Karya, Kārya: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Karya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Kary.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kārya (कार्य, “action”) refers to one of the “five elements of the plot” (arthaprakṛti), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. These five elements represents the five means of attaining objects of the Plot (itivṛtta or vastu).

The associated ‘stage of action’ (avasthā) of kārya is the prārambha (beginning). These stages represent a Hero’s striving towards the object in a dramatic playwright (nāṭaka).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Kārya (कार्य).—One of the five elements of the plot (arthaprakṛti);—The efforts made for the purpose of the Principal Plot (ādhikārika) introduced in a play by the experts, is called the Action (kārya).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kārya (कार्य).—(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् (kriyayā nirvṛttaṃ kāryam)) as opposed to नित्य (nitya) eternal; cf. एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् (eke varṇāñ śāśvatikān na kāryān) R.Pr. XIII.4 cf. also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः (nanu ca yasyāpi kāryāḥ) (शब्दाः (śabdāḥ)) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् (tasyāpi pūjārtham) M. Bh. on I.1.44 Vārt. 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: cf. कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः । (kārya etve sayamīkāramāhuḥ |) | अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । (abhaiṣma ityetasya sthāne abhayīṣmeti |) R.Pr. XIV.16; cf. also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (vipratiṣedhe paraṃ kāryam) P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical operation as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे (dvikāryayoge, trikāryayoge) etc.; cf. also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः (gauṇamukhyayormukhye kāryasaṃpratyayaḥ) Par. Śek. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: cf. शेषः कार्ये (śeṣaḥ kārye) Śāk.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Kārya (कार्य):—The objective of physician to maintain the equilibrium of the body humors

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Kārya (कार्य) refers to the “effect”, according to Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6.—Accordingly, “[...] Only [the following] could [still] be objected: if these [objects] did not exist after as well as before [their] being manifest, [then] the very fact that they are manifest would be causeless, and [under such conditions,] the relation of cause and effect (kārya-kāraṇa-bhāva) and the relation between the knowing subject and the object of knowledge would not be possible”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kārya (कार्य) refers to the “purpose” (of Śakti), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.6-9ab]—“But, if [mantras consist of] the forms of Śakti, whose Śakti and of what kind? O Deva, what [does] Śakti cause, what is her purpose (kārya), and of what kind is she? If [mantras] do not possess Śakti, what is worshipped with Śakti? Independence cannot be accomplished by anyone without perfection. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Kārya (कार्य) refers to “effects”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, in order to clarify this point further, the Lord went on to speak these verses: ‘(55) Enduring the fact that all dharmas are empty since there is no life (jīva), individual self (pudgala), or living being (satva), and not inconsistent with causes (hetu), conditions (pratyaya), and effects (kārya). Such is the most true and highest exposition of patience. [...]’”.

2) Kārya (कार्य) or Buddhakārya refers to the “deeds (of a Buddha)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Since the Bodhisatva enters on the supra-mundane way after having put on the armour, he appears to many beings, performing the deeds of the Buddha (buddha-kārya), even without obtaining omniscience (sarvajñāna) [...] The Bodhisatva appears to many beings, performing the deeds of the Buddha (buddha-kārya) even when the Buddhas do not appear”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kārya (कार्य) refers to the “result (of the reflections)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the result of the reflections (bhāvanākāryam)]—The fire of passion becomes extinguished, desire flows away, darkness disappears [and] the light of knowledge shines forth in the heart for men from the repetition of the reflections”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kārya.—cf. Tamil kāriyavārāycci (EI 24), name of a tax. Cf. Vāśal-kāriyam (SITI), the officer in charge of the palace gate; also known as Vāśal-mudali or Vāśal-nirvāham. Note: kārya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Karya in Niger is the name of a plant defined with Adenium obesum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cameraria obesa (Forssk.) Spreng. (among others).

2) Karya in Nigeria is also identified with Dalbergia hostilis It has the synonym Amerimnon hostile (Benth.) Kuntze (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Genetica (1985)
· Repertorium Plantarum Succulentarum (1978)
· Systema Vegetabilium ed. 15 (1819)
· African Study Monographs (2004)
· Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Applied Biology (2000)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Karya, for example side effects, diet and recipes, chemical composition, health benefits, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kārya (कार्य).—n (S) A work or business; an affair or a matter; an act or a deed. 2 An effect. 3 A festal occasion. 4 In grammar. Variation of nouns, inflection. 5 A lawsuit. kārya urakaṇēṃ To perform sexual congress. kāryā- vara dṛṣṭi dēṇēṃ To keep an eye to one's business or object. kāryāsa lāvaṇēṃ To apply to its proper purpose.

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kārya (कार्य).—a S (Purposed, necessary, or occurring) to be done, agendum.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kārya (कार्य).—n An affair. A work. A festal oc- casion. An effect. A law suit. a To be done.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kārya (कार्य).—pot. p. [kṛ-karmaṇi ṇyat] What ought to be done, made, performed, effected &c. कार्या सैकतलीनहंसमिथुना स्रोतोवहा मालिनी (kāryā saikatalīnahaṃsamithunā srotovahā mālinī) Ś.6.17; साक्षिणः कार्याः (sākṣiṇaḥ kāryāḥ) Manusmṛti 8.61; so दण्डः, विचारः (daṇḍaḥ, vicāraḥ) &c.

-ryam 1 (a) Work, action, act, affair, business; कार्यं त्वया नः प्रतिपन्नकल्पम् (kāryaṃ tvayā naḥ pratipannakalpam) Kumārasambhava 3.14; Manusmṛti 5.15. (b) A matter, thing.

2) Duty; अभिचैद्यं प्रतिष्ठासुरासी- त्कार्यद्वयाकुलः (abhicaidyaṃ pratiṣṭhāsurāsī- tkāryadvayākulaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 2.1.

3) Occupation, enterprize, emergent business.

4) A religious rite or performance.

5) A motive, object, purpose; कार्यमत्र भविष्यति (kāryamatra bhaviṣyati) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.7 (v. l.); 116; Śiśupālavadha 2.36; H.4.61.

6) Want, need, occasion, business (with instr.); किं कार्यं भवतो हृतेन दयिता- स्नेहस्वहस्तेन मे (kiṃ kāryaṃ bhavato hṛtena dayitā- snehasvahastena me) V.2.2; तृणेन कार्यं भवतीश्वराणाम् (tṛṇena kāryaṃ bhavatīśvarāṇām) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.71, 4.27; Amaruśataka 73.

7) Conduct, deportment.

8) A law-suit, legal business, dispute &c.; बहिर्निष्क्रम्य ज्ञायतां कः कः कार्यार्थीति (bahirniṣkramya jñāyatāṃ kaḥ kaḥ kāryārthīti) Mṛcchakaṭika 9; Manusmṛti 8.43.

9) An effect, the necessary result of a cause (opp. kāraṇa).

1) (In Gram.) Operation; विभक्तिकार्यम् (vibhaktikāryam) declension.

11) The denouement of a drama; कार्योपक्षेपमादौ तनुमपि रचयन् (kāryopakṣepamādau tanumapi racayan) Mu.4.3.

12) Healthiness (in medicine).

13) Origin.

14) A body; कार्याश्रयिणश्च कललाद्याः (kāryāśrayiṇaśca kalalādyāḥ) (kāryaṃ śarīram) Sāṃkhyakārikā 43. [cf. Germ. kāra; Pers. kār; Prāk. kajja; Mar. kāja]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kārya (कार्य) or Kāryya.—mfn.

(-ryaḥ-ryā-ryaṃ) 1. To be done. 2. What ought to be done, fit, right. n.

(-ryaṃ) 1. Cause, origin. 2. Motive, object. 3. Effect, result of a cause. 4. Affair, business. 5. Law-suit, dispute. 6. The denouncement of a drama. 7. In grammar, an adjunct, either as an affix, augment or substitude. E. kṛñ to do, and ṇyat aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kārya (कार्य).—I. ptcple. of the fut. pass. of 1. kṛ, cf. kṛ. 1. What ought to be made, to be done, etc., [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 248; superl. kāryatama, That which must be done first, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 77, 16. 2. With an instr. To be used; use, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 81 (tṛṇena kāryaṃ bhavatīśvarāṇām, kings use a blade of grass); with na, No use, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 30, 5 (we do not care for possessing the earth); 2, 21, 60 (I am indifferent to life and joy). Ii. n. 1. Intention, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 18, 15. 2. Duty, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 80. 3. Service, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 47. 4. Business, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 299; affairs, 7, 59. 5. A law-suit, 8, 43. 6. Effect, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 22.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kārya (कार्य).—[adjective] to be done etc. (v. 1 kṛ). [neuter] affair, duty, business, work, matter; lawsuit, dispute; an operation in grammar; effect, result; purpose, object. kiṃ kāryam to what purpose? na kāryamasmākam we have no business with or need of ([instrumental]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kārya (कार्य):—mfn. ([future] [past participle] √1. kṛ), to be made or done or practised or performed, practicable, feasible, [Atharva-veda iii, 24, 5; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Manu-smṛti] etc.

2) to be imposed (as a punishment), [Manu-smṛti viii, 276 & 285]

3) to be offered (as a libation), [Manu-smṛti] etc.

4) proper to be done, fit, right

5) to be caused to do, [Naiṣadha-carita]

6) ([from] √krt-) to be bought (?), [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]

7) n. work or business to be done, duty, affair, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) a religious action or performance, [Manu-smṛti] etc.

9) occupation, matter, thing, enterprise, emergency, occurrence, crisis

10) conduct, deportment

11) occasion, need (with inst. e.g. tṛṇena kāryam, there is need of a straw; na bhūmyā kāryam asmākam, we have no business with the earth, [Rāmāyaṇa i, 13, 50])

12) lawsuit, dispute

13) an operation in grammar (e.g. sthāny-āśrayaṃ kāryam, an operation resting on the primitive form as opposed to the ādeśa, or substitute), [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini]

14) an effect, result, [Mahābhārata; Sāṃkhyakārikā; Vedāntasāra]

15) motive, object, aim, purpose (e.g. kiṃ kāryam, for what purpose? wherefore?), [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

16) cause, origin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) the denouement of a drama, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

18) Kāryā (कार्या):—[from kārya] f. (= kārī, rikā), Name of a plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kārya (कार्य):—(ryyaḥ) 1. n. Cause; affair. a. That ought to be done.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kārya (कार्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kajja.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kārya (कार्य) [Also spelled kary]:—(nm) job; task, work; action; function; religious function; ceremony; role; transaction; denouement (in a drama); effect; —[kāraṇa bhāva] causality, the relationship of cause and effect; —[kāla] term (of office); ~[bhāra] workload; charge (of office); ~[bhārī] incharge; —[vivaraṇa] details of business/transaction; —[vyāpāra] action; —[siddhi] success, fulfilment of a job.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kārya (ಕಾರ್ಯ):—

1) [adjective] that can be done, performed.

2) [adjective] fit to be done, performed.

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Kārya (ಕಾರ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] physical or mental effort exerted to do or make something; purposeful activity; labour; toil; a work.

2) [noun] that which ought to be done; any action, task, etc. required by or relating to one’s occupation or position; duty.

3) [noun] an occasion of celebration.

4) [noun] anything brought about by a cause or agent; result; effect.

5) [noun] a regulation, command, etc.

6) [noun] something aimed at or striven for; an objective.

7) [noun] the outcome, solution, unraveling or clarification of a plot in a drama, story, etc.; the denouement of a drama.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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