Parama, Paramā: 22 definitions



Parama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parama (परम) refers to the “supreme region”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.23. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] One day after delighting the lord with her devotion and obeisance Satī, the daughter of Dakṣa, spoke thus to Śiva: ‘[...] O lord, please explain that activity which enables people, to obtain the supreme region (parama) and free themselves from worldly bondage’”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Paramā (परमा).—Sages.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 200. 17.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Parama (परम, “highest”) refers to a classification of Hindu images, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Images are classified into five forms, namely parama, vyūha, vibhāva, antaryāmi and arcā. Parama means the ultimate or the highest. In short, parama, vyūha and vibhāva stand for the subtle states in which the paramātman exists everywhere and eternally.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Parama (परम) refers to:—Ultimate. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Parama means farthest, superior, highest, most excellent, est.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Parama means: superior, highest;

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geography

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Parama (“highest”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Parama) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

parama : (adj.) superior; best; excellent.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Parama, (adj.) (Vedic parama; superl. formation of para, lit. “farthest, ” cp. similarly, although fr. diff. base, Lat. prīmus) highest, most excellent, superior, best; paraphrased by agga seṭṭha visiṭṭha at Nd2 502 A= Nd1 84, 102 (the latter reading viseṭṭha for visiṭṭha); by uttama at DhA. III, 237; VvA. 78.—D. I, 124 (ettaka°); M. II, 120 (°nipacca); S. I, 166; II, 277; V, 230; A. V, 64 (°diṭṭha-dhamma-nibbāna); Sn. 138 (yasaṃ paramaṃ patto), 296 (°ā mittā), 788 (suddhaṃ °ṃ arogaṃ), 1071 (saññāvimokhe °e vimutto); Dh. 184 (nibbānaṃ °ṃ vadanti Buddhā). 203, 243; Vv 161 (°alaṅkata= paramaṃ ativiya visesato VvA. 78) Pv. II, 910 (°iddhi); Pug. 15, 16, 66; SnA 453 (°issara); PvA. 12 (°nipacca). 15 (°duggandha), 46.—At the end of a cpd. (-°) “at the outmost, at the highest, at most; as a minimum, at least” Vin. IV, 263 (dvaṅgula-pabba°); esp. frequent in phrase sattakkhattu° one who will be reborn seven times at the outmost, i.e. at the end of the 7 rebirthinterval S. II, 185 (sa°); V, 205; A. I, 233; IV, 381; V, 120; It. 18; Kvu 469. See pāramī & pāramitā.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parama (परम).—a (S) Best, superior, most excellent. 2 Chief, principal, uttermost. More frequently used in comp. with nouns, thus producing a superlativeness of signification; as paramamaryādā, paramānna &c.; or as an enhancing prefix to adjectives; as paramakaṭhōra, paramakaṭhina, paramanirdaya, paramacatura: also alone and adverbially, in the sense of Much, very, exceedingly.

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paramā (परमा).—m (pramēha S) Gonorrhœa or gleet. See paramēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parama (परम).—a Best, superior. Chief, principal. Alone and adverbially, in the sense of Much, very, exceedingly.

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paramā (परमा).—m Gonorrhœa or gleet. See paramēṃ.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parama (परम).—a. [paraṃ paratvaṃ māti-ka Tv.]

1) Most distant, last.

2) Highest, best, most excellent, greatest; प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् (prāpnoti paramāṃ gatim) Ms.4.14;7.1;2.13.

3) Chief, principal, primary, supreme; सर्वथा ब्राह्मणाः पूज्याः परमं दैवतं हि तत् (sarvathā brāhmaṇāḥ pūjyāḥ paramaṃ daivataṃ hi tat) Ms.9.319.

4) Exceeding, extreme.

5) Adequate, sufficient; परमं यत्नमातिष्ठेत् स्तेनानां निग्रहे नृपः (paramaṃ yatnamātiṣṭhet stenānāṃ nigrahe nṛpaḥ) Ms.8.32.

6) Worst.

7) Higher than, superior to; न मन्ये वाणि- ज्यात् किमपि परमं वर्तनमिह (na manye vāṇi- jyāt kimapi paramaṃ vartanamiha) Pt.1.11.

-mam The utmost or highest; the chief or prominent part; (at the end of comp.) consisting principally of, solely occupied with; कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः (kāmopabhogaparamā etāvaditi niścitāḥ) Bg.16.11; Ms.6.96.

-mam ind.

1) A particle of assent, acceptance or agreement (well, very well, yes, be it so); ततः परममित्युक्त्वा प्रतस्थे मुनिमण्डलम् (tataḥ paramamityuktvā pratasthe munimaṇḍalam) Ku.6.35.

2) Exceedingly, very much; परमक्रुद्धः (paramakruddhaḥ) &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parama (परम).—m. or nt., a high number: °masya Gaṇḍavyūha 105.20. Corresponds to mapara, nt., mavara, also savara (2), qq.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Best, most excellent. 2. Chief principal, preceding 3. First, chief part. 4. Adequate. ind.

(-maṃ) 1. A term of assent, yes 2. A term of command. E. para best, to mete, aff. ḍa or ḍam.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम).—[para + ma], I. superl. of para, f. . 1. Most excellent, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 108; best, 4, 14. 2. Highest, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 319. 3. Extreme, 8, 302. 4. Worst, [Brāhmaṇavilāpa] 1, 15. 5. With cetas, All (the heart), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 34, 36. 6. With an abl. it has the signification of the comparat., More excellent, superior, worse; ko nyo sti paramaḥ śivāt, Who is higher than Śiva, Mahābhārata 13, 793. Ii. paramam, adv. Yes, Mahābhārata 3, 17056. Very well, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 37, 20. Iii. When latter part of a comp adj. it implies sometimes, 1. Amounting at the most to, Mahābhārata 2, 2080. 2. Consisting principally of, 5, 1143. 3. Occupied only with, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 96.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम).—[adjective] farthest, last, extreme, best or worst, highest, chiefest; surpassing, better or worse than ([ablative]). °— as adj. supreme, chief, [adverb] highly, exceedingly; —° = para; [neuter] paramam yes, very well, with pleasure.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Parama (परम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Kautukalīlāvatī jy. B. 4, 120.

2) Parama (परम):—son of Yadumaṇi, grandson of Prayāga, wrote in 1535 for king Mukundasena: Mukundavijaya jy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parama (परम):—[from para] mf(ā)n. (superl. of para) most distant, remotest, extreme, last, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] chief, highest, primary, most prominent or conspicuous

3) [v.s. ...] best, most excellent, worst (meṇa cetasā, with all the heart; ma-kaṇṭhena, ‘with all the throat’, roaring, speaking aloud), [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] (with [ablative]) superior or inferior to, better or worse than, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] m. Name of 2 authors, [Catalogue(s)]

6) [v.s. ...] n. highest point, extreme limit (catur-viṃśati-p, at the utmost 24), [Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] n. chief part or matter or object (ifc. f(ā). = consisting chiefly of, completely occupied with or devoted to or intent upon), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

8) [from para] n. (also paramain [compound]; See below) very much, excessively, excellently, in the highest degree, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature etc.]

9) Pārama (पारम):—Vṛddhi form of parama in [compound]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parama (परम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Best; chief; first. n. Yes; term of command.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Parama (परम):—(superlat. zu para) adj. Declin. mit Ausnahme von paramasyās und paramasyām .

1) adj. f. ā a) der fernste, äusserste, letzte: parāvat [Ṛgveda 4, 50, 3. 10, 95, 14.] [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 11, 72.] etaddha paramaṃ dūraṃ yatsahasrayojanam [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 9, 1, 1, 28.] pareṇaitu pa.hā vṛkaḥ para.eṇo.a taskaraḥ [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 4, 3, 2.] agnirvai devānāmavamo viṣṇuḥ paramaḥ der fernste und höchste [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 1, 1.] avama, madhyama, parama [Ṛgveda 1, 108, 9. 10. 27, 5.] sadhastha [108, 8. 8, 11, 7.] pada [1, 22, 20. 72, 2.] vyoman [7, 5, 7. 5, 63, 1.] rajas [7, 99, 1. 3, 30, 2.] janman [2, 9, 3.] saṃ para.āṃsamava.ānatho.saṃ dyāmiva madhya.ān [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 6, 103, 2.] mātrā [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 10, 2, 2, 8. 11, 1, 6, 16.] gati [2, 6, 4, 9.] sa paramaṃ lokamajayat [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 1, 21.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 7, 1, 31.] imaṃ ca lokaṃ paramaṃ (= paraṃ) ca vindati [KĀM. NĪTIS. 3, 37.] pāda [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 16, 36.] paramaprakṛti das äusserste, letzte, erste Thema [Scholiast] zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 1, 155.] — b) der vorzüglichste, ausgezeichnetste, höchste. beste, grösste, ärgste, summus; = para [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 469.] [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 47.] = agresara, prathama [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] = pradhāna, ādya [VIŚVA im Śabdakalpadruma] paśu [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 4, 26.] paramo śvaḥ paśūnām [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 13, 3, 3, 1.] gāvaḥ [Ṛgveda 5, 47, 4. 4, 23, 10.] ūti [6, 25, 1.] vasu [7, 32, 16.] dhi.ā para.ayā [6, 38, 3.] a.nirīśe.vājasya para.asya rā.aḥ [4, 12, 3. 7, 60, 11.] nidhi [2, 24, 6.] brahman [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 6, 10, 6. 7, 1, 31. 32.] etadu paramamannaṃ yaddadhi madhu dhṛtam [9, 2, 2, 12.] daivata [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 9, 319.] vapus [Nalopākhyāna 13, 27.] dharma [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 1, 108.] [Nalopākhyāna 26, 7.] [Hitopadeśa 19, 22.] gati [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 14. 6, 88. 93. 96. 8, 420.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 57, 21.] siddhi [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 1.] mantra 58. pramāṇa [2, 13.] tapas [167. 229. 6, 70.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 57, 2.] medhā [Mahābhārata 3, 14008.] prīti [Nalopākhyāna 13, 39.] mud [24, 46.] dyuti [12, 52.] dharme paramā sthitiḥ [5, 37.] vismaya [19, 23.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 2, 1.] bala [Nalopākhyāna 20, 5.] yatna [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 302. 9, 16.] vaiṣamya [Nalopākhyāna 9, 20.] vaiklavya [23, 21.] duḥkha, jvara [Brāhmaṇavilāpa 1, 15.] parameṇa cetasā so v. a. mit ganzem Herzen: tathā hi rāmaṃ vanavāsaniścitam parameṇa cetasā [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 24, 36.] Mit seinem subst. (das seinem Ton bewahrt) componirt [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 61.] gaṇa kāṣṭhādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 8, 1, 67.] cikitsaka [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 11, 5, 7, 1.] saugata [Kathāsaritsāgara 27, 12.] vaiṣṇava [36, 10.] Inschr. in [Journ. of the Am. Or. S. 6, 542.] māheśvara [539.] brahmaṇya [539. 542.] bhāgavata [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 5, 1, 6.] paramāṅganā [Nalopākhyāna 3, 15. 12, 44.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 25, 26.] paramāpsaras [1, 63, 4.] vāri [Daśaratha’s Tod 2, 3.] pūruṣa [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 7, 7.] paramāyana [2, 6, 2.] paramotsava [Indralokāgamana 5, 23.] paramākulatā [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 157.] paramaujasā [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 54, 5.] paramakaṇṭhena krośet so v. a. aus vollem Halse [LĀṬY. 9, 8, 15.] parama, wie para mit einem ablat. verbunden, vorzüglicher, grösser, ärger: ko nyo sti paramaḥ śivāt [Mahābhārata 13, 793.] kiṃ nvataḥ (so ist zu lesen) paramaṃ duḥkhaṃ yat [1, 6196.] yasmānna paramaṃ bhūtaṃ vānareṣviha vidyate [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 3, 17. 22.] —

2) n. am Ende eines adj. comp. (f. ā) das äusserste —, höchste Maass: sahasraparamāṃ bhṛtim höchstens 1000 betragend [Mahābhārata 2, 2080.] saptadaśāvarāḥ, caturviṃśatiparamāḥ höchstens 24 [Scholiast] zu [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 103, 24.] Hauptbestandtheil, das Vorwiegende: āḍhyānāṃ māṃsaparamaṃ madhyānāṃ gorasottaram . tailottaraṃ daridrāṇāṃ bhojanam vorzugsweise aus Fleisch bestehend [Mahābhārata 5, 1143.] svakārya ganz mit seinen Obliegenheiten beschäftigt [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 6. 96.] kāmopabhoga [Bhagavadgītā 16. 11.] cintā [Mahābhārata 1. 5774.] niḥśvāsa nichts als seufzend [Nalopākhyāna 2, 2.] [Mahābhārata 1, 4613.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 62, 7.] —

3) paramam adv. a) Partikel der Bejahung, Einwilligung, ja wohl, schön, gut [Amarakoṣa 3, 5, 12.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1540.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] api tuṣyati te putri brāhmaṇaḥ paricaryayā . taṃ sā paramamityeva pratyuvāca [Mahābhārata 3, 17056. fg.] paramaṃ saumyamityuktaṃ tābhyām [12, 1056.] tataḥ paramamityuktvā pratasthe [Kumārasaṃbhava 6, 35.] — b) im comp., vor einem adj. oder partic. mit abgeworfener Flexionsendung, in hohem Grade, überaus, sehr: śobhana [Mahābhārata 3. 2798.] [Nalopākhyāna 5, 26.] manyumant [9, 5.] paramātmavant [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 46, 18. 57, 9.58, 12.] saṃmata [Brāhmaṇavilāpa 2, 25.] saṃhṛṣṭa [Nalopākhyāna 13, 48.] prīti [Arjunasamāgama 2, 11.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 1, 41. 52, 1.] saṃtuṣṭa [1, 84.] duḥkhita [Nalopākhyāna 22, 28.] kruddha [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 54, 19.] [BRAHMAP.] in [Lassen’s Anthologie 49, 2. 51, 10. 53, 4.] [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 17.] [Spr. 1233.]

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Parama (परम):—

1) b) [Z. 7] lies yaddadhi madhu ghṛtam [9, 2, 1, 12]; am Schluss hinzuzufügen [Spr. 3020.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Parama (परम):——

1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) der fernste , äusserste , letzte. — b) der vorzüglichste , ausgezeichnetste , höchste , beste , grösste , ärgste , summus. parameṇacetasā (vgl. paramātman

1) so v.a. mit ganzem Herzen , paramakaṇṭhena so v.a. aus vollem Halse. — c) vorzüglicher — , grösser — , ärger als (Abl.). —

2) am Ende eines adj. Comp. (f. ā — a) Höhepunct , die äusserste Grenze. caturviṃśati höchstens 24. — b) Hauptbestandtheil , das Vorwiegende , Hauptziel , Hauptzweck , Hauptsache. Wiederzugeben durch ganz beschäftigt mit , ganz aufgehend in , nur bedacht auf.

3) paramam Adv. ja wohl , schön , gut (als Bejahung , Einwilligung). —

4) parama Adv. in hohem Grade , überaus , sehr (als Bejahung , Einwilligung). —

5) m. Nomen proprium eines Sohnes des Manu Auttami [Viṣṇupurāṇa 3,1,15.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parama (परम) [Also spelled param]:—(a) extreme; ultimate; absolute; supreme; best; utmost; (nm) the Supreme Being, God; —[agratā] absolute priority; —[gati] liberation, salvation; —[gahana] extremely complicated/incomprehensible; too deep; too difficult; insurmountable; —[tattva] the Essential Element, the Supreme Being; —[tāpa] absolute temperature; —[pada] the highest seat, liberation, salvation; —[pāvana] His Holiness; extremely holy, of supreme holiness; —[pitā] the Creator of all, God; —[puruṣa] God; —[puruṣārtha] highest Good, summum bonum; —[brahma] God; —[bhaṭṭāraka] an ancient honorofic title or form of address to an Emperor; —[mahāmānya] His Exalted Highness; —[māpakrama] absolute scale; ~[haṃsa] the supreme amongst the [saṃnyāsī]s; a liberated soul, one who has attained transcendental existence.

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