Parama, Paramā: 30 definitions

Introduction:

Parama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parama (परम) refers to the “supreme region”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.23. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] One day after delighting the lord with her devotion and obeisance Satī, the daughter of Dakṣa, spoke thus to Śiva: ‘[...] O lord, please explain that activity which enables people, to obtain the supreme region (parama) and free themselves from worldly bondage’”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Paramā (परमा).—Sages.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 200. 17.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Parama (परम, “highest”) refers to a classification of Hindu images, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Images are classified into five forms, namely parama, vyūha, vibhāva, antaryāmi and arcā. Parama means the ultimate or the highest. In short, parama, vyūha and vibhāva stand for the subtle states in which the paramātman exists everywhere and eternally.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Parama (परम) refers to:—Ultimate. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Paramā (परमा) refers to the “supreme energy” which is associated with Kāmarūpa, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.

2) Parama (परम) refers to one of the eight Heroes (vīra-aṣṭaka) associated with Nādapīṭha (identified with Kulūta), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Heroes (vīrāṣṭaka): Vīreśa, Sumaṅgala, Mahājaṅgala, Huṃkāra, Suśānti, Parama, Prabodha, Praśānta.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Parama (परम) refers to the “highest (level of reality)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī.—Accordingly, “The highest level [of reality] (parama-bhūmi), although it is concealed to the highest point within the [Śaiva nondualistic] scriptures, is absolutely never unmanifest; rather, it is always [in the process of] manifesting [itself]—this is the gist [of Utpaladeva’s answer]. And [Utpaladeva] has explained this in the verse on [the Self being] always already established”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Parama (परम) refers to the “highest (cosmic level)”, according to the Jñānaratnāvalī, (p. 268).—Accordingly, “Having purified the śivadharmī, he should join him with the highest cosmic level (parama-padaparame pade), and after having performed his post-initiatory obligations liberation will come about at death. Having lifted up the lokadharmī to the desired [level] of the presiding deity, he should bring about the qualities of this [deity in the candidate] or [unite him] in Śiva, for those who desire liberation”

2) Paramā (परमा) (or Aghorī, Yogeśī) (seed-syllable: ) refers to one of the eight Mother-goddesses (Mātṛs) of the pantheon of Mantra-deities, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Patterning the processes of inner and outer ritual is the Brahmayāmala’s pantheon of mantra-deities, whose core comprises the Four Goddesses or Guhyakās, Four Consorts or Handmaidens, and their lord, Kapālīśabhairava. Secondary members of the pantheon are a sextet of Yoginīs and an octad of Mother-goddesses [e.g., Paramā].

Note: The eighth Mātṛ, the supreme śakti, Paramā, also called Aghorī or Yogeśī, pervades the entire body, lacking a lotus base and being devoid of ancillary mantras.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Parama means farthest, superior, highest, most excellent, est.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Parama means: superior, highest;

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Parāma (पराम) refers to “supreme (doctrine)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, [...] In this stanza, the Buddha does not say that it is the generous person who will obtain joy, or the person with knowledge, morality, patience, energy, dhyāna, or wisdom. The Buddha is speaking only of the faithful. His intention is the following: My supreme (parāma) profound doctrine is subtle, immense, incalculable, inconceivable, immoveable, without support, without attachment and without perceived object. But it is not true that the omniscient one (sarvajñā) is unable to explain it. That is why, in the Buddha’s doctrine, the power of faith is primordial. It is by faith that one enters into it and not by generosity, discipline, patience, energy, dhyāna or wisdom.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Parama (परम) refers to the “highest (bliss)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The one who is doing good actions, whose conduct is pure, is engaged in external asceticism to such an extent and then there is the highest meditation which is abstaining from anything perceptible by the senses [and] resting in the self. He destroys the mass of karmas accumulated for a very long time which is sticking within then he is immersed in the ocean of knowledge which is the abode of the highest bliss (parama-ānanda-nilaya). [Thus ends the reflection on] wearing away karma”.

Synonyms: Para, Prakṛṣṭa.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Parama (“highest”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Parama) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

parama : (adj.) superior; best; excellent.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Parama, (adj.) (Vedic parama; superl. formation of para, lit. “farthest, ” cp. similarly, although fr. diff. base, Lat. prīmus) highest, most excellent, superior, best; paraphrased by agga seṭṭha visiṭṭha at Nd2 502 A= Nd1 84, 102 (the latter reading viseṭṭha for visiṭṭha); by uttama at DhA. III, 237; VvA. 78.—D. I, 124 (ettaka°); M. II, 120 (°nipacca); S. I, 166; II, 277; V, 230; A. V, 64 (°diṭṭha-dhamma-nibbāna); Sn. 138 (yasaṃ paramaṃ patto), 296 (°ā mittā), 788 (suddhaṃ °ṃ arogaṃ), 1071 (saññāvimokhe °e vimutto); Dh. 184 (nibbānaṃ °ṃ vadanti Buddhā). 203, 243; Vv 161 (°alaṅkata= paramaṃ ativiya visesato VvA. 78) Pv. II, 910 (°iddhi); Pug. 15, 16, 66; SnA 453 (°issara); PvA. 12 (°nipacca). 15 (°duggandha), 46.—At the end of a cpd. (-°) “at the outmost, at the highest, at most; as a minimum, at least” Vin. IV, 263 (dvaṅgula-pabba°); esp. frequent in phrase sattakkhattu° one who will be reborn seven times at the outmost, i.e. at the end of the 7 rebirthinterval S. II, 185 (sa°); V, 205; A. I, 233; IV, 381; V, 120; It. 18; Kvu 469. See pāramī & pāramitā.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parama (परम).—a (S) Best, superior, most excellent. 2 Chief, principal, uttermost. More frequently used in comp. with nouns, thus producing a superlativeness of signification; as paramamaryādā, paramānna &c.; or as an enhancing prefix to adjectives; as paramakaṭhōra, paramakaṭhina, paramanirdaya, paramacatura: also alone and adverbially, in the sense of Much, very, exceedingly.

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paramā (परमा).—m (pramēha S) Gonorrhœa or gleet. See paramēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parama (परम).—a Best, superior. Chief, principal. Alone and adverbially, in the sense of Much, very, exceedingly.

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paramā (परमा).—m Gonorrhœa or gleet. See paramēṃ.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parama (परम).—a. [paraṃ paratvaṃ māti-ka Tv.]

1) Most distant, last.

2) Highest, best, most excellent, greatest; प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् (prāpnoti paramāṃ gatim) Manusmṛti 4.14;7.1;2.13.

3) Chief, principal, primary, supreme; सर्वथा ब्राह्मणाः पूज्याः परमं दैवतं हि तत् (sarvathā brāhmaṇāḥ pūjyāḥ paramaṃ daivataṃ hi tat) Manusmṛti 9.319.

4) Exceeding, extreme.

5) Adequate, sufficient; परमं यत्नमातिष्ठेत् स्तेनानां निग्रहे नृपः (paramaṃ yatnamātiṣṭhet stenānāṃ nigrahe nṛpaḥ) Manusmṛti 8.32.

6) Worst.

7) Higher than, superior to; न मन्ये वाणि- ज्यात् किमपि परमं वर्तनमिह (na manye vāṇi- jyāt kimapi paramaṃ vartanamiha) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.11.

-mam The utmost or highest; the chief or prominent part; (at the end of comp.) consisting principally of, solely occupied with; कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः (kāmopabhogaparamā etāvaditi niścitāḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 16.11; Manusmṛti 6.96.

-mam ind.

1) A particle of assent, acceptance or agreement (well, very well, yes, be it so); ततः परममित्युक्त्वा प्रतस्थे मुनिमण्डलम् (tataḥ paramamityuktvā pratasthe munimaṇḍalam) Kumārasambhava 6.35.

2) Exceedingly, very much; परमक्रुद्धः (paramakruddhaḥ) &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parama (परम).—m. or nt., a high number: °masya Gaṇḍavyūha 105.20. Corresponds to mapara, nt., mavara, also savara (2), qq.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Best, most excellent. 2. Chief principal, preceding 3. First, chief part. 4. Adequate. ind.

(-maṃ) 1. A term of assent, yes 2. A term of command. E. para best, to mete, aff. ḍa or ḍam.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम).—[para + ma], I. superl. of para, f. . 1. Most excellent, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 108; best, 4, 14. 2. Highest, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 319. 3. Extreme, 8, 302. 4. Worst, [Brāhmaṇavilāpa] 1, 15. 5. With cetas, All (the heart), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 34, 36. 6. With an abl. it has the signification of the comparat., More excellent, superior, worse; ko nyo sti paramaḥ śivāt, Who is higher than Śiva, Mahābhārata 13, 793. Ii. paramam, adv. Yes, Mahābhārata 3, 17056. Very well, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 37, 20. Iii. When latter part of a comp adj. it implies sometimes, 1. Amounting at the most to, Mahābhārata 2, 2080. 2. Consisting principally of, 5, 1143. 3. Occupied only with, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 96.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम).—[adjective] farthest, last, extreme, best or worst, highest, chiefest; surpassing, better or worse than ([ablative]). °— as adj. supreme, chief, [adverb] highly, exceedingly; —° = para; [neuter] paramam yes, very well, with pleasure.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Parama (परम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Kautukalīlāvatī jy. B. 4, 120.

2) Parama (परम):—son of Yadumaṇi, grandson of Prayāga, wrote in 1535 for king Mukundasena: Mukundavijaya jy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parama (परम):—[from para] mf(ā)n. (superl. of para) most distant, remotest, extreme, last, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] chief, highest, primary, most prominent or conspicuous

3) [v.s. ...] best, most excellent, worst (meṇa cetasā, with all the heart; ma-kaṇṭhena, ‘with all the throat’, roaring, speaking aloud), [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] (with [ablative]) superior or inferior to, better or worse than, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] m. Name of 2 authors, [Catalogue(s)]

6) [v.s. ...] n. highest point, extreme limit (catur-viṃśati-p, at the utmost 24), [Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] n. chief part or matter or object (ifc. f(ā). = consisting chiefly of, completely occupied with or devoted to or intent upon), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

8) [from para] n. (also paramain [compound]; See below) very much, excessively, excellently, in the highest degree, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature etc.]

9) Pārama (पारम):—Vṛddhi form of parama in [compound]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Best; chief; first. n. Yes; term of command.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parama (परम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Parama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parama (परम) [Also spelled param]:—(a) extreme; ultimate; absolute; supreme; best; utmost; (nm) the Supreme Being, God; —[agratā] absolute priority; —[gati] liberation, salvation; —[gahana] extremely complicated/incomprehensible; too deep; too difficult; insurmountable; —[tattva] the Essential Element, the Supreme Being; —[tāpa] absolute temperature; —[pada] the highest seat, liberation, salvation; —[pāvana] His Holiness; extremely holy, of supreme holiness; —[pitā] the Creator of all, God; —[puruṣa] God; —[puruṣārtha] highest Good, summum bonum; —[brahma] God; —[bhaṭṭāraka] an ancient honorofic title or form of address to an Emperor; —[mahāmānya] His Exalted Highness; —[māpakrama] absolute scale; ~[haṃsa] the supreme amongst the [saṃnyāsī]s; a liberated soul, one who has attained transcendental existence.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Parama (परम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Parama.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parama (ಪರಮ):—

1) [adjective] situated, lying very far.

2) [adjective] very important or paramount.

3) [adjective] of par-excellence; superior.

4) [adjective] absolutely pure.

5) [adjective] situaed or lying at very end.

6) [adjective] in the fullest sense; complete; absolue.

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Parama (ಪರಮ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being preeminently great; par excellence.

2) [noun] the Absolue Being.

3) [noun] (jain.) the Jina, as the supreme religious teacher.

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Paramā (ಪರಮಾ):—[noun] an infectious venereal disease caused by gonococci, characterised by inflamation of the mucous membrane of the genitourinary tract and a discharge of mucous and pus; gonorrhea.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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