Parameshvara, Parameśvara, Pārameśvara, Parama-ishvara: 29 definitions


Parameshvara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Parameśvara and Pārameśvara can be transliterated into English as Paramesvara or Parameshvara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Parmeswar.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

According to the Liṅga-purāṇa, jñāna, ichchhā and kṛyā are the three eyes of Parameśvara. The desire to create that first arose in the mind of Parameśvara is called the Śiva-tatva, which is also known as the ichchhā-śakti-tatva. When there are both the jñāna-śakti and the kṛyāśakti blended in Parameśvara he goes by the name of Sadāśiva when the former śakti is predominant and Maheśvara when the latter śakti is predominant and Śuddha-vidyā when they are both equally balanced. When Īśvara absorbs in himself the universe he is known as the Puruṣa and Saṃsāri when he has manifested himself in the form of the gross material universe.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) is found as a sculpture at the temple of Lokeśvara, west wall, west façade.—Another image of Śiva Parameśvara is almost similar to the preceding one but the triśūla, trident, is an additional attribute which is, by and large, common in the representations of Śiva. It is well attired with the ends of the garment hanging up to the ankles and the headdress. The jaṭā looks like a kirīṭa. Usual ornaments are in their places. There is an oval shaped object held in his right hand. We come across with this object in most of the images of the early Calukyan period. Some modern scholars think that it is a fruit and for others it is a representation of the earth.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) is the name of a deity stationed in Śivālaya in the company of Parāśakti, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.17. Accordingly, “[...] there in the Jñānakailāsa that has five coverings, the primary phallic from of Śiva is stationed in the company of primary energy of Śiva. It has five zones and five Brahmakalās. This is called the abode of Śiva, Śivālaya, the supreme Ātman. There alone stays Parameśvara in the company of Parāśakti. He is skilled in the performance of the five functions of creation, maintenance evanescence and blessing. His body is Existence, Knowledge and Bliss. He is always in meditation. He is ever bent on blessing. He is seated in the pose of trance. He shines resting in his own self. His vision is possible gradually through sacred rites, meditation etc. By performing the daily rites and worships, the mind is diverted towards the sacred rites of Śiva the performance whereof gives the sight of Śiva. Those who come within His vision are certainly liberated”.

2) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) refers to the “great lord”, and represents an epithet of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.10. Accordingly as Viṣṇu said to Brahmā:—“[...] He cannot be defined. He is not subject to deterioration or decay. He is the supreme soul, without a second, unswerving and endless. He is the cause of dissolution, all-pervasive and great lord (parameśvara)”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर).—Is Śiva;1 also an epithet of Viṣṇu.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 50; 44. 30; IV. 10. 28; Matsya-purāṇa 12. 9.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 60; 18. 52.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Shaivism glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

1) Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर) or Pārameśvarāgama refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The Śaivāgamas are divided into four groups viz. Śaiva, Pāśupata, Soma and Lākula. Śaiva is further divided in to Dakṣiṇa, Vāma and Siddhānta (e.g., pārameśvara).

2) Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर) or Pārameśvarāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Parameśvarāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Pārameśvara Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Parameśvara-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) refers to the “Supreme Lord”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī III.2.12.—Accordingly, “But at the fall of the body, there is only one essence: the Supreme Lord (parameśvara). Thus, who could enter (/immerse), where and how?”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Pancaratra glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)

Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर) or Pārameśvarasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a sāttvika type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika (e.g., Pārameśvara-saṃhitā). b. Rājasa. c. Tāmasa.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Vaishnavism glossary
Source: Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) refers to the “supreme controller” and is used as an epithet for Brahmā, in the Gargasaṃhitā chapter 6.3. Accordingly, “[...] by his mystic power he [viz., Raivata] traveled to Brahmaloka. His intention to ask for a proper husband for his daughter, he bowed before the demigod Brahmā. As the Apsarā Pūrvacitti was singing, he found his opportunity. Aware that now he had Brahmā’s attention, he spoke what was in his heart: ‘[...] You are the greatest, the oldest, the seed from which this universe has sprouted, the great soul and the great controller (Parameśvara). O Brahmā, you stay always in your own abode. You create, maintain, and destroy this universe’”.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) refers to “supreme controller”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) refers to:—The Supreme Controller. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) is the author of the Vākyapradīpikā: a commentary on the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā: one of the three great works of Vāgbhaṭa.—The Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā consists only of verses. The eight-fold division is observed in the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā too, though not as strictly as in the Aṣṭāṅgasaṃgraha. Numerous commentaries on the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā [viz., Parameśvara’s Vākyapradīpikā], many of them unedited so far, can be traced in manuscripts, catalogues, publishers’ lists, etc.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) refers to the “one supreme power”, according to the Devīpañcaśataka, an important source of the Kālīkrama that developed in Kashmir after the Kālī Mata of the Jayadrathayāmala.—Accordingly, “The Great God—Mahādeva—is beyond Śakti, supreme bliss, [...] O Supreme Lord! By his awakening, that supreme Kālikā has spontaneously arisen (svecchayā), the one supreme power [i.e., Parameśvara] endowed with those same attributes. She is subtle, supreme, tranquil, and delighted by supreme bliss. Śivā has arisen spontaneously (svabhāvata); stainless, she is (all that is) knowable. She is the Supreme Goddess (parameśvarī) who, by her own will, is (both) the Transmental (unmanā) (‘Without Mind’) and With Mind (samanā)”.

2) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) is a variant for Amareśvara, which refers to one of the eight Bhairavas (bhairava-aṣṭaka) associated with Candrapīṭha (or Candrapīṭhapura), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Bhairavas (bhairavāṣṭaka): Ciñciṇīnātha, Someśvara, Amṛta, Śaṃkara, Trimūrti, Amareśvara, Bhārabhūti, Atithi.—(Note the variant Parameśvara).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Hinduism glossary
Source: Springer: Parameśvara of Vāṭaśśeri

Parameśvara, one of the foremost astronomers of Kerala, hailed from the village of Ālattūr (Aśvatthagrāma in Sanskrit), and his house, Vāṭaśśeri, was situated on the confluence of the river Nīla with the Arabian Sea. He was a Ṛgvedin, of the Aśvalāyana Sūtra, and belonged to the Bhṛgugotra. He was a pupil of Rudra I. He carried out astronomical observations near his house for some 45 years. He also observed a large number of eclipses between 1393 and 1432, which are recorded in his work Siddhāntadīpikā. Nothing else is known about the life of Parameśvara.

Parameśvara was a prolific writer and authored some 30 works. These include original treatises and commentaries on other works of astronomy and astrology. Among his original works on astronomy might be mentioned the following: Dṛggaṇita (1430); a work on spherics, Goladīpikā (1443); and three works on the computation and rationale of eclipses, Grahaṇāṣṭaka, Grahaṇamaṇḍana, and Grahaṇanyāyadīpikā. He also commented on a large number of astronomical works including the Āryabhaṭīya, Sūryasiddhānta, Laghumānasa, and Līlāvatī. Many of his works are yet to be published.

Source: MacTutor History: Paramesvara

Paramesvara was an Indian astronomer and mathematician who wrote many commentaries on earlier works as well as making many observations. Although his father has not been identified, we know that Paramesvara was born into a Namputiri Brahmana family who were astrologers and astronomers. The family home was Vatasseri (sometimes called Vatasreni) in the village of Alattur. This village was in Kerala and Paramesvara himself gives its coordinates with respect to Ujjain. This puts it at latitude 10° 51' north. It is on the north bank of the river Nila at its mouth. From Paramesvara's writing we know that Rudra was his teacher, and Nilakantha, who knew Paramesvara personally, tells us that Paramesvara's teachers included Madhava and Narayana.

Paramesvara – Born: about 1370 in Alattur, Kerala, India; Died: about 1460 in India

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) refers to the “supreme being”, according to the Ṭīkā Pot Worship [i.e., Kalaśapūjā] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Come, highest divinity, to your own place, supreme being (parameśvara), (As) I carry out worship, continuously be turned towards me, For the symapthy of the patron, come near, all divinities”.

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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parameśvara.—(IE 8-2; EI 29, 30; CII 3, 4), an imperial title; one of the technical titles of paramount sovereignty closely connected with Māhārājādhirāja and Paramabhaṭṭāraka. Note: parameśvara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paramēśvara (परमेश्वर).—m (S) The Supreme Being; the Lord of the universe. This is, in Maraṭhi, its general meaning; although it is often applied with particular reference, sometimes to śiva, sometimes to viṣṇu.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर).—a. Relating, belonging or coming from the supreme god.

--- OR ---

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर).—

1) an epithet of Viṣṇu.

2) of Indra.

3) of Śiva.

4) the Almighty god, the Supreme Being.

5) Name of Brahman.

6) a universal monarch, sovereign of the world; see चक्रवर्तिन् (cakravartin).

Derivable forms: parameśvaraḥ (परमेश्वरः).

Parameśvara is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms parama and īśvara (ईश्वर).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. The Supreme Being. 2. Siva. 3. Vishnu. f. (-rī) Durga. E. parama best, īśvara lord.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर).—i. e. parama-īśvara + a, adj. Referring to, coming from, the supreme lord, Śiva, etc., [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 6, 124

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर).—[masculine] a rich or noble lord, a prince or king ([abstract] [feminine], tva [neuter]); also = [preceding] & [Epithet] of [several] gods, [feminine] ī [Epithet] of Durgā.

--- OR ---

Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर).—[feminine] ī belonging to the supreme lord.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] Quoted as a poet in Kavīndracandrodaya.

2) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर):—Āryabhaṭasiddhāntaṭīkā.

3) Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर):—Quoted in the Spandavivṛti. Hall. p. 199.

4) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर):—pupil of Rudra: Sūryasiddhāntavivaraṇa. Whish 135. He wrote Commentaries on the Laghubhāskarīya, Mahābhāskarīya and its C., and on the Līlāvatī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parameśvara (परमेश्वर):—[from parama > para] m. the supreme lord, Supreme Being, God

2) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva

3) [v.s. ...] of Viṣṇu

4) [v.s. ...] of Indra

5) [v.s. ...] of any eminent prince or illustrious man, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 35 etc.])

6) [v.s. ...] a Jaina, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of sub voce authors (rīya n. a work of P°), [Catalogue(s)]

8) [from parama > para] n. (sc. liṅga) Name of a Liṅga sacred to Śiva, [Catalogue(s)]

9) Pārameśvara (पारमेश्वर):—[from pārama] mf(ī)n. relating or belonging to or coming from the supreme god (Śiva), [Prabodha-candrodaya; Kathāsaritsāgara; Purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] m. or n. Name of [work]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर):—[parame+śvara] (raḥ) 1. m. The Supreme (Being). Shiva; Vishnu. f. () Durgā.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Paramesara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parameshvara in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parameśvara (परमेश्वर) [Also spelled parmeswar]:—(nm) God, the Almighty.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parameshvara in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paramēśvara (ಪರಮೇಶ್ವರ):—

1) [noun] the Supreme as Śiva, Viṣṇu, Indra, Jina.

2) [noun] the supreme ruler of an empire.

--- OR ---

Paramēsvara (ಪರಮೇಸ್ವರ):—[noun] = ಪರಮೇಶ್ವರ [parameshvara].

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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