Mukta, aka: Muktā; 14 Definition(s)

Introduction

Mukta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Mukta (मुक्त) are the weapons to be released completely for striking, such as the bow and the arrow. (see Vasiṣṭha-dhanurveda)

Source: Exotic India: Nitiprakasika of Vaisampayana (A Critical Edition)
Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Muktā (मुक्ता) refers to “pearls”. It is used in Āyurvedic literature such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara (Sanskrit book on rasaśāstra, or ‘Indian medicinal alchemy’).

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Raw Muktā is chemically calcium carbonate in aragonite form, which after Ayurvedic procedures of calcinations is converted into more stable form of calcite. SEM images clearly show reduced particle size of the Bhasma, which indicates absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system at low doses. It can easily be concluded that Ayurvedic procedures of śodhana and Māraṇa, etc., are ancient techniques of nanoscience as the particles of final product MB comes under the range of 100 nm. Presence of essential micronutrients and permissible limits of heavy metals proves the compound to be safe as well as efficacious for internal administration.

Source: PMC: Standardization and quality control parameters for Muktā Bhasma (calcined pearl)
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1a) Mukta (मुक्त).—(Paulaha)—a sage of the epoch of Bhautya Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 113.

1b) One released from saṃsāra knows his own self and assumes the shape foreign to the everyday world.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 16. 21-2; 102. 76-7, 105.

2) Muktā (मुक्ता).—A main stream of Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 28.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Mukta (मुक्त) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.52.9) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mukta) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Mukta (मुक्त) refers to the first class of weapons, according to the second chapter of the Nītiprakāśikā:—The weapons which can be thrown is called mukta, such as arrows. Twelve arms are included in the Mukta class.

Source: Shodhganga: Rajadharma in the Mahabharata (dhanurveda)
Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Mukta (मुक्त):—According to Śrīkaṇṭha, the muktas realize the saviśeṣa body of Śiva, and though they cannot be distinguished from brahman, they are not identical with it. Attaining the final stage means realizing śivatva and sharing the qualities of Śiva. The mukta is not only omniscient like Śiva but also independent and can assume and discard bodies at will. The muktas are also all-pervasive, but they do not share the power of Śiva to create and to destroy the world. Though they enjoy the same bliss as Śiva, there is only one lord. Śrīkaṇṭha describes the abode of Śiva as a place blazing “like millions of suns” (Śrīkaṇṭhabhāṣya 4.4.22)

Source: Google Books: The Hindu World

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Mukta (मुक्त, “liberated”) refers to one of the two types of jīva (sentients, soul), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.10.—What is meant by pure or liberated (mukta) state? The state which is completely free from kārmika bondage or transmigration is called pure state. Who is a liberated soul? The soul which is free from the eight types of karmas and attains the state of siddha is called pure soul.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

mukta (मुक्त).—p (S) Released, liberated, loosed, freed. 2 Par eminence. Liberated from personal existence and absorbed into the divine substance and universe-basis called brahma. 3 Discharged--a missile or projectile.

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muktā (मुक्ता).—f S A pearl.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukta (मुक्त).—p Released; discharged.

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muktā (मुक्ता).—

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukta (मुक्त).—p. p. [muc-kta]

1) Loosened, relaxed, slackened.

2) Set free, liberated, relaxed.

3) Abandoned, left, given up, set aside, taken off.

4) Thrown, cast, discharged, hurled.

5) Fallen down, dropped down from; विदन्ति मार्गं नखरन्ध्रमुक्तैर्मुक्ताफलैः (vidanti mārgaṃ nakharandhramuktairmuktāphalaiḥ) Ku.1.6.

6) Drooping, unnerved; मुक्तैरवयवैरशयिषि (muktairavayavairaśayiṣi) Dk.

7) Given, bestowed.

8) Sent forth, emitted.

9) Finally saved or emancipated.

1) Ejected, spit out.

11) Deprived.

12) Absolved or emancipated (from sin or worldly existence); see मुच् (muc) also.

13) Opened, blown (as a flower); मुक्तपुष्पावकीर्णेन (muktapuṣpāvakīrṇena) (śobhitā) Rām.5.1.8.

14) Set up, established (pravartita); स दण्डो विधिवन्मुक्तः (sa daṇḍo vidhivanmuktaḥ) Rām.7.79.9.

-ktaḥ One who is finally emancipated from the bonds of worldly existence, one who has renounced all worldly attachments and secured final beatitude, an absolved saint; सुभाषितेन गीतेन युवतीनां च लीलया । मनो न भिद्यते यस्य स वै मुक्तोऽथवा पशुः (subhāṣitena gītena yuvatīnāṃ ca līlayā | mano na bhidyate yasya sa vai mukto'thavā paśuḥ) || Subhāṣ.

-ktam The spirit released from worldly existence.

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Muktā (मुक्ता).—

1) A pearl; हारोऽयं हरिणाक्षीणां लुठति स्तनमण्डले । मुक्तानामप्यवस्थेयं के वयं स्मरकिङ्कराः (hāro'yaṃ hariṇākṣīṇāṃ luṭhati stanamaṇḍale | muktānāmapyavastheyaṃ ke vayaṃ smarakiṅkarāḥ) Amaru.138 (where muktānāṃ means also 'of absolved saints'); Śukra.4.157. (Pearls are said to be produced from various sources, but particularly from oyster-shells :karīndrajīmūtavarāhaśaṅkha- matsyāhiśuktyudbhavaveṇujāni | muktāphalāni prathitāni loke teṣāṃ tu śuktyu- dbhavameva bhūri || Malli.).

2) A harlot, courtezan.

3) Name of a plant (rāsnā).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukta (मुक्त).—mfn.

(-ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) 1. Released, liberated, loosed, let go. 2. Liberated from corporal existence, finally happy. 3. Discharged, loosed, as a weapon; this may be in two ways, as pāṇimukta thrown with the hand, as a dart, etc., and yantramukta thrown from an instrument, as an arrow from a bow, etc. n.

(-ktaṃ) The spirit released from mundane existence, and re-integrated with its divine original. f.

(-ktā) 1. A pearl. 2. A harlot. E. muc to set free, aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Karamukta
Karamukta (करमुक्त).—n. (-ktaṃ) A missile weapon, but thrown by the hand, a dart, javelin, &...
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