Patanjali, Patañjali: 19 definitions


Patanjali means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Patanjali in Yoga glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

A two-thousand-year-old collection of the oral teachings on yogic philosophy.

Also see: Ashtanga (eight limbs);

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि).—A great authority and propounder on the aṣṭāṅga mystic yoga system and author of the Yoga-sūtra. He imagined the form of the Absolute Truth in everything.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Patanjali in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि).—A celebrated commentator in Sanskrit. Patañjali is one of the best commentators of Pāṇini’s Vyākarṇasūtras. Pandits are of opinion that he got his name Patañjali to mean that people should worship (añjali) at his foot (pāda). He was such an adorable person. Pandits believe that Patañjali is the author of Yogasūtra and Carakasaṃhitā. A few believe that Patañjali was the incarnation of Ādiśeṣa. But modern scholars are of opinion that Patañjali, the commentator and Patañjali the author of Yogasūtras are two different persons. (See full article at Story of Patañjali from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Patañjali (पतञ्जलि).—A Siddha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 15. 14; Matsya-purāṇa 196. 25.

2) Patanjali (पतन्जलि).—A pupil of Parāśarya Kauthuma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 41.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि).—He is considered an ardent devotee of Śiva, for whom Śiva had performed one variety of his Tāṇḍava. This sage is usually associated with another sage Vyāghrapāda.

Patañjali is depicted as half human and half serpent. Sometimes, even the hood of the serpent is shown behind his head. A sculpture of Patañjali carved attached to the shaft of the bhadraka pillar of the prākāramaṇḍapa is noticed at the Kailasanatha temple at Taramangalam. He is shown as wearing a long kirīṭa and is in añjalimudra. He is two handed and his body is of a serpent below his waist. This is a sculpture of 16th century. The height is about five feet. This sculpture is carved on a high pedestal.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Patanjali in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—RS think that Patañjali and Gonardīya are the same person, but it is also a matter of dispute. He is the author of famous grammatical work Mahābhāṣya.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि).—The reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itself. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goṇikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāṇini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; cf.पतत् (patat) + अञ्जलि (añjali), the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhā-șya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāṇini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explained. He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are covered. For details,see Patañjala Mahābhā-șya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य (mahābhāṣya).

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (vyakarana)

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि) (2nd century BCE) is the name of an author of grammatical works, following in succession of Pāṇini (7th century BCE): author of the Aṣṭādhyāyī dealing with vyākaraṇa (grammar): the science of analysis of sentences and words. After Pāini, there was a succession of thinkers of language, grammar and philosophy of language, viz., Patañjali, who composed Mahābhāṣya (literally, ‘the grand commentary’), a commentary on Aṣṭādhyāyī.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Patañjali is the name of a deity depicted in the Thillai Nataraja Temple in Cidambaram (Chidambaram) which is one of the Pañcasabhā or “five halls where Śiva is said to have danced”.—Patañjali is a little god. The lower part of his body ends as the tail of a snake. He was a Yogi and, not wishing to crush insects with his feet, he obtained from Naṭarāja the boon to be changed to a reptile. His hair is plaited and piled on his head, his hands are clasped before Śiva, and he wears a pointed beard. He holds his hands in añjali-hasta.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Patanjali in Hinduism glossary
Source: Google Books: 101 Mystics of India

Patanjali (200-150 B.C.) Maharishi’s great contribution to human civilization is his magnum opus “The Yoga Sutraxs” comprising 196 sutras or maxims, dealing with the “Science of the mind”. Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras are of the foundation of Raja Yoga, or the path of meditation for God realization. The system of Yoga, taught by Patanjali, is the key to the realm of divinity inside man and can be termed the high technology of the science of spirituality.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Patanjali in Buddhism glossary
Source: The Chronological History of Buddhism

Bhartrihari I clearly indicates the existence of a grammar of Patanjali. Most probably, Patanjali I was the author of Yogasutras, Ayurveda and Vyakarana. Patanjali II was the author of Mahabhashya on Panini Sutras and Katyayana Vartikas. Therefore, Patanjali I, the author of Vyakarana sutras might have lived before 2000 BCE whereas Patanjali II was the contemporary of Pushyamitra Sunga (1472-1412 BCE).

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Patanjali in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि).—Name of the celebrated author of the Mahābhāṣya, the great commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras; also of a philosopher, the propounder of the Yoga philosophy.

Derivable forms: patañjaliḥ (पतञ्जलिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि) or Patañcali.—m.

(-liḥ) 1. The name of a saint or Muni and teacher of the Yoga philosophy, thence called after him Patanjala; also the author of Mahabhashya or commentary on Panini. 2. A name of the poet Vararuchi. E. pat falling, añjali the hands joined as a mark of respect; having fallen from heaven, it is said, in the shape of small snake, into the hands of the saint Panini as he was performing this act of reverence.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि).—[masculine] [Name] of a philosopher, grammarian, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Mahābhāṣya. Yogasūtra or Sāṃkhyapravacana. Chandoviciti. Oppert. Ii, 10133. Vaidyaka. Śivarāma on Vāsavadattā p. 239.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Patañjali (पतञ्जलि):—m. ([from] pata + añj?; cf. [Pāṇini 6-1, 94], [vArttika] 4, [Patañjali] [gana] śakandhv-ādi) Name of a celebrated grammarian (author of the Mahābhāṣya)

2) of a philosopher (the propounder of the Yoga philosophy)

3) of a physician etc.

4) Pātañjali (पातञ्जलि):—m. [varia lectio] for pat

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patañjali (पतञ्जलि):—[pata-ñjali] (liḥ) 2. m. The name of a sage, author of the Pātaṃjali system of philosophy.

[Sanskrit to German]

Patanjali in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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