Parama, aka: Paramā; 11 Definition(s)
Parama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
- * Matsya-purāṇa 200. 17.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Parama (परम, “highest”) refers to a classification of Hindu images, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Images are classified into five forms, namely parama, vyūha, vibhāva, antaryāmi and arcā. Parama means the ultimate or the highest. In short, parama, vyūha and vibhāva stand for the subtle states in which the paramātman exists everywhere and eternally.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
Parama means farthest, superior, highest, most excellent, est.Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
Parama means: superior, highest;Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
India history and geogprahy
Parama (“highest”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Parama) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
parama : (adj.) superior; best; excellent.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Parama, (adj.) (Vedic parama; superl. formation of para, lit. “farthest, ” cp. similarly, although fr. diff. base, Lat. prīmus) highest, most excellent, superior, best; paraphrased by agga seṭṭha visiṭṭha at Nd2 502 A= Nd1 84, 102 (the latter reading viseṭṭha for visiṭṭha); by uttama at DhA. III, 237; VvA. 78.—D. I, 124 (ettaka°); M. II, 120 (°nipacca); S. I, 166; II, 277; V, 230; A. V, 64 (°diṭṭha-dhamma-nibbāna); Sn. 138 (yasaṃ paramaṃ patto), 296 (°ā mittā), 788 (suddhaṃ °ṃ arogaṃ), 1071 (saññāvimokhe °e vimutto); Dh. 184 (nibbānaṃ °ṃ vadanti Buddhā). 203, 243; Vv 161 (°alaṅkata= paramaṃ ativiya visesato VvA. 78) Pv. II, 910 (°iddhi); Pug. 15, 16, 66; SnA 453 (°issara); PvA. 12 (°nipacca). 15 (°duggandha), 46.—At the end of a cpd. (-°) “at the outmost, at the highest, at most; as a minimum, at least” Vin. IV, 263 (dvaṅgula-pabba°); esp. freq. in phrase sattakkhattu° one who will be reborn seven times at the outmost, i.e. at the end of the 7 rebirthinterval S. II, 185 (sa°); V, 205; A. I, 233; IV, 381; V, 120; It. 18; Kvu 469. See pāramī & pāramitā.
—attha (cp. class. Sk. paramārtha) the highest good, ideal; truth in the ultimate sense, philosophical truth (cp. Kvu trsl. 180; J. P. T. S. 1914, 129 sq.; Cpd. 6, 81); Arahantship Sn. 68 (=vuccati Amataṃ Nibbānaṃ etc. Nd2 409), 219 (°dassin); Nd2 26; Miln. 19, 31; °dīpanī Exposition of the Highest Truth, N. of the Commentary on Th, Vv and Pv; mentioned e.g. at PvA. 71; °jotikā id. , N. of the C. on Kh and Sn, mentioned e.g. at KhA 11.—As °-, in Instr. and Abl. used adverbially in meaning of “in the highest sense, absolutely, kat) e)coxήn, primarily, ideally, in an absolute sense, ” like °pāramī Bu I. 77 °visuddhi A. V, 64; °saññita Th. 2, 210; °suñña Ps. II, 184; °suddhi SnA 528; Abl. paramatthato Miln. 28; VvA. 24 (manusso), 30 (bhikkhu), 72 (jīvitindriyaṃ); PvA. 146 (pabbajito, corresponding to anavasesato), 253 (na koci kiñci hanati=not at all); Instr. paramatthena Miln. 71 (vedagū), 268 (sattûpaladdhi). —gati the highest or best course of life or future exsitence Vv 3512 (=anupādisesa-nibbāna VvA. 164). (Page 420)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
parama (परम).—a (S) Best, superior, most excellent. 2 Chief, principal, uttermost. More frequently used in comp. with nouns, thus producing a superlativeness of signification; as paramamaryādā, paramānna &c.; or as an enhancing prefix to adjectives; as paramakaṭhōra, paramakaṭhina, paramanirdaya, paramacatura: also alone and adverbially, in the sense of Much, very, exceedingly.
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paramā (परमा).—m (pramēha S) Gonorrhœa or gleet. See paramēṃ.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
parama (परम).—a Best, superior. Chief, principal. Alone and adverbially, in the sense of Much, very, exceedingly.
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paramā (परमा).—m Gonorrhœa or gleet. See paramēṃ.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Parama (परम).—a. [paraṃ paratvaṃ māti-ka Tv.]
1) Most distant, last.
2) Highest, best, most excellent, greatest; प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् (prāpnoti paramāṃ gatim) Ms.4.14;7.1;2.13.
3) Chief, principal, primary, supreme; सर्वथा ब्राह्मणाः पूज्याः परमं दैवतं हि तत् (sarvathā brāhmaṇāḥ pūjyāḥ paramaṃ daivataṃ hi tat) Ms.9.319.
4) Exceeding, extreme.
5) Adequate, sufficient; परमं यत्नमातिष्ठेत् स्तेनानां निग्रहे नृपः (paramaṃ yatnamātiṣṭhet stenānāṃ nigrahe nṛpaḥ) Ms.8.32.
7) Higher than, superior to; न मन्ये वाणि- ज्यात् किमपि परमं वर्तनमिह (na manye vāṇi- jyāt kimapi paramaṃ vartanamiha) Pt.1.11.
-mam The utmost or highest; the chief or prominent part; (at the end of comp.) consisting principally of, solely occupied with; कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः (kāmopabhogaparamā etāvaditi niścitāḥ) Bg.16.11; Ms.6.96.
1) A particle of assent, acceptance or agreement (well, very well, yes, be it so); ततः परममित्युक्त्वा प्रतस्थे मुनिमण्डलम् (tataḥ paramamityuktvā pratasthe munimaṇḍalam) Ku.6.35.
2) Exceedingly, very much; परमक्रुद्धः (paramakruddhaḥ) &c.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 45 books and stories containing Parama or Paramā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.4.99 < [Chapter 4 - Bhakta: The Devotee]
Verse 2.1.150 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya: Renunciation]
Verse 2.6.25 < [Chapter 6 - Abhīṣṭa-lābha: The Attainment of All Desires]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 9 - Īśvara-gītā, its Philosophy as expounded by Vijñāna Bhikṣu < [Chapter XXII - The Philosophy of Vijñāna Bhikṣu]
Part 2 - The Brahman and the World according to Vijñānāmṛta-bhāṣya < [Chapter XXII - The Philosophy of Vijñāna Bhikṣu]
Part 3 - The Pañcarātra Literature < [Chapter XVI - The Pañcarātra]
Vivekachudamani (by Shankara)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.1.4 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Verse 1.4.5 < [Part 4 - Devotional service in Love of God (prema-bhakti)]
Verse 3.1.39 < [Part 1 - Neutral Love of God (śānta-rasa)]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 4.14 < [Section III - The Observances of the Accomplished Student]
Verse 7.1 < [Section I - Important Position of the King (rājan)]
Verse 11.44 < [Section IV - Expiation: General Laws (prāyaścitta)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 4 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 1 - Caitanya’s Biographers < [Chapter XXXII - Caitanya and his Followers]
Part 3 - Brahman, Paramātman, Bhagavat and Parameśvara < [Chapter XXIV - The Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
Part 4 - God’s Relation to His Devotees < [Chapter XXXIII - The Philosophy of Jiva Gosvāmī and Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇā]