Phala, aka: Phāla; 19 Definition(s)
Phala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Phala (फल, “fruit”):—One of the five preliminary oblations (upacāra) to be offered during the worship of Gaṇeśa, Durgā, Śiva and Viṣṇu, according to the Durgāpūjātattva.Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Phala (फल) refers to “desire for progeny” and is one of the six reasons for “conjugal union” (vāsaka) between a king and a women, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “conjugal union (vāsaka) being due, kings should go to the bed-chamber of a wife even if she may be in her menses and may not be his favourite”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)
Phala (फल, “outcomes”) refers to one of the various tools used by authors displaying their skill in the art of writing.—Often at the end of a hymn (stotra) or story various exaggerated results from the recitation or hearing of the passage are mentioned. These are arthavādas and are not to be taken literally—they are included merely to encourage the neophytes. In addition all activities such as chanting hymns or reciting stories of sages and gods have the potential of planting seeds in the mind which hopefully will yield reward at some later stage when the conditions are right.Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Phala (फल).—Fruit of an action that goes to the agent. It also means the result of a grammatical operation or grammatical injunction.Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
1) Phala (फल).—Fruit or benefit of an action which goes to the agent; cf. फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः (phalavyāpārayordhātuḥ) Vaiyakarana-bhusana. A root which is given as Ubhayapadin in Panini's Grammar takes the Atmanepada affixes when the fruit of the activity is meant for the agent, while otherwise it takes the Parasmaipada affixes;
2) Phala.—The word फल (phala) also means the result of a grammatical operation or grammatical injunction.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Phala (फल) or Phalavarga is another name for Āmrādi: the eleventh chapter of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Rāja-nighaṇṭu is a medical lexicon ascribed originally known as the Abhidhānacuṇāmaṇi. It mentions the names of 1483 medicinal drugs (auṣadhi) and substances (dravya) excluding synonyms, grouped into twenty-two chapters [viz., Phala-varga].Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)
Phala (फल, “fruit”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “phala depends upon activity and faults”.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
N (Fruit) Benefit, effect, consequence.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
(result of supermundane path): Phala (“fruition”); s. ariyapuggala (A) .Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
lit. 'fruit'. -
1. result, effect (often together with hetu, cause );
2. benefit (e.g. in Sāmañña-phala Sutta, 'The Results, or Benefits, of Recluseship'; D.2).
As 'path-result', or 'fruition', it denotes those moments of supermundane consciousness which flash forth immediately after the moment of path-consciousness (s. ariya-puggala) and which, till the attainment of the next higher path, may during the practice of insight (vipassanā, q.v.) still recur innumerable times. If thus repeated, they are called the 'attainment of fruition (phalasamāpatti), which is explained in detail in Vis.M. XXIII.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)
Phala (फल, “fruit”).—One of the ten kinds of “plant-bodies” (vanaspati) a soul (jīva) can be reborn as due to karma. Phala and other plant-bodies are within the animal world (tiryag-gati) which is one of the four divisions of saṃsāra where souls are reborn.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
phala : (nt.) fruit; nut; result; consequence; fruition; the blade of a weapon. || phāla (m.) 1. a ploughshare; 2. an instrument to split wood; 3. one half or a slice of salted fish, etc.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
1) Phala, 3 (etym. ? Sk. *phala) the point of a spear or sword S. II, 265 (tiṇha°). Cp. phāla2. (Page 477)
2) Phala, 2 is spelling for pala (a certain weight) at J. VI, 510. See pala & cp. Geiger, P. Gr. § 40. (Page 477)
3) Phala, 1 (nt.) (cp. Vedic phala, to phal (sphal) to burst, thus lit. “bursting, ” i.e. ripe fruit; see phalati) 1. (lit.) fruit (of trees etc.) Vv 8414 (dumā nicca-phal’ûpapannā, not to phalu, as Kern, Toev. s. v. phalu); Vism. 120.—amba° mango-fruit PvA. 273 sq.; dussa° (adj.) having clothes as their fruit (of magic trees) Vv 462 (cp. VvA. 199); patta° leaves & fruits, vegetables Sn. 239; PvA. 86 pavatta° wild fruit D. I, 101; puppha° flower & fruit J. III, 40. rukkha°-ûpama Th. 1, 490 (in simile of kāmā, taken fr. M. I, 130) lit. “like the fruit of trees” is expld by ThA. 288 as “aṅga-paccaṅgānaṃ p(h)alibhañjan’aṭṭhena, and trsld according to this interpretation by Mrs. Rh. D. as “fruit that brings the climber to a fall. ” — Seven kinds of medicinal fruits are given at Vin. I, 201 scil. vilaṅga, pippala, marica, harītaka, vibhītaka, āmalaka, goṭhaphala. At Miln. 333 a set of 7 fruits is used metaphorically in simile of the Buddha’s fruit-shop, viz. sotāpatti°, sakadāgāmi°, anāgāmi°, arahatta°, suññata° samāpatti (cp. Cpd. 70), animitta° samāpatti, appaṇihita° samāpatti.—2. a testicle J. III, 124 (dantehi °ṃ chindati=purisabhāvaṃ nāseti to castrate); VI, 237 (uddhita-pphalo, adj. , =uddhaṭa-bījo C.), 238 (dantehi phalāni uppāṭeti, like above). ‹-› 3. (fig.) fruit, result, consequence, fruition, blessing. As t. t. with ref. to the Path and the progressive attainment (enjoyment, fruition) of Arahantship it is used to denote the realization of having attained each stage of the sotāpatti, sakadāgāmi etc. (see the Miln. quot. under 1 and cp. Cpd. 45, 116). So freq. in exegetical literature magga, phala, nibbāna, e.g. Tikp 155, 158; VbhA. 43 & passim.—In general it immediately precedes Nibbāna (see Nd2 no 645b and under satipaṭṭhāna), and as agga-phala it is almost identical with Arahantship. Frequently it is combd with vipāka to denote the stringent conception of “consequence, ” e.g. at D. I, 27, 58; III, 160. Almost synonymous in the sense of “fruition, benefit, profit” is ānisaṃsā D. III, 132; phala at Pv. I, 125=ānisaṃsa PvA. 64 — Vin. I, 293 (anāgāmi°); II, 240 (id.); III, 73 (arahatta°); D. I, 51, 57 sq. (sāmañña°); III, 147, 170 (sucaritassa); M. I, 477 (appamāda°); S. I, 173 (Amata°); Pv. I, 1110 (kaṭuka°); II, 83 (dāna°); IV, 188 (mahap° & agga°); Vism. 345 (of food, being digested); PvA. 8 (puñña° & dāna°), 22 (sotāpatti°), 24 (issā-macchariya°).—atthika one who is looking for fruit Vism. 120.—āpaṇa fruit shop Miln. 333.—âphala (phala+aphala, see ā4; but cp. Geiger, P. Gr. § 331) all sorts of fruit, lit. what is not (i.e. unripe), fruit without discrimination; a phrase very freq. in Jātaka style, e.g. J. I, 416; II, 160; III, 127; IV, 220; 307, 449, V, 313; VI, 520; DhA. I, 106.—āsava extract of fruit VvA. 73.—uppatti ripening PvA. 29.—esin yielding fruit J. I, 87=Th. 1, 527, cp. phalesin MVastu III, 93.—gaṇḍa see palagaṇḍa.—ṭṭha “stationed in fruition, ” i.e. enjoying the result or fruition of the Path (cp. Cpd. 50) Miln. 342.—dāna gift of fruit VbhA. 337.—dāyin giver of fruit Vv 676.—pacchi fruit-basket J. VI, 560.—pañcaka fivefold fruit Vism. 580; VbhA. 191.—puṭa fruit-basket J. VI, 236.—bhājana one who distributes fruit, an official term in the vihāra Vin. IV, 38, cp. BSk. phalacāraka.—maya see sep.—ruha fruit tree Mbvs 82.—sata see palasata. (Page 477)
— or —
1) Phāla, 3 in loṇa-maccha° a string (?) or cluster of salted fish Vism. 28. (Page 478)
2) Phāla, 2 (to phala3) an (iron) board, slab (or ball?), maybe spear or rod. The word is of doubtful origin & meaning, it occurs always in the same context of a heated iron instrument, several times in correlation with an iron ball (ayogula). It has been misunderstood at an early time, as is shown by kapāla A. IV, 70 for phāla. Kern comments on the word at Toev. II. 139. See Vin. I, 225 (phālo divasantatto, so read; v. l. balo corr. to bālo; corresp. with guḷa); A. IV, 70 (divasa-santatte ayokapāle, gloss ayogule); J. V, 268; V, 109 (phāle ciraratta-tāpite, v. l. pāle, hale, thāle; corresp. with pakaṭṭhita ayogula), id. V, 113 (ayomayehi phālehi pīḷeti, v. l. vālehi). (Page 478)
3) Phāla, 1 (m. & nt.) (cp. Vedic phāla) ploughshare S. I, 169; Sn. p. 13 & V, 77 (expld as “phāletī ti ph. ” SnA 147); J. I, 94; IV, 118; V, 104; Ud. 69 (as m.); DhA. I, 395. (Page 478)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
phala (फल).—n (S) Fruit or a fruit. 2 Fruit metaphorically, viz. offspring or progeny; advantage or profit; product or produce; effect or consequence (as of an action). 3 A common name for two terms of the Rule of three, viz. that which expresses the subject of the given rate, and that which expresses the answer. 4 The iron head of a spear or an arrow; the blade of a weapon or tool. 5 The area of a circle. phalāphala pāhūna karāvēṃ Consider the advantages and evils of, the pros and cons of.
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phaḷa (फळ).—n (phala S which see throughout.) Fruit or a fruit, lit. fig. 2 Abridged from phaḷapradāna, for which see phalapradāna. 3 A coarse kind of cake dressed by steam. 4 A potter's patter.
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phaḷā (फळा).—m (Commonly phāḷa) A ploughshare. 2 (Intens. of phaḷī) A large plank or board. 3 fig. A board or layer of the material (solution of hemp &c.) which, on drying, becomes paper.
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phāḷa (फाळ).—m (phāla S) A ploughshare. 2 fig. An extravagantly broad nib of a reed pen.
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phāḷa (फाळ).—f (phāḷaṇēṃ) A largish slip (as struck off with a hatchet) from a piece of timber. 2 C A slip or shred; a narrow and long piece gen.
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phāḷā (फाळा).—m (phāḷaṇēṃ) A shred, a slip, a torn off piece. 2 A rent or slit. v kāḍha, nigha, jā. 3 A roll of spun silk. Fourteen such rolls compose a thōka or half a śēriyā. 4 A share of an assessment or tax. 5 A share of a distribution gen. 6 (Commonly phāḷa) A ploughshare. phāḷā phāḍaṇēṃ To distribute and apportion a paṭṭī or cess.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
phala (फल).—n Fruit or a fruit. Offspring or pro- gency. Advantage, effect or conse- quence. The area of a circle. phalāphala pāhūna karāvēṃ Consider the advantages and evils of, the pros and cons of.
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phaḷa (फळ).—n A fruit. paḍatyā phaḷācī ājñā or paravānagī Used when a permission is stretched to justify acts not contemplated by the person granting it. phaḷāsa or phaḷāṃ yēṇēṃ. To become productive or profita- ble; to yield fruit or advantage.
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phaḷā (फळा).—m A ploughshare. A large plank or board.
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phāḷa (फाळ) [-ḷā, -ळा].—m A ploughshare. An extra- vagantly broad nib of a reed pen.
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phāḷā (फाळा).—m A shred. A rend. A roll of spun silk. A share of an assessment or tax. A share of a distribution. A ploughshare. phāḷā phāḍaṇēṃ To distribute and apportion a paṭṭī or cess.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) Fruit (fig. also) as of a tree; उदेति पूर्वं कुसुमं ततः फलम् (udeti pūrvaṃ kusumaṃ tataḥ phalam) Ś.7.3; R.4.43;1.49.
2) Crop, produce; कृषिफलम् (kṛṣiphalam) Me.16.
3) A result, fruit, consequence, effect; अत्युत्कटैः पापपुण्यैरिहैव फलमश्नुते (atyutkaṭaiḥ pāpapuṇyairihaiva phalamaśnute) H.1.8; फलेन ज्ञास्यसि (phalena jñāsyasi) Pt.1; न नवः प्रभुराफलोदयात् स्थिरकर्मा विरराम कर्मणः (na navaḥ prabhurāphalodayāt sthirakarmā virarāma karmaṇaḥ) R.8.22;1.33; अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम् (aniṣṭamiṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam) Bg.18.12.
4) (Hence) Reward, recompense, meed, retribution (good or bad); फलमस्योपहासस्य सद्यः प्राप्स्यसि पश्य माम् (phalamasyopahāsasya sadyaḥ prāpsyasi paśya mām) R.12.37.
5) A deed, act (opp. words); ब्रुवते हि फलेन साधवो न तु कण्ठेन निजोपयोगिताम् (bruvate hi phalena sādhavo na tu kaṇṭhena nijopayogitām) N.2.48 'good men prove their usefulness by deeds, not by words'.
6) Aim, object, purpose; परेङ्गितज्ञानफला हि बुद्धयः (pareṅgitajñānaphalā hi buddhayaḥ) Pt.1.43; किमपेक्ष्य फलम् (kimapekṣya phalam) Ki.2.21, 'with what object in view; Me.56.
7) Use, good, profit, advantage; जगता वा विफलेन किं फलम् (jagatā vā viphalena kiṃ phalam) Bv.2.61.
8) Profit or interest on capital.
9) Progeny, offspring; तस्यापनोदाय फलप्रवृत्तावुपस्थितायामपि निर्व्यपेक्षः (tasyāpanodāya phalapravṛttāvupasthitāyāmapi nirvyapekṣaḥ) (tyakṣāmi) R.14.39.
1) A kernel (of a fruit).
11) A tablet or board (śāriphala).
12) A blade (of a sword).
13) The point or head of an arrow, dart &c.; barb; आरामुखं क्षुरप्रं च गोपुच्छं चार्धचन्द्रकम् । सूचीमुखं च भल्लं च वत्सदन्तं द्विभल्लकम् ॥ कर्णिकं काकतुण्डं च तथान्यान्यप्यनेकशः । फलानि देशभेदेन भवन्ति बहुरूपतः (ārāmukhaṃ kṣurapraṃ ca gopucchaṃ cārdhacandrakam | sūcīmukhaṃ ca bhallaṃ ca vatsadantaṃ dvibhallakam || karṇikaṃ kākatuṇḍaṃ ca tathānyānyapyanekaśaḥ | phalāni deśabhedena bhavanti bahurūpataḥ) || Dhanur.64-5; फलयोगमवाप्य सायकानाम् (phalayogamavāpya sāyakānām) Ms.7.1; Ki.14.52.
14) A shield.
15) A testicle; अकर्तव्यमिदं यस्माद् विफलस्त्वं भविष्यसि (akartavyamidaṃ yasmād viphalastvaṃ bhaviṣyasi) Rām.1.48.27.
16) A gift.
17) The result of a calculation (in Math.)
18) Product or quotient.
19) Menstrual discharge.
21) A ploughshare.
22) Loss, disadvantage.
23) The second (or third) term in a rule-of-three sum.
24) Correlative equation.
25) The area of a figure.
26) The three myrobalans (triphalā).
27) A point on a die.
28) Benefit, enjoyment; ईश्वरा भूरिदानेन यल्लभन्ते फलं किल (īśvarā bhūridānena yallabhante phalaṃ kila) Pt.2.72.
29) Compensation; यावत् सस्यं विनश्येत् तु तावत् स्यात् क्षेत्रिणः फलम् (yāvat sasyaṃ vinaśyet tu tāvat syāt kṣetriṇaḥ phalam) Y.2.161.
3) A counterpart (pratibimba); तन्मायाफलरूपेण केवलं निर्विकल्पितम् (tanmāyāphalarūpeṇa kevalaṃ nirvikalpitam) Bhāg.11.24.3.
31) Shoulder-blade; तस्यां स फलके खड्गं निजघान ततोऽङ्गदः (tasyāṃ sa phalake khaḍgaṃ nijaghāna tato'ṅgadaḥ) Rām.6.76.1.
Derivable forms: phalam (फलम्).
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Phāla (फाल).—1 A ploughshare; Ms.6.16.
2) Separation of the hair on each side of the head (sīmāntabhāga); द्विफालबद्धाश्चिकुराः शिरःस्थितम् (dviphālabaddhāścikurāḥ śiraḥsthitam) N.1.16.
3) A sort of spade.
4) A bundle.
5) The forehead (for bhāla).
-laḥ 1 An epithet of Balarāma.
2) Of Śiva.
3) The citron. tree.
-lam 1 A garment of cotton.
2) A ploughed field.
Derivable forms: phālaḥ (फालः), phālam (फालम्).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 578 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Triphalā (त्रिफला).—(1) the three myrobalans taken collectively, namely, Terminalia Chebula, T....
Bṛhatphala (बृहत्फल).—m. pl. (written vṛh° only Mv ii.349.1 and Mvy 3100; but = Pali vehapphala...
Amṛtaphala (अमृतफल).—n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.3.
Suphalā (सुफला) is another name for Indravāruṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Citrullus co...
Muktāphala (मुक्ताफल) is the name of an ancient king Śavara king, according to the Kathāsaritsā...
Mandaphala (मन्दफल).—n. (-la) (In astronomy.) The anomalistic equation of a planet. E. manda, a...
Kṣetraphala (क्षेत्रफल).—Area. Note: Kṣetra-phala is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient ...
Karmaphala (कर्मफल).—1) fruit or reward of actions done in a former life; (pain, pleasure); न म...
Jātiphala (जातिफल).—(sometimes jātīphalam also) a nutmeg; जातीफलं मातुलानीमहिफेनं च पत्रकम् (jā...
Śrīphala (श्रीफल).—the Bilva tree. (-lam) 1 the Bilva fruit; स्तनयुगलं श्रीफलश्रीविडम्बि (stana...
1) Bahuphalā (बहुफला) is another name for Māṣaparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Teramnus...
1) Citraphalā (चित्रफला) is another name for Liṅginī, an unidentified medicinal plant, accordin...
Phalānta (फलान्त).—m. (-ntaḥ) A bamboo. E. phala fruit or blossom, anta end.
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Search found 75 books and stories containing Phala or Phāla. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yoga Sutras with Vedanta Commentaries (by Patañjali)
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter XLIV - Symptoms and Treatment of Jaundice (Pandu-roga) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter XXXIX - Symptoms and Treatment of Fever (Jvara) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter LXII - Symptoms and Treatment of Insanity (Unmada) < [Canto IV - Bhuta-vidya-tantra (psychology and psychiatry)]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter II-a - Sermon on the Hells (naraka) < [Volume I]
Chapter XXX - The second Avalokita-sūtra < [Volume II]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 11 - The Attainment of Buddhahood < [Chapter 7 - The Attainment of Buddhahood]
Part 17 - The Buddha is afflicted with a Very Severe Illness < [Chapter 40 - The Buddha Declared the Seven Factors of Non-Decline for Rulers]
Fourteen Kinds of Gift to Individuals < [Chapter 6 - On Pāramitā]
Patthana Dhamma (by Htoo Naing)