Knowledge: 3 definitions


Knowledge means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Knowledge in Ayurveda glossary
Source: INSA Digital Repository: Caraka’s Approach to Knowledge

Knowledge of life (Ayurveda) deals with the characteristics of life endowed by nature, which are eternal (Cf. Charaka Samhita verse 30.27).—Caraka recognised three primary urges in human life—the urge to live long, to earn a living and to secure a good afterlife (Charaka Samhita verse 11.3-6). About afterlife, he noted that there were doubts because it was not perceptible through our senses. This was the context in which he introduced the subject of accessing exact knowledge.

Charaka recognised at least four means of Knowledge:

  1. Knowledge gained through Testimony of Sages (Sanskrit: āptopadeśa),
  2. Knowledge gained through Perception (Sanskrit: pratyakṣa),
  3. Knowledge gained through Inference (Sanskrit: anumāna),
  4. Knowledge gained through Reason (Sanskrit: yukti).
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Knowledge in Purana glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana

Knowledge (of various subjects) refers to several of the “sixty four kinds of Art”, according to the Kamasutra of Vatsyayana.—Cf. the Sanskrit Nāṭakākhyāyikādarśana.—Indian tradition, basically includes sixty four Art forms are acknowledged. The history of Indian Art covers approximately five thousand years which presents a rich and almost continuous record. The references of sixty four kinds of Kala (कला, kalā) are found in the Bhagavatapurana, Shaiva-Tantras, Kamasutra of Vatsyayana etc.

Knowledge of the following subjects were commonly counted among the list of Arts:

  1. Knowledge of dramas and stories.
  2. Knowledge about precious metals and stones.
  3. Knowledge of metals.
  4. Knowledge of jewel, colours and mines.
  5. Knowledge of foreign languages.
  6. Knowledge of etymology.
  7. Knowledge of lexicography.
  8. Knowledge of proper behavior or the training of domestic animals.
  9. Knowledge of science of victory.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Knowledge in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Knowledge (of the Tattvas or Mudrās) can be denoted by the Sanskrit terms Jñāna or Parijñāna, according to the Śivayogadīpikā by Sadāśivayogīśvara: a text dealing with Śaivism and Haṭhayoga in two hundred and eighty-nine verses.—Accordingly, “Knowledge (jñāna) of the twenty-five Tattvas is that [Rājayoga] which is called Sāṅkhya. The [Rāja]yoga called Tāraka is [so called] because [it consists in] knowledge (parijñāna) of external Mudrā, and Amanaska is [so called] because [it consists in] knowledge (parijñāna) of internal Mudrā. Tāraka is more laudable than Sāṅkhya and Amanaska is more laudable than Tāraka. Because it is the king of all Yogas, it is called Rājayoga”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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