Mukta, Muktā: 21 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Mukta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Muktā (मुक्ता) refers to “pearls”. It is used in Ayurvedic literature such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara (Sanskrit book on rasaśāstra, or ‘Indian medicinal alchemy’).

Source: PMC: Standardization and quality control parameters for Muktā Bhasma (calcined pearl)

Raw Muktā is chemically calcium carbonate in aragonite form, which after Ayurvedic procedures of calcinations is converted into more stable form of calcite. SEM images clearly show reduced particle size of the Bhasma, which indicates absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system at low doses. It can easily be concluded that Ayurvedic procedures of śodhana and Māraṇa, etc., are ancient techniques of nanoscience as the particles of final product MB comes under the range of 100 nm. Presence of essential micronutrients and permissible limits of heavy metals proves the compound to be safe as well as efficacious for internal administration.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Exotic India: Nitiprakasika of Vaisampayana (A Critical Edition)

Mukta (मुक्त) are the weapons to be released completely for striking, such as the bow and the arrow. (see Vasiṣṭha-dhanurveda)

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mukta (मुक्त) refers to a “liberated soul”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.23. Accordingly as Śiva said to Satī:—“[...] O Goddess Satī, listen, I shall explain the great principle whereby the remorseful creature becomes a liberated soul (mukta). O great Goddess, know that the perfect knowledge is the great principle—the consciousness that ‘I am Brahman’ in the perfect intellect where nothing else is remembered”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mukta (मुक्त).—(Paulaha)—a sage of the epoch of Bhautya Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 113.

1b) One released from saṃsāra knows his own self and assumes the shape foreign to the everyday world.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 16. 21-2; 102. 76-7, 105.

2) Muktā (मुक्ता).—A main stream of Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 28.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mukta (मुक्त) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.52.9) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mukta) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: Shodhganga: Rajadharma in the Mahabharata (dhanurveda)

Mukta (मुक्त) refers to the first class of weapons, according to the second chapter of the Nītiprakāśikā:—The weapons which can be thrown is called mukta, such as arrows. Twelve arms are included in the Mukta class.

Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Mukta (मुक्त) refers to “pearls”, mentioned in verse 3.52-53 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] when hungry, one shall turn to bitter, sweet, astringent, and light food, [...]; to water [...] devoid of dirt, (and) destructive of dirt [...] (and that is) neither causative of effusions nor rough, (but) nectar-like among the beverages etc.; (and)—beautifully adorned) with sandal, cuscus, camphor, pearls [viz., mukta], garlands, and (fine) clothes— [...]”.

Note: Mukta (“pearl”) has been translated by mu-tig chun (“pearl ornament”), whereas sraj (“garland”) has been paraphrased by ’phyaṅ-(’)phreṅ, which properly means “dangling wreath”. For ’phyaṅ (miscarved ’phyan in P) CD read ’phyaṅs (miscarved ’phyeṅs in C), the perfect participle being, however, less satisfactory in this connection.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: The Hindu World

Mukta (मुक्त):—According to Śrīkaṇṭha, the muktas realize the saviśeṣa body of Śiva, and though they cannot be distinguished from brahman, they are not identical with it. Attaining the final stage means realizing śivatva and sharing the qualities of Śiva. The mukta is not only omniscient like Śiva but also independent and can assume and discard bodies at will. The muktas are also all-pervasive, but they do not share the power of Śiva to create and to destroy the world. Though they enjoy the same bliss as Śiva, there is only one lord. Śrīkaṇṭha describes the abode of Śiva as a place blazing “like millions of suns” (Śrīkaṇṭhabhāṣya 4.4.22)

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Mukta (मुक्त, “liberated”) refers to one of the two types of jīva (sentients, soul), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.10.—What is meant by pure or liberated (mukta) state? The state which is completely free from kārmika bondage or transmigration is called pure state. Who is a liberated soul? The soul which is free from the eight types of karmas and attains the state of siddha is called pure soul.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Muktā.—(BL), epithet of a grant; a grant; possibly Arabic mukhta. Note: muktā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukta (मुक्त).—p (S) Released, liberated, loosed, freed. 2 Par eminence. Liberated from personal existence and absorbed into the divine substance and universe-basis called brahma. 3 Discharged--a missile or projectile.

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muktā (मुक्ता).—f S A pearl.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mukta (मुक्त).—p Released; discharged.

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muktā (मुक्ता).—

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukta (मुक्त).—p. p. [muc-kta]

1) Loosened, relaxed, slackened.

2) Set free, liberated, relaxed.

3) Abandoned, left, given up, set aside, taken off.

4) Thrown, cast, discharged, hurled.

5) Fallen down, dropped down from; विदन्ति मार्गं नखरन्ध्रमुक्तैर्मुक्ताफलैः (vidanti mārgaṃ nakharandhramuktairmuktāphalaiḥ) Ku.1.6.

6) Drooping, unnerved; मुक्तैरवयवैरशयिषि (muktairavayavairaśayiṣi) Dk.

7) Given, bestowed.

8) Sent forth, emitted.

9) Finally saved or emancipated.

1) Ejected, spit out.

11) Deprived.

12) Absolved or emancipated (from sin or worldly existence); see मुच् (muc) also.

13) Opened, blown (as a flower); मुक्तपुष्पावकीर्णेन (muktapuṣpāvakīrṇena) (śobhitā) Rām.5.1.8.

14) Set up, established (pravartita); स दण्डो विधिवन्मुक्तः (sa daṇḍo vidhivanmuktaḥ) Rām.7.79.9.

-ktaḥ One who is finally emancipated from the bonds of worldly existence, one who has renounced all worldly attachments and secured final beatitude, an absolved saint; सुभाषितेन गीतेन युवतीनां च लीलया । मनो न भिद्यते यस्य स वै मुक्तोऽथवा पशुः (subhāṣitena gītena yuvatīnāṃ ca līlayā | mano na bhidyate yasya sa vai mukto'thavā paśuḥ) || Subhāṣ.

-ktam The spirit released from worldly existence.

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Muktā (मुक्ता).—

1) A pearl; हारोऽयं हरिणाक्षीणां लुठति स्तनमण्डले । मुक्तानामप्यवस्थेयं के वयं स्मरकिङ्कराः (hāro'yaṃ hariṇākṣīṇāṃ luṭhati stanamaṇḍale | muktānāmapyavastheyaṃ ke vayaṃ smarakiṅkarāḥ) Amaru.138 (where muktānāṃ means also 'of absolved saints'); Śukra.4.157. (Pearls are said to be produced from various sources, but particularly from oyster-shells :karīndrajīmūtavarāhaśaṅkha- matsyāhiśuktyudbhavaveṇujāni | muktāphalāni prathitāni loke teṣāṃ tu śuktyu- dbhavameva bhūri || Malli.).

2) A harlot, courtezan.

3) Name of a plant (rāsnā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mukta (मुक्त).—adj.-ppp. (in Sanskrit used of fruit fallen from its stem), loose, fallen (from its stalk), of a flower: mukta- kusuma Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 103.4 (Burnouf and Kern pearls, as if muktā); the oldest Chinese translation(s) (Dharmarakṣa, dated 286 A.D.) renders loose flowers; mukta-puṣpa Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 31.22; 52.13; 100.11 (Lévi une simple fleur, also wrong).

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Muktā (मुक्ता).—Pearl, name of a daughter of Puṣya (3) of Śrāvastī: Avadāna-śataka ii.36.12 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukta (मुक्त).—mfn.

(-ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) 1. Released, liberated, loosed, let go. 2. Liberated from corporal existence, finally happy. 3. Discharged, loosed, as a weapon; this may be in two ways, as pāṇimukta thrown with the hand, as a dart, etc., and yantramukta thrown from an instrument, as an arrow from a bow, etc. n.

(-ktaṃ) The spirit released from mundane existence, and re-integrated with its divine original. f.

(-ktā) 1. A pearl. 2. A harlot. E. muc to set free, aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muktā (मुक्ता).— (f. of the ptcple. pf. pass. of muc), f. A pearl, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 153.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukta (मुक्त).—[adjective] released, freed from, rid of ([ablative] or [instrumental]); loosened, relaxed, fallen off or down; set free, dismissed; relinquished, given up; put off, laid aside, cast away; discharged, shed; thrown, hurled; liberated, emancipated (from sin or worldly existence).

— [feminine] muktā pearl.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mukta (मुक्त):—a muktā, mukti See p.816etc.

2) [from muc] b mfn. loosened, let loose, set free, relaxed, slackened, opened, open, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] liberated, delivered, emancipated ([especially] from sin or worldly existence), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (with [instrumental case] or ifc. = released from, deprived or destitute of; cf. [Pāṇini 2-1, 38])

4) [v.s. ...] fallen or dropped down (as fruit), [Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] abandoned, relinquished, quitted, given up, laid aside, deposed, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] sent forth, emitted, discharged, poured out, hurled, thrown, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] left free (as a road), [Meghadūta]

8) [v.s. ...] uttered (as sound), [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] shed (as tears), [Pañcatantra]

10) [v.s. ...] let fly, applied (as a kick), [Raghuvaṃśa]

11) [v.s. ...] gone, vanished, disappeared ([especially] [in the beginning of a compound]; cf. below)

12) [v.s. ...] m. Name of one of the 7 sages under Manu Bhautya, [Mahābhārata]

13) [v.s. ...] of a cook, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

14) Muktā (मुक्ता):—[from mukta > muc] a f. (with or [scilicet] dis) the quarter or cardinal point just quitted by the sun, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

15) [v.s. ...] a pearl (as loosened from the pearl-oyster shell), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

16) [v.s. ...] an unchaste woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] a species of plant (= rāsnā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

19) Mukta (मुक्त):—[from muc] n. the spirit released from corporeal existence, [Horace H. Wilson]

20) Muktā (मुक्ता):—[from muc] b f. of mukta, in [compound]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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