature which are always influenced by one or more of four causes namely kamma, citta, utu, and ahara. Rupa are always changing as citta and cetasika are always changing even though they are relatively slower than nama dhamma.Unlike nama dhamma, rupa do not have the nature that can be aware of themselves and their surroundings.

Rupa can never know anything. But rupa serve various functions in connection with nama dhamma citta and cetasika. In terms of their intrinsic character, there are 28 separate paramattha rupa.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Rupa or physical phenomenon, is the Dhamma which does not know or experience anything, such as color, sound, odor or flavor. There are 28 types of rupas in all.

The meaning of rupa, material phenomenon or matter, is different from matter in conventional sense, such as table, chair, or book. Among the 28 kinds of rupa, there is one kind of rupa, visible object or color, citta can experience through the eyes. That which appears through the eyes is the only kind of rupa, which can be seen by citta. As regards the other 27 rupas, these cannot be seen by citta, but they can be experienced through the appropriate doorways by the cittas concerned. Sound, for example, can be experienced by citta through the ears.

Rupa is a Dhamma, which is infinitesimal and intricate. It arises and falls away very rapidly, all the time. When comparing the duration of rupa with the duration of citta, one unit of rupa arises and falls away in the time seventeen cittas arise and fall away, succeeding one another and this is extremely fast. For example, it seems that at this moment the citta which sees and the citta which hears appear at the same time, but in reality they arise and fall away apart from each other, with more than seventeen moments of citta in between them. Therefore, the rupa which arises at the same time as the citta which sees must arise and fall away before the citta which hears arises.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Rupa (material phenomena); There are 28 classes of rupa, 16 being classified as subtle and 12 as gross. There are the four great elements:

  1. element of earth, or solidity
  2. element of water, or cohesion
  3. element of fire, or temperature
  4. element of wind, or motion

The four great elements always arise with those rupas which are known as the derived rupas.

The derived rupas are the physical sense organs of eye sense, ear sense, taste sense, etc., and the sense objects of color, sound, smell and flavor. Other examples of rupa are the male or female characteristic, heart base, nutritive essense (food), space, lightness, bodily intimation, speech intimation, etc. All that matter consists of is these 28 different types of rupa in different combinations.

Source: Dhamma Study: Introduction to the Dhamma

(corporeality): s. khandha, rūpa-kalāpa.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

(1) corporeality (s. khandha 1); (2) visual object (s. āyatana); (3) fine-material (s. avacara, jhāna).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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General definition (in Buddhism)

1) Rūpa (रूप, “bodily-form”) refers to the first of the “five components” (pañcaskandha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 22). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., rūpa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Rūpa or rūpāyatana also represents one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana), one of the “eighteen elements” (dhātu) as well as one of the “eleven form components” (rūpaskandha).

Rūpa also refers to one of the “six spheres” (ṣaḍviṣaya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 33).

Rūpa (“form”) also refers to the “five qualities” (pāñcabhautika) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 40).

2) Rūpa (रूप, “form”) refers to a set of “twenty form objects” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 34):

  1. nīla (black),
  2. pīta (yellow),
  3. lohita (red),
  4. avadāta (white),
  5. harita (green),
  6. dīrgha (long),
  7. hrasva (short),
  8. parimaṇḍala, (circular),
  9. unnata (bent up),
  10. avanata (bent down),
  11. sāta (pleasant),
  12. visāta (unpleasant),
  13. accha (clear),
  14. dhūma (clouded),
  15. rajas (dusty),
  16. mahikā (frosty),
  17. chāyā (shadowy),
  18. atapa (sunny),
  19. āloka (light),
  20. andhakāra (dark).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., rūpa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.


Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Rupa (‘matter’ or ‘form’ or ‘thing’).—The Sanskrit word is Rupa. It is defined as that which has resistence, or which changes and disappear, i.e., the phenomenal. There are inner and outer forms representing the organs and objects of sense respectively. Rupa is one of the Six Bahya ayatanna or Six Gunas and also one of the Five Skandhas.

Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

In Jainism, 'rupi' stands for 'material'. Probably the same as Rupa.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Rūpa.—(HRS), according to the Arthaśāstra, (1) a subsidiary charge in excess of the prescribed fines; (2) a charge upon mines and upon imported salt. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 94, 106. (IE 8-8; EI 20, 21), currency or coins; name of a silver coin; same as rūpya or rūpaka. (EI 1), an animal. (CII 1), a representation. Note: rūpa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Rūpa.—same as rūpaka or rūpyaka (q. v.). Note: rūpa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

rūpa : (nt.) form; figure; image; object of the eye; a material composition.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Rūpa, (nt.) (cp. Vedic rūpa, connected etymologically with varpa (Grassmann).—The Nom. pl. is rūpā & rūpāni) form, figure, appearance, principle of form, etc.—A. Definitions. According to P. expositors rūpa takes its designation fr. ruppati, e.g. “ruppanato rūpaṃ” Vism. 588; “ruppan’aṭṭhena r. ” VbhA. 3; “rūpa-rūpaṃ= ruppana sabhāvena yuttaṃ” Cpd. 1567 (where ruppati is, not quite correctly, given as “change”), “ruppatī ti: tasmā rūpan ti vuccati” S. III, 86; other defns are “rūpayatī ti rūpaṃ” (with cakkhu & the other 10 āyatanas) VbhA. 45; and more scientifically: “paresu rūp’ādisu cakkhu-paṭihanana lakkhaṇaṃ rūpaṃ” Vism. 446.—Of modern interpretations & discussions see e.g. Dhs. trsl. introd. ch. vi. (pp. 41—63, or 248—71); Dial. II. 244; Expos. 67n; Cpd. 270 sq. (where objections are raised to trsln “form, ” and as better (philosophical) terms “matter, ” “material quality” are recommended). See also loka for similar etym.—B. (lit.) appearance, form, figure Dhs. 597 sq. (=form either contrasted with what is unseen, or taken for both seen and unseen), 751; Mhvs 27, 30 (sīha-vyagghādirūpāni representations of lions, tigers etc.); 30, 68 (ravicanda-tāra-rūpāni id.); 36, 31 (loha° bronze statue); ThA. 257.—Esp. beautiful form, beauty S. IV, 275= Pv. II, 958 (as one of the 10 attributes, with sadda etc., of distinction: see also below D. II, a); Miln. 285; Mhvs 20, 4 (rūpa-māninī proud of her beauty); PvA. 89.—surūpa very beautiful ThA. 72; durūpa of evil form, ugly A. II, 203 sq. (dubbaṇṇa+).—In phrase rūpaṃ sikkhati Vin. I, 77=IV. 129 the meaning is doubtful; it may be “to study drawing, or arts & craft, ” or (with Mrs. Rh. D.) “weights & measures, ” or (w. Hardy) “money changing. ” It is said that through this occupation the eyes become bad; it is opposed to gaṇanā.—C. (-°) of such & such a form, like, kind, of a certain condition or appearance. In this appln very frequent & similar to E.—hood, or Ger.—heit, i.e. an abstract formation. Often untranslatable because of the latter character. It is similar to kāya (cp. expln of ātura‹-› rūpa Vv 8314 by abhitunna-kāya Vva 328), but not so much with ref. to life & feeling as to appearance and looks. E. g. aneka° Sn. 1079 (=anekavidha Nd2 54); adissamāna° invisible PvA. 6 (lit. with invisible form); ummatta° as if mad, under the appearance of madness, like a madman Pv. I, 81; II, 63; eva° in such a condition Pv. II, 15; tapassī° appearing to be an ascetic Pv. I, 32; tāraka° the (shapes of the) stars Dhs. 617; deva° as a deva PvA. 92. Pleonastically e.g. in: anupatta° attaining Pv IV. 166; taramāna° quickly Pv. II, 62; yutta° fit PvA. 157; sucitta° variegated Pv. I, 109.—Cases ad verbially: citta-rūpaṃ according to intention Vin. III, 161; IV, 177; cetabba-rūpaṃ fit to be thought upon J. IV, 157. (=°yuttakaṃ C.).—atta-rūpena on my own account S. IV, 97; godha-rūpena as an iguana Mhvs 28, 9.—D. (as philos. t. t.) principle of (material) form, materiality, visibility.—There are var. groups of psychological and metaphysical systematizations, in which rūpa functions as the material, gross factor, by the side of other, more subtle factors. In all these representations of rūpa we find that an element of moral psychology overshadows the purely philosophical & speculative aspect. A detailed (Abhidhammatic) discussion of rūpa in var. aspects is to be found at Dhs. § 585—980. ‹-› 1. rūpa as āyatana or sense object. It is the object of the activity or sphere of the organ of sight (cakkhu). As such it heads the list of the 6 bāhirāni āyatanāni (see e.g. Nd2 p. 238 A-E & āyatana3) with “cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā” (the others: sota›sadda, ghāna›gandha, jivhā›rasa, kāya›phoṭṭhabba, mano›dhamma), cp. cakkhu-viññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā etc. D. I, 245; M. I, 266; cakkhunā rūpaṃ passati iṭṭha-rūpaṃ kanta-rūpaṃ etc. S. IV, 126;— see further: Vin. I, 34 (sabbaṃ ādittaṃ: cakkhuṃ ādittaṃ, rūpa ādittā etc. with sequence of other āyatanas); D. II, 308 sq. , 336 sq.; M. III, 18 (yaṃ kho rūpaṃ paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṃ somanassaṃ, ayaṃ rūpe assādo; cp. Ps. II, 109 sq.), 291 (ye te cakkhu-viññeyyesu rūpesu avīta-rāgā etc.); Ps. I, 79; II, 38 (rūpī rūpāni passatī ti vimokkho); Dhs. 617, 653, 878; Tikp 28. ‹-› 2. (metaphysically) as the representative of sensory or material existence: (a) universally as forming the corporeal stratum in the world of appearance or form (rūpa- bhava) as compared with the incorporeal (arūpa-bhava), being itself above, and yet including the kāma-bhava. (The kāmabhava is a subdivision of rūpabhava, which has got raised into a third main division.) This triad is also found in combns with loka or dhātu (see dhātu 2 a & d), or avacara. See e.g. D. I, 17; III, 215 (°dhātu), 216 (°bhava); Kvu 370 sq. (°dhātu); Dhs. 499 (°âvacara), 585 (°dhātu); Vbh. 17 (°āvacara), 25 (as garu-pariṇāma & dandha-nirodha compd with arūpa). A similar sequence rūpa arūpa & nirodha (i.e. nibbāna) in old verses at Sn. 755; It. 45, 62 (rūpehi arūpā santatarā, arūpehi nirodho santataro). On indriya-rūpa “faculty as form” see indriya B.—(b) individually in the sphere of saṃsāra as one (i.e. the material quality) of the substrata of sensory individual existence or the khandhas. They are the 5: rūpa-kkhandha, vedanā°, saññā°, saṅkhārā°, viññāṇa°; otherwise called rūp’ûpādāna-kkhandha etc. (e.g. D. III, 223, 278; Vism. 443). See khandha II. B.—In this property rūpa consists of 28 subdivisions, viz. the 4 (great) dhātūs (mahābhūtāni or else bhūta-rūpa primary matter) and 24 upādārūpāni (i.e. derivative forms or accidentals). These are given in extenso in the rūpakkhandha section of the Vism. (pp. 443—450), also at Dhs. 585; the 24 consist of: cakkhu, sota, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, rūpa, sadda, gandha, rasa, itthindriya, purisindriya, jīvitindriya, hadaya‹-› vatthu, kāya-viññatti, vacī-viññatti, ākāsa-dhātu, (rūpassa) lahutā mudutā kammaññatā, upacaya santati jaratā aniccatā, kabaḷiṅkār’—āhāra; cp. defn at Nett 73: cātu-mahābhūtikaṃ rūpaṃ catunnaṃ ca mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpassa paññatti. The rūpakkhandha shares with the others the qualities of soullessness, evanescence and ill (anattā, anicca, dukkha); e.g. rūpañ ca h’idaṃ attā abhavissa, na y’idaṃ rūpaṃ ābadhāya saṃvatteyya Vin. I, 13, cp. similarly M. III, 282 sq.; S. III, 66; quoted and expld in detail at Vism. 610; rūpaṃ aniccaṃ Vin. I, 14; M. I, 228; III, 18 (also expld at Vism. 610); S. III, 48, 66, 88; rūpe anicc’ânupassanā Ps. II, 186 sq.—See also D. II, 301; III, 233; Ps. I, 23, 53, 104; II, 96, 102, 109 (rūpassa ādīnavo); Vbh. 1. sq. , 12 sq. (in detail); Kvu 11 sq.; Vism. 443 sq.; Tikp 33; VbhA. 2, 3, 32 sq. =S. III, 142 (with var. similes); DhA. IV, 100.—(c) in the making up of the individuality as such (nāma-rūpa), where in contrast with nāma (as abstract, logical, invisible or mind-factor) rūpa represents the visible (material) factor, resembling kāya (cp. phrase nāma-kāya in same sense). The foll. are current defns of nāma-rūpa: nāma-(kāya)=vedanā, saññā, cetanā, phassa, manasikāra (otherwise citta-saṅkhārā), rūpa(—kāya)=cattāro mahā-bhūtā catunnaṃ m-bhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpaṃ (otherwise kāya-saṅkhārā) S. II, 4; III, 59 sq.; Ps. I, 183; with explns at Vism. 558 & VbhA. 169. Defined at Nett 15: “ye phassa-pañcamakā dhammā: idaṃ nāmaṃ, yāni pañc’indriyāni rūpāni: idaṃ rūpaṃ, tad ubhayaṃ nāmarūpaṃ viññāṇa-sampayuttaṃ. ” Discussed in detail also at Vism. 562 (=VbhA. 173, 174), 587—597; cp. DhsA. 392 (Expos. 500, where “mind-matter” is given as corresp. couple in trsln, do. Cpd. 271 sq. “mind and body”). See also under paṭicca-samuppāda.—3. various references: D. III, 102, 212, 225, 244, 273; M. I, 84 (Gotamo kāmānaṃ pariññaṃ paññāpeti, rūpānaṃ, vedanānaṃ); S. II, 198; III, 11 (evaṃ-rūpo siyaṃ, evaṃ vedano etc.), 101 (id. , & the khandhas); Sn. 867, 874, 943, 1037, 1121; Nd1 425; Tikp 36, 38, 54, 262; Vism. 625 (uppajjanaka°).

—ārammaṇa a visible thing as object Dhs. 146, 365; DhsA. 310 (cp. Expos. 407). —âvacara world of form, sphere of matter (cp. Expos. 67, 216n, 264) PvA. 163. —ûpaga (satta) (a being) living in (bodily) form It. 62; Sn. 754. —ūpajīvinī f. a woman living on her beauty, i.e. a harlot PvA. 46, 201. —ññu knowing (var.) bodily forms M. I, 220=A. V, 347. —taṇhā craving after form D. II, 309; III, 216, 244, 280; VbhA. 179 (in det.). —dakkha one clever in forms, viz. an artist (accountant?) Miln. 344 (in the Dhamma-nagara). —dhātu the element of form, material element Vism. 486; Nett 32, 97. See above D 2. —nimitta sign of form Ps. I, 92. —patta beautiful J. I, 61. —pamāṇika measuring by form (outward appearance), one of the 4 kinds of measurements which the world takes of the Tathāgata (see A. II, 71 & Pug. 53), viz. rūpa°, ghosa°, lūkha°, dhamma° DhA. III, 113; the same four similarly at SnA 242. —pātubhāva appearance of form (also as °antara° intermediate form) SnA 245. —bhava material existence: see above D 2. —rāga lust after rebirth in rūpa D. III, 234 (+arūpa°); Nett 28 (pañc’indriyāni rūpīni rūpa-rāgassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. —rūpa material form (mutable material quality?) Cpd. 156, doubtful trsln & expln —saññā perception of material qualities, notion of form D. I, 34; II, 112 (expld in det. at Vism. 328); III, 224, 244, 253; Nd2 545; DhsA. 200 (cp. Expos. 269). —saññin perceiving form D. III, 260; Ps. II, 38; Sn. 1113. —santati duration of material form Vism. 431; VbhA. 21. —samussaya accumulation of form, complex form ThA. 98. —samāpatti attainment of beauty J. I, 406. —sampatti beauty J. III, 187. —siri personal splendour J. I, 60. (Page 574)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

rupā (रुपा).—, m (rupēṃ Silver.) A rupee. The covert terms for a rupee and its parts are rāma One rupee, sītā Half a rupee, lakṣumaṇa A quarter, bharata An eighth or two an̤as, rāmadāsa A sixteenth or one an̤a. rupayācī māna mōḍaṇēṃ To change a rupee.

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rupā (रुपा).—a That has dark (red or black) spots upon a white ground--a bullock &c.

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rūpa (रूप).—n (S) External appearance; semblance or seeming as consisting in figure and color. 2 A form or figure; a visible object. 3 Countenance, visage, look; the form of the face or system of the features. 4 Form, figure, particular model or modification; the specific and distinguishing mode of being. Ex. padārtha yadrūpa asatō tadrūpēṅkarūnaca tō antaḥkaraṇānta bhāsatō; bhāvarūpa padārtha sāhā ā- hēta āṇi abhāva ēka miḷūna sāta padārtha; paṭāmadhyēṃ tanturūpānēṃ kāpūsa rāhatō. 5 (Used with great freedom. ) Beauty, grace, lustre, splendor, glory, eclat, figure. Ex. lajjā hēṃ kulastriyāñcēṃ rūpa hōya; cāra rupayē miḷālē tara vyavahāra kēlyācēṃ rūpa nāhīṃ tara kāya; hēṃ kāma asēṃ kīṃ manuṣyānēṃ jīva dēūna kēlēṃ tarīṃ rūpa vhāyācēṃ nāhīṃ. 6 Nature; the natural constitution, quality, or state. 7 An inflected form (by declension or conjugation) of a noun or a verb. 8 In grammar. Mood. 9 In arithmetic. The number one: or, in algebra, a known quantity. 10 m A suit at cards,--the seventh. 11 In comp. Like or resembling; as pitṛrūpa, mātṛrūpa &c.; or Of the very form and essence of; composed of, consisting of; as piśācarūpa, nararūpa, siṃharūpa, jala- rūpa, agnirūpa, vāyurūpa, dravyarūpa, māyārūpa, alaṅkārarūpa, akṣararūpaśabda, padarūpavākya. 12 In medicine. The second of the five divisions of nidāna or Pathology, --the Form (of a disease). rūpa pālaṭaṇēṃ To change form or figure. Ex. asō vānara rūpa pālaṭōni || aṇupramāṇa vēṣa dharōnni ||. 2 To change complexion, color, visage, or form of countenance. rūpāsa yaṇēṃ To acquire a form, lit. fig.; to assume an appearance or a character: also to acquire a good (i. e. substantial, sound, healthy, flourishing &c.) form, aspect, complexion, or quality. Applied freely. Ex. kāṃ ikṣudaṇḍa gāḷitāṃ sācāra || tayāsī sāyāsa lāgati phāra || sēvaṭīṃ rūpāsa yētāṃ sākhara || cavī khāṇāra jāṇati ||.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rupā (रुपा).—a That has dark spots upon a white ground-a bullock.

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rūpa (रूप).—n External appearance; form; coun- tenance. Beauty. Nature. Mood.rūpa pālaṭaṇēṃ Change form or figure. rūpāsa yēṇēṃ Assume an appearance or a character.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rūpa (रूप).—a. = अनुरूप (anurūpa) q. v. (शक्तीश्च (śaktīśca) ... करवालांश्च (karavālāṃśca) ... स्वदेहरूपाण्यादाय गदाश्चोग्रप्रदर्शनाः (svadeharūpāṇyādāya gadāścograpradarśanāḥ) Mb.1.3.49.

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Rūpa (रूप).—[rūp ka bhāve ac vā Uṇ.3.28]

1) Form, figure, appearance; विरूपं रूपवन्तं वा पुमानित्येव भुञ्जते (virūpaṃ rūpavantaṃ vā pumānityeva bhuñjate) Pt.1.143; so सुरूप, कुरूप (surūpa, kurūpa) &c.

2) Form or the quality of colour (one of the 24 guṇas of the Vaiśeṣikas); चर्क्षुर्मात्रग्राह्यजातिमान् गुणो रूपम् (carkṣurmātragrāhyajātimān guṇo rūpam) Tarka K; (it is of six kinds :-śukla, kṛṣṇa, pīta, rakta, harita, kapila, or of seven, if citra be added).

3) Any visible object or thing.

4) A handsome form or figure, beautiful form, beauty, elegance, grace; मानुषीषु कथं वा स्यादस्य रूपस्य संभवः (mānuṣīṣu kathaṃ vā syādasya rūpasya saṃbhavaḥ) Ś.1.25; विद्या नाम नरस्य रूपमधिकम् (vidyā nāma narasya rūpamadhikam) Bh.2.2; रूपं जरा हन्ति (rūpaṃ jarā hanti) &c.

5) Natural state or condition, nature, property, characteristic, essence; circumstances (opp. to 'time' and 'place'); देशं रूपं च कालं च व्यवहारविधौ स्थितः (deśaṃ rūpaṃ ca kālaṃ ca vyavahāravidhau sthitaḥ) Ms.8.45.

6) Mode, manner.

7) A sign, feature.

8) Kind, sort, species.

9) An image, a reflected image.

1) Similitude, resemblance.

11) Specimen, type, pattern.

12) An inflected form, the form of a noun or a verb derived from inflection (declension or conjugation).

13) The number one, an arithmetical unit.

14) An integer.

15) A drama, play; see रूपक (rūpaka).

16) Acquiring familiarity with any book by learning it by heart or by frequent recitation.

17) Cattle.

18) A sound, a word.

19) A known quantity.

2) A beast.

21) A verse.

22) A name.

23) The white colour.

24) A particular coin (as a rupee); कस्यचिद् गृहे चोरयित्वा रूपाभिग्राहितो बद्धः (kasyacid gṛhe corayitvā rūpābhigrāhito baddhaḥ) Dk.2.4.

25) Silver; मसारगल्वर्कसुवर्णरूपैः (masāragalvarkasuvarṇarūpaiḥ) Mb.7.16.54. (rūpa is frequently used at the end of comp. in the sense of 'formed or composed of', 'consisting of', 'in the form of', 'namely'; having the appearance or colour of', tapo- rūpaṃ dhanam; dharmarūpaḥ sakhā &c.). -m.

-paḥ a deer.

Derivable forms: rūpam (रूपम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rūpa (रूप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pā-paṃ) Like, resembling, (in composition, as pitṛrūpaḥ puttraḥ a son like his father.) n.

(-paṃ) 1. Natural property or disposition, nature. 2. Beauty. 3. Form, figure. 4. Appearance, semblance. 5. Cattle in general, flocks and herds, &c. 6. A verse. 7. Declension, conjugation, the inflection of nouns or verbs. 8. A play, a dramatic poem. 9. Acquiring familiarity with any book or authority by frequent perusal, learning by heart or rote. 10. An image, a figure, a reflection or resemblance of any real object. 11. Colour, form, any object of vision. 12. (In arithmetic,) Discrete or distinct quantity, an entire number. 13. Known quantity, whence the first syllable Ru is used in algebra to express the same. E. rūp to express form, aff. ka; or ru to sound, Unadi aff. pa, and the radical vowel made long.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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