Svatantra, Sva-tantra: 15 definitions



Svatantra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Samkhya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र, “independent”).—Puruṣa is one of the two ultimate fundamental eternal realities according to Sāṃkhya. So, the puruṣa is not dependent on any cause for its existence. For this reason, puruṣa is svatantra (independent).

context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—lit. independent; independent in activity; the subject or agent of an action (कर्ता (kartā)) is defined as स्वतन्त्र (svatantra) independent in his activity, i. e. not depending upon any one for the same; cf. स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता (svatantraḥ kartā) P. I. 4. 54.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to “independent [of attributes, saguṇa]”, and represents an epithet of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.10. Accordingly as Viṣṇu said to Brahmā:—“[...] He is distinct from illusion. He is free from desires. He is the creator of illusion yet uninfluenced by illusion. He is an adept. He is possessed of attributes (saguṇa) yet independent (svatantra) of them. He is blissful in Himself. He is free from suspicions and alternatives”.

2) Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) refers to the “independent (great soul)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.42.—Accordingly, as Dakṣa bowed and eulogised Śiva:—“[...] Today I have realised the truth. Thou art above all. Thou art served by Viṣṇu, Brahmā and others. Thou art the supreme Being known only through the Vedas. Thou art the wish-yielding Kalpa tree to the good. Thou punishest the wicked always. Thou art the independent great soul (i.e., svatantrasvataṃtraḥ paramātmā). Thou art the bestower of desired boons on the devotees. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—Independent, autonomous. An attribute of Ātmā.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र) means “freely”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] After the goddess Bhadrakālī heard this, that is, Śambhu's speech, the virgin (goddess) also came in the form of a divine virgin (kumārī) and freely uttered [i.e., svatantra] with all (her deepest) feelings (these) divine words. [....]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Svatantra.—(SITI), a share; a customary fee; emoluments. Note: svatantra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

svatantra (स्वतंत्र).—a (S) Independent, uncontrolled, free, absolute; being under one's own line or law. Hence, by implication, Of age, full-grown. 2 (With reproachful implication.) Self-willed, unruly, refractory, libertine, dissolute &c. 3 (Laxly.) That is separate, apart, aside, aloof, out of the way.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

svatantra (स्वतंत्र).—a Independent, free. Self-willed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Svatantra in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—a.

1) self-dependent, uncontrolled, independent, self-willed.

2) of age, full-grown.

-ntram one's own (common group of) subsidiaries; जैमिनेः परतन्त्रापत्तेः स्वतन्त्रप्रतिषेधः स्यात् (jaimineḥ paratantrāpatteḥ svatantrapratiṣedhaḥ syāt) MS. 12.1.8.

-ntraḥ a blind man.

Svatantra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sva and tantra (तन्त्र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—mfn.

(-ntraḥ-ntrā-ntraṃ) 1. Unrestrained, uncontrolled, self-willed. 2. Independent, free. 3. Full-grown, of age, no longer subject to the authority of parents, &c. E. sva own, tantra inclination, will.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—[sva-tantra], see tantra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—1. [neuter] self-dependence, i.e. independence, freedom; also [feminine]

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Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र).—2. [adjective] self-dependent, free.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—[=sva-tantra] [from sva] a n. self-dependence, independence, self-will, freedom, [Pañcatantra; Hitopadeśa]

2) [v.s. ...] o°’s own system or school, [Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] o°’s own army, [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] (with, [Buddhist literature]) a [particular] doctrine of free-will or independence, [Buddhist literature]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of [work] (also called tra-tantra)

6) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. self-dependent, self-willed, independent, free, uncontrolled (with pada n. ‘an ind° word’), [Lāṭyāyana; Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. of age, full grown, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Cakra-vāka, [Harivaṃśa]

9) [=sva-tantra] b sva-tavas etc. See p. 1275, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—[sva-tantra] (ntraḥ-ntrā-ntraṃ) a. Being one’s own master; of age; uncontrolled, independent, free.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—1. n.

1) Selbstständigkeit, Freiheit, Unabhängigkeit [Spr. (II) 1373.] —

2) das eigene System, die eigene Schule [Suśruta 1, 44, 10. 123, 5. 313, 14.] —

3) das eigene Heer (nach dem Comm.) [Suśruta 1, 7, 17.] —

4) bei den Buddhisten Bez. einer best. Lehre (von der Selbstständigkeit) [WASSILJEW 319. fg. 324. fgg. 332.] —

5) Titel eines best. Tantra [Oxforder Handschriften 88,a,5. 95,b,26.] tantra [?27. Notices of Skt Mss. 1, 255.]

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Svatantra (स्वतन्त्र):—2.

1) adj. (f. ā) selbstständig, frei, unabhängig, keine Schranken kennend (Gegens. paratantra) [Amarakoṣa 3, 1, 15.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 355. 521.] [LĀṬY. 8, 1, 16. 9, 7, 2. 11.] [MAITRYUP. 2, 4. 6, 18.] [NṚS. TĀP. Upakośā] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 9, 162.] asvatantrāḥ striyaḥ kāryāḥ [Spr. (II) 808] [?(Manu’s Gesetzbuch). Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 16. Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 4, 54. Mahābhārata 1, 4719. 6579. 2, 1990. 12, 11915. 13, 35. 1497. fg. Suśruta 1, 106, 20. KĀM. NĪTIS. 11, 27. Kathāsaritsāgara 19, 29. 27, 63. 31, 53. 45, 58. DAŚAR. 2, 20. Nīlakaṇṭha 60. Daśakumāracarita 61, 10. Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 6, 7. 3, 20, 11. 5, 18, 19. 6, 5, 19. 8, 12, 43. PAÑCAR. 1, 13, 15. SARVADARŚANAS. 30, 17. 61, 15. fgg. 82, 10.] buddhi adj. [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 69, 17.] vṛtti [Halāyudha 4, 93.] pada ein selbstständiges Wort [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 6, 14.] svarabhakti Comm. zu [Taittirīyasaṃhitā] [Prātiśākhya 21, 6.] —

2) m. Nomen proprium eines Cakravāka [Harivaṃśa 1217. 1234. 1254.] — Vgl. svātantrya .

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Svātantra (स्वातन्त्र):—n. = svātantrya . instr. [] zu [Bṛhadāranyakopaniṣad] [?S. 103. SARVADARŚANAS. 89, 9.] vielleicht nur fehlerhaft.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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