Guna, aka: Guṇa, Gūna; 32 Definition(s)
Guna means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Guṇa (गुण).—One of the technical terms which have been used in the uṇādi-sūtras;—Guṇa “denotes a degree of a vowel”. Pāṇini has enumerated the vowels which can be called guṇa. They are short ‘a’, ‘e’, and ‘o’.Source: archive.org: Uṇādi-Sūtras In The Sanskrit Grammatical Tradition
Guna refers to a set of normal-length vowels that are less reduced than the basic set (in modern terms, the zero grade), but more reduced than the vṛddhi vowels (in modern terms, the lengthened grade). As an example, ṛ, i, u are basic (zero-grade) vowels, with corresponding guṇa (full-grade) vowels ar, e, o and vṛddhi (lengthened-grade) vowels ār, ai, au. (This is more understandable once it is realized that, at an earlier stage of development, Sanskrit e and o were ai and au, and Sanskrit ai and au were āi and āu.) Guna is corresponds to what is now termed the full grade in Indo-European ablaut. Another orthography and phonology concept related to Guna is Briddhi.Source: WikiPedia: Sanskrit grammar
Guṇa (गुण).—Attribute; the second out of the three degrees of a vowel, namely the primary degree, guṇa degree and vṛddhi degree.Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
1) Guṇa (गुण).—Degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree e.g. इ, ए (i, e) and ऐ (ai) or उ, ओ (u, o) and औ. अ (a) is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ (a) also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ (a, a) and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए (e) is called गुण (guṇa) or even गुणागम (guṇāgama) but no definiti6n is given ; cf. गुणागमादेतन-भावि चेतन (guṇāgamādetana-bhāvi cetana) R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषि-तगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति (śevam iti vibhīṣi-taguṇaḥ| śevamityapi bhavati) Nir.X.17:
2) Guṇa.—The properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद (śvāsa, nāda) etc.: cf.R. Pr. Ch.XIII :
3) Guṇa.—Secondary, subordinate;cf. शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः (śeṣaḥ, aṅgaṃ, guṇaḥ iti samānārthāḥ) Durgācārya on Nir. I.12:
4) Guṇa.—Properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, etc. in a garment which are different from the substance (द्रव्य (dravya)). The word गुण (guṇa) is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशते (satve niviśate)sपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । आघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सो (paiti pṛthagjātiṣu dṛśyate | āgheyaścākriyājaśca so)Sसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः (sattvaprakṛtirguṇaḥ || apara āha | upaityanyajjahātyanyad dṛṣṭo dravyāntareṣvapi| vācakaḥ sarvaliṅgānāṃ dravyādanyo guṇaḥ smṛtaḥ) ; M. Bh. on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्श-रूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् (śabdasparśa-rūparasagandhā guṇāstatonyad dravyam),M.Bh.on V.1.119
5) Guṇa.—Properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्व-त्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, आनुनासिक्य (udāttatva, anudāttatva, svaritatva, hrsva-tva, dīrghatva, plutatva, ānunāsikya) etc.; cf. भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः (bhedakatvād guṇasya | ānunāsikyaṃ nāma guṇaḥ) M. Bh. on I.1.1.. Vart, 13:
6) Guṇa.—Determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंवि-ज्ञानमपि (bhavati bahuvrīhau tadguṇasaṃvi-jñānamapi) M. Bh. on P. I. 1.27;
7) Guṇa.—Technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए (a, e) and ओ (o), cf. अदेङ्गुणः (adeṅguṇaḥ) P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण (guṇa), see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते । (guṇaśabdoyaṃ bahvarthaḥ | astyeva sameṣvavayaveṣu vartate |) ...... चर्चागुणांश्च । (carcāguṇāṃśca |)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)
1) Guṇa (गुण, “quality”).—One of the six padārtha (or ‘basic categories’) which should be known to every Physician if he wants to understand the science of life.
2) Guṇa is a Sanskrit technical term (used in Āurveda) referring a multiplier of a particular quantity, for example, two guṇas of the weight of a stone= two times the weight of that stone.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Guṇa (गुण) is dependent inherently on dravya and is asamavāyī-kāraṇa (‘of an effect’). It appears in dravy after a moment of the latter’s emergence.Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Guṇa (गुण) refers to the three deities (Viṣṇu, Rudra and Brahmā), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“Śiva manifested himself in three ways in the form of Vaikuṇṭha (Viṣṇu) born of the left limb (vāmāṅga), in my form (of Brahmā) born of the right limb (dakṣiṇāṅga) and in the form of Rudra born of the heart (hṛdaya). Viṣṇu, Rudra and I [viz., Brahmā] represent the three guṇas. Śiva is free from guṇas. He is the supreme Brahman, the undecaying. Viṣṇu is of sattva attribute, I (Brahmā) am of rajas attribute and Rudra is of tamas attribute. This is only in view of the activities in the world. But in fact and in name it is otherwise”.
Note: From the Cosmic Egg agitated by the three Guṇas—sattva, rajas and tamas, the three deities came into existence. The Purāṇas call them Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva and assign the functions of creation, existence and dissolution to each respectively. Compare Devi-bhāgavata-purāṇa 1.8.2-4. The statement about the three qualities sattva, rajas and tamas manifested as the three Devas is the concensus of the entire Pauranic lore. Compare Liṅga-purāṇa. The Vedas trace the origin of the Trinity to the Brahman, the Śaivas to Maheśvara and the Bhāgavatas to Mahāviṣṇu.Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation
Guṇa (गुण).—See under Pattu (Ten).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Guṇa (गुण).—Three kinds of persons according to their nature; hence Guṇatrayam; satva prakṛti, rājasa prakṛti and tāmasa prakrti. Their different characteristics. A muni serves satva and conquers rajas and tamas.1 If the three states are normal it is prakṛti, pradhāna or avyakta. If in a condition of agitation, three deities Brahma, Viṣṇu and Śiva are the result.2 Twelve qualities;3 twenty-six in number; yoga, sāmkhya, tapas, vidyā, vidhi, kriyā, ṛtam, satyam, ahiṃsā, dhyānam, sānti, avidyā, mati, dhṛti, kānti, smṛti, medha, lajjā, śuddhi, sarasvati, tuṣti, puṣti etc., all in Brahmā.4Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)
Guṇa (गुण).—In Samkhya philosophy, there are three major guṇas that serve as the fundamental operating principles or “tendencies” of prakṛti (universal nature) which are called:
- sattva-guṇa, (associated with creation (sattva))
- rajas-guṇa, (associated with preservation (rajas))
- and tamas-guṇa. (associated with destruction (tamas))
Guṇa (गुण, “quality”).—The Sāṃkhya system uses the term guṇa in the sense of the constituent elements of the primordial matter called prakṛti. Prakṛti is consisted of three guṇas, viz.,
- sattva (goodness),
- rajas (passion),
- tamas (darkness).
These guṇas are not perceptible but inferred from the existence of the things.
Sattva is the element of the prakṛti and its nature is pleasure, light and bright. The manifestation of objects in jñāna, the mind, the knowledge, the reflection of light, the reflection in mirror all are happened due to sattvaguṇa. The principle of activity of the objects is known as rajas. It has always movement and it makes other things move. It is possessor of both cala (mobile) and upaṣṭambhaka (stimulating). Fire spreads, the wind blows, the senses follow their objects, the mind feels pain, all these are happened due to the rajas. It helps sattva and tamas to perform their action. Tamas is inactive and it is opposite of sattva. Tamas is guru (heavy) and vāraṇaka (manifestless). Tamas becomes opposed in the motion of things and in the principle of rajas. It causes sleep, drowsiness and laziness through resisting our activity.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (samkhya)
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)
Guṇa (गुण, “qualities”) is one of the seven accepted categories of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Guṇa (गुण, “quality”): The Vaiśeṣika Sūtra mentions 17 guṇas (qualities), to which Praśastapāda added another 7. While a substance is capable of existing independently by itself, a guṇa (quality) cannot exist so.
The original 17 guṇas (qualities) are,
- rūpa (colour),
- rasa (taste),
- gandha (smell),
- sparśa (touch),
- saṃkhyā (number),
- parimāṇa (size/dimension/quantity),
- pṛthaktva (individuality),
- saṃyoga (conjunction/accompaniments),
- vibhāga (disjunction),
- paratva (priority),
- aparatva (posteriority),
- buddhi (knowledge),
- sukha (pleasure),
- duḥkha (pain),
- icchā (desire),
- dveṣa (aversion)
- and prayatna (effort).
To these Praśastapāda added
- gurutva (heaviness),
- dravatva (fluidity),
- sneha (viscosity),
- dharma (merit),
- adharma (demerit),
- śabda (sound)
- and saṃkāsra (faculty).
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Guṇa (गुण) refers to the ten “merits” in a poetical work (kāvya), accoridng to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. They are opposed by the ten doṣas (‘faults’).
The following are defined as the ten merits (guṇa):
- śleṣa (synthesis),
- prasāda (perspicuity),
- samatā (smoothness),
- samādhi (concentration),
- mādhurya (sweetness),
- ojas (grandeur)
- saukumārya (agreeableness),
- artha-vyakti (directness of expression),
- udāra or udāratā (exaltedness),
- kānti (loveliness).
Guṇa (गुण, “quality”) (or merit) is an important characteristic feature of a poem. The Sāhityadarpaṇa holds that guṇa or excellences are to rasa or flavour, the essence of poetry, what heroism and the like are to soul. Viśvanātha writes in the commentary that as heroism and the like are designated by the term merit, in as much as they cause the exaltation of the soul viewed essentially, so in like manner, are sweetness and the like, which are the qualities or particular modes of flavour, the essence of poetry. It is these attributes of flavour that constitute the claim to the designation of poetry, of a composition communicating its essence, viz. relish.
Regarding the quantity of the guṇas, Bharata states that there are ten guṇas viz. Śleṣa, Prasāda, Samatā, Samādhi, Mādhurya, Ojaḥ, Saukumārya, Arthavyakti, Udāratā and Kānti. Daṇḍin also accepts that the ten guṇas are the life of Vaidarbhīrīti. Vāmana refers to these ten guṇas. Howevere, Udbhaṭa, in his Kāvyālaṃkārasārasaṃgraha, mentions only about three guṇas. Viśvanātha too states that there are three guṇas viz. Mādhurya, Ojaḥ and Prasāda. They are the cause of excellence to the rasa. Mammaṭa is, also of the opinion that the guṇas are three in number, not ten as stated by Vāmana and others.Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Guṇa (गुण, “merits”) refers to “poetic merits” as opposed to doṣa (poetic faults), and are ten in number. They are—
These guṇas may be divided into two types—merits relating to sound (śabdaguṇas) and merits relating to sense (arthaguṇas). So these are twenty in number and this has been firstly pointed out by Vāmana.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Katha (narrative stories)
Guṇa (गुण).—Vāmana speaks of ten guṇas of word and the same ten guṇas of sense viz.
- (ojas) strength,
- (prasāda) clarity,
- (śleṣa) firm structure,
- (samatā) sameness of evenness of sound,
- (samādhi) metaphorical expression,
- (mādhurya) sweetness,
- (saukumārya) gentleness,
- (udāratā) elavatian,
- (arthavyakti) perspeouity,
- and (kānti) beauty.
Daṇḍin mentions ten guṇas under the same names, hut makes no difference between guṇas of words and those of sense.Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)
Guṇa (गुण, “quality”).—Among the seven categories (padārtha) of the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika system the second category is guṇa (quality). The English term ‘quality’ used in western philosophy does not bear the same meaning as in the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika philosophy. According to the western philosophers, the qualities are repeatable properties but according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika guṇa is not a repeatable property.
Kaṇāda (Vaiśeṣikadarśana with Praśastapādabhāṣya) defines guṇa thus: quality has the genus of qualityness (guṇatva), it inheres in a dravya and it is qualityless and actionless. Guṇa cannot be self-existent, it is a dependent category. Existence of a quality depends upon a substance. Quality remains in a substance; it cannot inhere in a quality. Therefore, a quality is defined as qualityless. A karma (action) also inheres in a dravya but it is qualityless. Karma is cause of conjunction and disjunction, but guṇa is not cause of conjunction and disjunction. So, there is difference between guṇa and karma.
Kaṇāda mentions seventeen guṇas viz.,
- rūpa (colour),
- rasa (taste),
- gandha (smell),
- sparśa (touch),
- saṃkhyā (number),
- parimāṇa (size),
- pṛthaktva (individuality),
- saṃyoga (conjunction),
- vibhāga (disjunction),
- paratva (priority),
- aparatva (posteriority),
- buddhi (knowledge),
- sukha (pleasure),
- duḥkha (pain),
- icchā (desire),
- dveṣa (aversion),
- prayatna (effort),
Praśastapāda adds seven more guṇas to these seventeen, which are:—
- gurutva (heaviness)
- dravatva (fluidity),
- sneha (viscidity),
- dharma (merit),
- adharma (demerit),
- śabda (sound),
- saṃskāra (tendency),
All the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika accepts twenty four guṇas. Some philosophers add some more guṇas to the above mentioned twentyfour guṇas which are laghutva, mṛdutva, kaṭhinatva. Annaṃbhaṭṭa argues that it is not possible to consider these as separate qualities. Because laghutva, is the negation of gurutva, while, mṛdutva and kaṭhinatva are different degrees of conjunction of the parts. So, there are only twenty-four qualities.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)
Guṇa (गुण, “quality”).—According to the Mīmāṃsakas, the word guṇa is used in different senses, sometimes it is used in the sense of a “quality” and sometimes in the general sense of “something”. Sometimes it is used in the sense of literary merit and also in the general sense of a good feature.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (mimamsa)
Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Guṇa (गुण) means “string” or “a single thread or strand of a cord or twine”. In more abstract uses, it may mean “a subdivision, species, kind, quality”, or an operational principle or tendency. The entire creation and its process of evolution is carried out by these three major gunas.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
According to the ayurveda, medicines and foods are sattvic, rajasic or tamasic or a combination of these gunas.The gunas are three fundamental attributes that represent the natural evolutionary process through which the subtle becomes gross. In turn, gross objects, by action and interaction among themselves, may again become subtle.
Thus the three gunas are defined as :
- Sattva : Essence (subtle)
- Rajas : Activity
- Tamas : Inertia (gross)
People equally can be more or less dominated by one of the three gunas and an important way to regulate these gunas in body and mind is through ayurvedic cooking :
Vaiśeṣika considers the Guṇa as a category of Padārtha but is different from Dravya. The definition of Guṇa according to Vaiśeṣika is as follows. Guṇas resides in Dravya and have secondary place to it. They are themselves devoid of action and are non-inheriting causes for the Kāryas of Dravya.
Bauddha Darśana explains Guṇa as lakṣaṇa-samūdra. Even in modern philosophies similar explanations are seen about the Guṇas like, while substance is capable of existing independently by itself, quality or Guṇa cannot exist. It abides in substance and has itself no qualities.
Regarding Dravya and Guṇa relation, it can be said that though both these Padārthas have their own identity, Samavāya Saṃbandha between them is equally important. Both of them are supplementary to each other. Hence full importance cannot be attributed to any of them. In any Dravya, Guṇas are expressed after various interactions taking place from the Tanmātra stage of the constituting Mahābhūtas of that particular Dravya. Śarīrastha Agni plays a major role in the execution of Guṇas in the body.Source: DOcFoc: A study on Sarira Gunas and its Application
General definition (in Jainism)
Attribute; That (quality) which exists in all the parts (spatial units called pradeshas) of the substance and in all its modifications is called attribute (guna).Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism
Guṇa (गुण, “attribute”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.33.—What is meant by guṇa? The lowest inseparable part of an attribute which cannot be further divided is called guṇa. However degree / times /number is also implied here. What are the different meanings of the word guṇa? Benefit /support / substance / inseparable and all pervading part, secondary and avayava are the other meanings of guṇa used at times.
According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.38.—That which has qualities (guṇa) and modes (paryāya) is a substance (dravya). What is meant by an attribute? That which distinguishes one substance from all others is called attribute /quality. How do the attributes differentiate one substance from another? Every substance has one distinguishing and unique/ primary attribute which distinguishes it from others e.g. consciousness is the attribute of living beings and this attribute does not exist in the other five types of substances.
What is another characteristic of attribute (guṇa)? An entity which is the cause of similarity between different entities belongs to the same class /substance type. For example consciousness in all living beings; touch, taste, smell and colour in all types of matter etc. Another definition of attribute is an entity which is coexistent in all parts, forms and states of a substance.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Guṇa.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 15, 17, 25), ‘three’; rarely in late records, ‘six’. (EI 8), six in number. Note: guṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
guṇa : (m.) virtue; quality; a cord or string; a bow-string; (with numerals: diguṇa = twofold).Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
1) Guṇa, 2 (Derivation unknown. Cp. Sk. ghuna) a woodworm J.III, 431 (°pāṇaka). (Page 252)
2) Guṇa, 2 (for which often guḷa with common substitution of ḷ for ṇ, partly due to dissimilation, as mālāguḷa › mālāguṇa; cp. Sk. guṇikā tumour: guḷa and gaḷa, veḷu: veṇu, and note on gala) a ball, a cluster, a chain (?), in anta° the intestines; M.I, 185—, Kh 11., cp. KhA 57 for expln.—mālāguṇa a garland or chain (cluster) of flowers Dh.53 (but °guḷa at J.I, 73, 74). See guḷa3. (Page 252)
3) Guṇa, 1 (Non-Aryan?) 1. a string, a cord — (a) of a robe, etc., in (kāya-bandhanaṃ) saguṇaṃ katvā to make tight by tying with a knot Vin.I, 46 (Vin. Texts: “laying the garments on top of each other, ” wrongly construed); II, 213 (trsln. “folding his garments”); cp. guṇaka. ‹-› (b) of musical instruments Vin.I, 182=A.III, 375 (vīṇā)., — (c) of a bow, in aguna stringless J.V, 433 (dhanu).‹-› 2. (a strand of a rope as) constituent part, ingredient, component, element; with numerals it equals —fold, e.g. pañca kāmaguṇā the 5 strands of kāma, or 5—fold craving (see kāma); ekaguṇaṃ once, diguṇaṃ twice Sn.714; diguṇaṃ nivāpaṃ pacitvā cooking a double meal VvA.63; catugguṇa fourfold, of a saṅghāti D.II, 128; S.II, 221, cp. Rhys Davids, Dialogues II.145. aṭṭhaguṇa (hirañña) Th. 2, 153; aneka-bhāgena guṇena seyyo many times or infinitely better Pv IV.19; sataguṇena sahassa° 100 and 1, 000 times PvA.41; asaṅkheyyena guṇena infinitely, inconceivably Miln.106; sataguṇaṃ sahassaguṇaṃ Vism.126.—3. (a part as) quality, esp. good quality, advantage, merit J.I, 266; II, 112; III, 55, 82.—lobha° Sn.663; sādhu° Sn.678; sīla° J.I, 213; II, 112; Buddha° J.II, 111; pabbajita° J.I, 59.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
guṇa (गुण).—m (S) A quality, attribute, affection, or property, whether of matter or mind; a power, faculty, excellence, virtue; a property inherent or an affection supervenient in the most comprehensive sense. In nyāyaśāstra twenty-four such properties or affections are enumerated; viz. rūpa, rasa, gandha, sparśa, saṅkhyā, parimāṇa, pṛthakatva, saṃyōga, vibhāga, paratva, aparatva, gurutva, dravatva, snēha, śabda, buddhi, sukha, du:kha, icchā, dvēṣa, prayatna, dharma, adharma, saṃskāra. 2 A property of created things. They are comprised in three--satva, raja, & tama, or principles of truth (reality, actuality, or existence); passion (foulness); and darkness (ignorance); characteristic also, respectively, of brahmā, viṣṇu, & śiva. 3 Excellence, merit, virtue, freedom from fault or blemish. 4 Benefit, advantage, good, gain. 5 Product, effect, matter produced or resulting. 6 The product in multiplication. 7 A rope, cord, or string gen. 8 A bowstring. 9 In comp. Multiplied by, fold; expressing the ratio; as aṣṭa- guṇa, saptaguṇa, eightfold, sevenfold. 10 Remission or abatement (of a disease). 11 In arithmetic. Multiplier. 12 In geometry. The chord of an arc. guṇa aṭhaviṇēṃ g. of o. To commemorate the virtues, merits, talents (of a deceased or absent person). guṇa udhaḷaṇēṃ-pasaraṇēṃ-pāgaḷaṇēṃ g. of s. To have one's native vileness breaking forth; to manifest one's evil qualities; to show the cloven hoof. guṇa karaṇēṃ To make promise of future ability or cleverness--a child. guṇa kāḍhaṇēṃ g. of o. To take the vice out of; to thrash soundly. guṇa dākhaviṇēṃ or guṇāṃvara yēṇēṃ To drop the mask; to show the cloven hoof; to exhibit the real disposition. guṇa śikaviṇēṃ To teach, i. e. to render intelligent by a sound beating. guṇa sōḍaṇēṃ or visaraṇēṃ To leave the path of virtue and take to evil courses. guṇācī cahā karaṇēṃ To love merit. guṇā- cī cahā hōṇēṃ in. con. To have a love for excellencies or good qualities. guṇāñcī mātī karaṇēṃ To misapply and spoil virtues or talents. guṇāsa yēṇēṃ or paḍaṇēṃ To succeed; to be effectual; to turn out well. cāṅgalē guṇa karaṇēṃ To behave well.
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guṇā (गुणा).—m An axle. 2 A mason's square.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
guṇa (गुण).—m A quality, attribute, property; a power, faculty. Excellence, merit, virtue. Benefit, advantage, good. A rope, cord. In comp. Multiplied by, fold; expressing the ratio; as aṣṭaguṇa. Remission or abatement (of a disease). guṇa aḍaviṇēṃ Commemorate the virtues, merits, &c. guṇa udhaḷaṇēṃ-pāgaḷaṇēṃ Have one's native vileness breaking forth. Manifest one's evil qualities. guṇa dākha- viṇēṃ or guṇāṃvara yēṇēṃ Drop the mask, show the cloven hoof, exhibit the real disposition of. guṇācī cahā karaṇēṃ Love merit. guṇācī cahā hōṇēṃ Have a love for excellencies or good qualities. guṇāñcī mātī karaṇēṃ Misapply and spoil virtues or talents. guṇāsa yēṇēṃ or paḍaṇēṃ Succeed, be effectual, turn out well.
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guṇā (गुणा) [-ṇyā, -ण्या].—m An axle. A mason's square.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Guṇa (गुण).—a. Of good quality (guṇavān); भ्राता कथं नाम मया गुणस्य भ्रातुर्वधं राम विरोचयेत (bhrātā kathaṃ nāma mayā guṇasya bhrāturvadhaṃ rāma virocayeta) Rām.4.24.9.
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1) A quality (good or bad); सुगुण, दुर्गुण (suguṇa, durguṇa); यदङ्गनारूपसरूपतायाः कञ्चिद्गुणं भेदकमिच्छतीभिः (yadaṅganārūpasarūpatāyāḥ kañcidguṇaṃ bhedakamicchatībhiḥ) Śi.3.42.
2) (a) A good quality, merit, virtue, excellence; कतमे ते गुणाः (katame te guṇāḥ) Māl.1; वसन्ति हि प्रेम्णि गुणा न वस्तुनि (vasanti hi premṇi guṇā na vastuni) Ki.8.37; R.1.9,22; साधुत्वे तस्य को गुणः (sādhutve tasya ko guṇaḥ) Pt.4.18. (b) Eminence.
3) Use, advantage, good (with instr. usually), Pt. 5.; कः स्थानलाभे गुणः (kaḥ sthānalābhe guṇaḥ) 2.21; H.1.49; Mu.1.15.
4) Effect, result, efficacy, good result; संभावनागुणमवेहि तमीश्वराणाम् (saṃbhāvanāguṇamavehi tamīśvarāṇām) Ś.7.4; गुणमहतां महते गुणाय योगः (guṇamahatāṃ mahate guṇāya yogaḥ) Ki.1.25;6. 7.
5) (a) A single thread or string. (b) Thread, string, rope, cord, मेखलागुणैः (mekhalāguṇaiḥ) Ku.4.8;5.1; तृणैर्गुणत्व- मापन्नैर्वध्यन्ते मत्तदन्तिनः (tṛṇairguṇatva- māpannairvadhyante mattadantinaḥ) H.1.32; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि (yataḥ pareṣāṃ guṇagrahītāsi) Bv.1. 9 (where guṇa also means 'a merit').
6) The bowstring; गुणकृत्ये धनुषो नियोजिता (guṇakṛtye dhanuṣo niyojitā) Ku.4.15,29; कनकपिङ्गतडिद्- गुणसंयुतम् (kanakapiṅgataḍid- guṇasaṃyutam) R.9.54.
7) The string of a musical instrument; कलवल्लकीगुणस्वानमानम् (kalavallakīguṇasvānamānam) Śi.4.57.
8) A sinew.
9) A quality, attribute, property in general; यादृग्गुणेन भर्त्रा स्त्री संयुज्येत यथाविधि (yādṛgguṇena bhartrā strī saṃyujyeta yathāvidhi) Ms.9.22.
1) A quality, characteristic or property of all substances, one of the seven categories of padārthas of the Vaiśeṣikas, (the number of these properties is 24).
11) An ingredient or constituent of nature, any one of the three properties belonging to all created things; (these are stva, rajas and tamas); गुणत्रयविभागाय (guṇatrayavibhāgāya) Ku.2.4; सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः (sattvaṃ rajastama iti guṇāḥ prakṛtisaṃbhavāḥ) Bg.14.5; R.3.27.
12) A wick, cotton thread; नृपदीपो धनस्नेहं प्रजाभ्यः संहरन्नपि । अन्तर- स्थैर्गुणैः शुभ्रैर्लक्ष्यते नैव केनचित् (nṛpadīpo dhanasnehaṃ prajābhyaḥ saṃharannapi | antara- sthairguṇaiḥ śubhrairlakṣyate naiva kenacit) || Pt.1.221.
13) An object of sense, (these are five rūpa, rasa, gandha, sparśa, and śabda); गुणैर्गुणान्स भुञ्जान आत्मप्रद्योतितैः प्रभुः (guṇairguṇānsa bhuñjāna ātmapradyotitaiḥ prabhuḥ) Bhāg.11.3.5.
14) Repetition, multiplication, denoting 'folds' or 'times', usually at the end of comp. after numerals; आहारो द्विगुणः स्त्रीणां बुद्धिस्तासां चतुर्गुणा । षड्गुणो व्यवसायश्च कामश्चाष्टगुणः स्मृतः (āhāro dviguṇaḥ strīṇāṃ buddhistāsāṃ caturguṇā | ṣaḍguṇo vyavasāyaśca kāmaścāṣṭaguṇaḥ smṛtaḥ) || Chāṇ.78; so त्रिणुण (triṇuṇa); शतगुणीभवति (śataguṇībhavati) becomes a hundred-fold, अध्यर्धगुणमाहुर्यं बले शौर्ये च केशव (adhyardhaguṇamāhuryaṃ bale śaurye ca keśava) Mb.11.2.1.
15) A secondary element, a subordinate part (opp. mukhya); न च गुणानुग्रहार्थं प्रधानस्यावृत्तिर्युक्ता (na ca guṇānugrahārthaṃ pradhānasyāvṛttiryuktā) ŚB. on MS.12.1.4.
16) Excess, abundance, superfluity; पराङ्मुखवधं कृत्वा कोऽत्र प्राप्तस्त्वया गुणः (parāṅmukhavadhaṃ kṛtvā ko'tra prāptastvayā guṇaḥ) Rām.4.17.16.
17) An adjective, a word subordinate to another in a sentence.
18) The substitution of ए, ओ, अर् (e, o, ar) and अल् (al) for इ, उ, ऋ (i, u, ṛ) (short or long) and लृ (lṛ), or the vowels अ, ए, ओ (a, e, o) and अर् (ar) and अल् (al).
19) (In Rhet.) Quality considered as an inherent property of a Rasa or sentiment. Mammaṭa thus defines गुण (guṇa). --ये रहस्याङ्गिनो धर्माः शौर्यादय इवात्मनः । उत्कर्ष- हेतवस्ते स्युरचलस्थितयो गुणाः (ye rahasyāṅgino dharmāḥ śauryādaya ivātmanaḥ | utkarṣa- hetavaste syuracalasthitayo guṇāḥ) || K. P.8. (Some writers on rhetoric, such as Vāmana, Jagannātha Paṇḍita, Daṇḍin and others, consider Guṇas to be properties both of śabda and artha, and mention ten varieties under each head. Mammaṭa, however, recognises only three, and, after discussing and criticizing the views of others, says : mādhuryaujaḥprasādākhyāstrayaste na punardaśa K. P.8); Ki.17.6.
2) (In gram. and Mīm.) Property considered as the meaning of a class of words; e. g. grammarians recognise four kinds of the meaning of words; जाति, गुण, किया (jāti, guṇa, kiyā) and द्रव्य (dravya), and give गौः, शुक्लः, चलः (gauḥ, śuklaḥ, calaḥ) and डित्थः (ḍitthaḥ) as instances to illustrate these meanings.
21) (In politics) A proper course of action, an expedient. (The expedients to be used by a king in foreign politics are six :-- 1 sandhi peace or alliance; 2 vigraha war; 3 yāna march or expedition; 4 sthāna or āsana halt; 5 saṃśraya seeking shelter; 6 dvaidha or dvaidhībhāva duplicity; sandhirnā vigraho yānamāsanaṃ dvaidhamāśrayaḥ Ak.) see Y.1.346; Ms.7.16; Śi.2.26; R.8.21.
22) The number 'three' (derived from the three qualities).
23) The chord of an arc (in geom.).
24) An organ of sense.
25) A subordinate dish; Ms. 3.226,233.
26) A cook.
27) An epithet of Bhīma as in युधिष्टिरोऽपि गुणप्रियः (yudhiṣṭiro'pi guṇapriyaḥ) Vas.
28) Leaving, abandonment.
29) A multiplier, coefficient (in math.)
3) Division, subdivision, species, kind.
31) The peculiar property of letters which are pronounced with external utterance (bāhyaprayatna); they are eleven.
Derivable forms: guṇaḥ (गुणः).
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Gūna (गून).—a. Voided by stool (as ordure).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Guṇa (गुण).—(1) m. (Sanskrit and Pali id., not recorded in this use), advantage: Mv i.155.7 (verse) kaṃ vā guṇaṃ karoti, or what good does it do ? what use is it?; (2) m. (= Pali guṇa), cluster, bouquet, garland: LV 214.19 (verse) sugan- dhamālāṃ guṇapuṣpasaṃcayāṃ (acc. pl.), bunches of flowers in clusters, of garlanded flowers; kaṇṭhe-guṇa, see this; mālā-guṇa-parikṣiptaḥ Mvy 9463. See also antra- guṇa (in which guṇa may perhaps mean lit. garland, chain, i.e. of the intestines).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-ṇaḥ) 1. A quality, attribute, or property in general. 2. A property of all created things; three are particularized, the Satwa, Raja and Tama, or principles of truth or existence, passion or foulness, and darkness or ignorance. 3. A means of defence, one of six expedients in government, as, peace, war, a march, a halt, a stratagem, and recourse to protection: see sandhi &c. 4. Form, shape, &c. or property of the body. 5. Knowledge, ignorance, &c. or quality of the mind. 6. Heroism, valor, &c. 7. White, black, &c. or the attributes of color. 8. An organ of sense. 9. A string in general. 10. A bow-string. 11. Abandoning, leaving. 12. A cook. 13. A name of Bhima. 14. Secondary subordinate. 15. Excellence, merit, freedom from fault or blemish. 16. (In arithmetic,) The given coefficient of any number. 17. (In geometry,) The chord of an arc. 18. (In grammar,) The substitution of e, o, ar and al for i, u, ri, lri. 19. (In rhetoric,) Consistency of plan, elegance of expression, &c. as the merits of a composition. 20. In composition with numerals, multiplication, as dviguṇa twice, triguṇa thrice. f.
(-ṇā) A plant of the firbes of which bow-strings are made: see mūrvā. E. guṇa to address or advice, affix kta.
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(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Voided, (as ordure.) E. gū to stooll, affix kta deriv. irr.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Guṇāḍhya (गुणाढ्य).—He is the author of the celebrated Bṛhatkathā which is a precious mine of S...
Guṇakāra (गुणकार).—mfn. (-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Who counts, &c. m. (-raḥ) A name of Bhimasena E. guṇa...
Triguṇa (त्रिगुण).—mfn. (-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇī-ṇaṃ) 1. Thrice, three times, triple. 2. Possessing the thre...
Guṇagāna (गुणगान).—n. (-naṃ) Panegyric, praise. E. guṇa, and gāna singing.
Kāmaguṇa (कामगुण).—m. (-ṇaḥ) 1. Passion, affection. 2. An object of sense. 3. Completion, satie...
Ṣaḍguṇa (षड्गुण).—mfn. (-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Six-fold, six times. n. (-ṇaṃ) An assemblage, of six quali...
Śataguṇa (शतगुण).—mfn. (-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) A hundred times, a hundred-fold. E. śata, guṇa a time.
Guṇahīna (गुणहीन).—mfn. (-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Void of merit. 2. Free from properties. E. guṇa, and h...
Guṇanidhi (गुणनिधि) is the son of Yañadatta, a Dīkṣita (sacrificer) from Kāmpilya, and was addi...
Nirguṇa (निर्गुण).—a. 1) stringless (as a bow). 2) devoid of all properties. 3) devoid of good ...
Mūlaguṇa (मूलगुण).—the co-efficient of a root. Derivable forms: mūlaguṇaḥ (मूलगुणः).Mūlaguṇa is...
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Guṇatraya (गुणत्रय).—n. (-yaṃ) The three properties of nature; purity, passion, and darkness. E...
Guṇasāgara (गुणसागर).—mfn. (-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Endowed with all good qualities. m. (-raḥ) 1. A name o...
Rajoguṇa (रजोगुण).—m. (-ṇaḥ) The second condition of humanity: see rajas .
Search found 99 books and stories containing Guna, Guṇa, Guṇā, Gūna; (plurals include: Gunas, Guṇas, Guṇās, Gūnas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 10 - The Guṇas < [Chapter VII - The Kapila and the Pātañjala Sāṃkhya (yoga)]
Part 4 - Philosophy in the Vaiśeṣika sūtras < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 9 - The six Padārthas: Dravya, Guṇa, Karma, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 31 - On the glory of Māyā < [Book 6]
Chapter 4 - On Adharma < [Book 4]
Vivekachudamani (by Shankara)
Sariraka Upanishad of Krishna-Yajurveda (by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar)
Yoga Sutras with Vedanta Commentaries (by Patañjali)