Svatantra, Sva-tantra, Svatamtra: 22 definitions


Svatantra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Samkhya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र, “independent”).—Puruṣa is one of the two ultimate fundamental eternal realities according to Sāṃkhya. So, the puruṣa is not dependent on any cause for its existence. For this reason, puruṣa is svatantra (independent).

Samkhya book cover
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—lit. independent; independent in activity; the subject or agent of an action (कर्ता (kartā)) is defined as स्वतन्त्र (svatantra) independent in his activity, i. e. not depending upon any one for the same; cf. स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता (svatantraḥ kartā) P. I. 4. 54.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to “independent [of attributes, saguṇa]”, and represents an epithet of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.10. Accordingly as Viṣṇu said to Brahmā:—“[...] He is distinct from illusion. He is free from desires. He is the creator of illusion yet uninfluenced by illusion. He is an adept. He is possessed of attributes (saguṇa) yet independent (svatantra) of them. He is blissful in Himself. He is free from suspicions and alternatives”.

2) Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to the “independent (great soul)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.42.—Accordingly, as Dakṣa bowed and eulogised Śiva:—“[...] Today I have realised the truth. Thou art above all. Thou art served by Viṣṇu, Brahmā and others. Thou art the supreme Being known only through the Vedas. Thou art the wish-yielding Kalpa tree to the good. Thou punishest the wicked always. Thou art the independent great soul (i.e., svatantrasvataṃtraḥ paramātmā). Thou art the bestower of desired boons on the devotees. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—Independent, autonomous. An attribute of Ātmā.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) means “freely”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] After the goddess Bhadrakālī heard this, that is, Śambhu's speech, the virgin (goddess) also came in the form of a divine virgin (kumārī) and freely uttered [i.e., svatantra] with all (her deepest) feelings (these) divine words. [....]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to “independent (scholars)”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] The Vedas, independent scholars (viduṣaviduṣaḥ svatantrāḥ) of different capabilities, the Tantras, the collection of mantras with celebrated powers, and thoughts and feelings concerning syntax and grammar and poetic compositions, all these, O mother, evolve to excellence from a millionth part of you”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to “one who is a remarkable genius”, representing a desirable characteristic of an astrologer (Jyotiṣa), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must be of cleanly habits, able, noble-minded, eloquent and of originality and imagination; must possess a knowledge of place and time; be meek and without nervousness, must be difficult of conquest by his fellow students; must be able and devoid of vices; must be learned in matters of expiatory ceremonies, of Hygiene, of Occult Magic and of ablutions; must be a worshipper of the Devas and an observer of fast and penance; must be of remarkable genius [i.e., svatantra] and capable of solving any difficulties save in matters of direct divine interference; and finally, he must be learned in astronomy, natural astrology (Saṃhitā) and horoscopy”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Shaivism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) or Svatantratva refers to the “state of freedom”, according to the Mahānayaprakāśa by Arṇasiṃha (Cf. verse 182-197).—Accordingly, “He who, by virtue of the innate expansion (of his own consciousness) and freedom (svatantratva), assumes the nature of the senses, without (this thereby) diminishing the glorious power of the Inexplicable (Fourth State of consciousness) in the sphere the objects of sense and who, abandoning (all) exertion (for what is conventionally considered to be) right or wrong, moves (freely) at all times, is known as Meṣanātha who, endowed with the expansion (of consciousness), is ever intent (on realisation)”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to “Independence”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.6-9ab]—“But, if [mantras consist of] the forms of Śakti, whose Śakti and of what kind? O Deva, what [does] Śakti cause, what is her purpose, and of what kind is she? If [mantras] do not possess Śakti, what is worshipped with Śakti? Independence (svatantra) cannot be accomplished by anyone without perfection. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to “that which is autonomous”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “Without knowing if the ātman exists or does not exist, you are asking why one does not produce the idea of the ātman in regard to another. [The distinctions] between one’s own body (ātmakāya) and another’s body (parakāya) exist as a function of the Ātman. But the Ātman is non-existent. [The characteristics attributed to it]: having form (rūpin) or formless (arūpin), permanent (nitya) or impermanent (anitya), finite (antavat) or infinite (ananta), moveable (gantṛ) or motionless (agantṛ), cognizant (jñātṛ) or ignorant (ajñātṛ), active (kāraka) or inactive (akāraka), autonomous (svatantra) or non-autonomous (asvatantra): all these characteristics of the ātman do not exist, as we have said above in the chapter on the Ātman. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to “independent”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Why do the stupid, afflicted by the planet of [their] birth, not perceive the difference [between the body and the self] which is recognised everywhere in the occurrence of birth and death. Therefore, what is the connection of the self to that body which is made by atoms which are material, insentient, different [and] independent (svatantra)?”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Svatantra.—(SITI), a share; a customary fee; emoluments. Note: svatantra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

svatantra (स्वतंत्र).—a (S) Independent, uncontrolled, free, absolute; being under one's own line or law. Hence, by implication, Of age, full-grown. 2 (With reproachful implication.) Self-willed, unruly, refractory, libertine, dissolute &c. 3 (Laxly.) That is separate, apart, aside, aloof, out of the way.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

svatantra (स्वतंत्र).—a Independent, free. Self-willed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—a.

1) self-dependent, uncontrolled, independent, self-willed.

2) of age, full-grown.

-ntram one's own (common group of) subsidiaries; जैमिनेः परतन्त्रापत्तेः स्वतन्त्रप्रतिषेधः स्यात् (jaimineḥ paratantrāpatteḥ svatantrapratiṣedhaḥ syāt) MS. 12.1.8.

-ntraḥ a blind man.

Svatantra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sva and tantra (तन्त्र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—mfn.

(-ntraḥ-ntrā-ntraṃ) 1. Unrestrained, uncontrolled, self-willed. 2. Independent, free. 3. Full-grown, of age, no longer subject to the authority of parents, &c. E. sva own, tantra inclination, will.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—[sva-tantra], see tantra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—1. [neuter] self-dependence, i.e. independence, freedom; also [feminine]

--- OR ---

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—2. [adjective] self-dependent, free.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—[=sva-tantra] [from sva] a n. self-dependence, independence, self-will, freedom, [Pañcatantra; Hitopadeśa]

2) [v.s. ...] o°’s own system or school, [Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] o°’s own army, [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] (with, [Buddhist literature]) a [particular] doctrine of free-will or independence, [Buddhist literature]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of [work] (also called tra-tantra)

6) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. self-dependent, self-willed, independent, free, uncontrolled (with pada n. ‘an ind° word’), [Lāṭyāyana; Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. of age, full grown, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Cakra-vāka, [Harivaṃśa]

9) [=sva-tantra] b sva-tavas etc. See p. 1275, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—[sva-tantra] (ntraḥ-ntrā-ntraṃ) a. Being one’s own master; of age; uncontrolled, independent, free.

[Sanskrit to German]

Svatantra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Svataṃtra (ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] not under another’s or otherś control; able to act, think without compulsion, restraint, restriction, etc.; free.

2) [adjective] subject to, led by or indicative of caprice or whim; erratic; capricious.

--- OR ---

Svataṃtra (ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರ):—

1) [noun] a man who is not under another’s arbitrary control.

2) [noun] (gram.) a noun which is not relative or not depending on anotehr; an independent noun.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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