Mukta, Muktā: 29 definitions
Mukta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Mukt.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Muktā (मुक्ता) refers to “pearls”. It is used in Ayurvedic literature such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara (Sanskrit book on rasaśāstra, or ‘Indian medicinal alchemy’).Source: PMC: Standardization and quality control parameters for Muktā Bhasma (calcined pearl)
Raw Muktā is chemically calcium carbonate in aragonite form, which after Ayurvedic procedures of calcinations is converted into more stable form of calcite. SEM images clearly show reduced particle size of the Bhasma, which indicates absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system at low doses. It can easily be concluded that Ayurvedic procedures of śodhana and Māraṇa, etc., are ancient techniques of nanoscience as the particles of final product MB comes under the range of 100 nm. Presence of essential micronutrients and permissible limits of heavy metals proves the compound to be safe as well as efficacious for internal administration.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: Exotic India: Nitiprakasika of Vaisampayana (A Critical Edition)
Mukta (मुक्त) are the weapons to be released completely for striking, such as the bow and the arrow. (see Vasiṣṭha-dhanurveda)
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Mukta (मुक्त) refers to a “liberated soul”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.23. Accordingly as Śiva said to Satī:—“[...] O Goddess Satī, listen, I shall explain the great principle whereby the remorseful creature becomes a liberated soul (mukta). O great Goddess, know that the perfect knowledge is the great principle—the consciousness that ‘I am Brahman’ in the perfect intellect where nothing else is remembered”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Mukta (मुक्त).—(Paulaha)—a sage of the epoch of Bhautya Manu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 113.
1b) One released from saṃsāra knows his own self and assumes the shape foreign to the everyday world.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 16. 21-2; 102. 76-7, 105.
2) Muktā (मुक्ता).—A main stream of Śālmalidvīpa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 28.
Mukta (मुक्त) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.52.9) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mukta) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Dhanurveda (science of warfare)Source: Shodhganga: Rajadharma in the Mahabharata (dhanurveda)
Mukta (मुक्त) refers to the first class of weapons, according to the second chapter of the Nītiprakāśikā:—The weapons which can be thrown is called mukta, such as arrows. Twelve arms are included in the Mukta class.
Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Mukta (मुक्त) refers to “pearls”, mentioned in verse 3.52-53 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] when hungry, one shall turn to bitter, sweet, astringent, and light food, [...]; to water [...] devoid of dirt, (and) destructive of dirt [...] (and that is) neither causative of effusions nor rough, (but) nectar-like among the beverages etc.; (and)—beautifully adorned) with sandal, cuscus, camphor, pearls [viz., mukta], garlands, and (fine) clothes— [...]”.
Note: Mukta (“pearl”) has been translated by mu-tig chun (“pearl ornament”), whereas sraj (“garland”) has been paraphrased by ’phyaṅ-(’)phreṅ, which properly means “dangling wreath”. For ’phyaṅ (miscarved ’phyan in P) CD read ’phyaṅs (miscarved ’phyeṅs in C), the perfect participle being, however, less satisfactory in this connection.Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā
Muktā (मुक्ता) (or Yuktā) is a synonym of Rāsnā, which refers to a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—Synonyms of Rāsnā: Rosanā, Vāyasuraī, Atirasā (?)[sic], Elāparṇī, Muktā (Yuktā), Surabhi; Pluchea lanceolata Oliver and Hiern.—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī 337-338, Singh and Chunekar, 1999).—Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) C.B.Clarke.—(Cf. The Plant List, A Working List of All Plant Species, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Mukta (मुक्त) refers to:—A liberated soul. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Mukta (मुक्त) refers to “closed (speaking of a building) § 3.40.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)
Muktā (मुक्ता) refers to “pearls”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult. Accordingly, “O goddess, Svacchanda is in the middle, within the abode of the triangle. Very powerful, he has five faces with three times five flaming eyes. [...] He sits on a great lotus and is adorned with a belt on his hips. He is adorned with small bells and a garland of gems. There are anklets on his feet and they are well adorned with necklaces of pearls [i.e., muktā-mālā-svalaṃkṛta]. He sits on Ananta as a seat and is like heated gold. On Ananta’s seat are seventy billion mantras. He is beautiful, divine, (white) like the stars, snow and the moon.]. [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Google Books: The Hindu World
Mukta (मुक्त):—According to Śrīkaṇṭha, the muktas realize the saviśeṣa body of Śiva, and though they cannot be distinguished from brahman, they are not identical with it. Attaining the final stage means realizing śivatva and sharing the qualities of Śiva. The mukta is not only omniscient like Śiva but also independent and can assume and discard bodies at will. The muktas are also all-pervasive, but they do not share the power of Śiva to create and to destroy the world. Though they enjoy the same bliss as Śiva, there is only one lord. Śrīkaṇṭha describes the abode of Śiva as a place blazing “like millions of suns” (Śrīkaṇṭhabhāṣya 4.4.22)
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
Mukta (मुक्त, “liberated”) refers to one of the two types of jīva (sentients, soul), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.10.—What is meant by pure or liberated (mukta) state? The state which is completely free from kārmika bondage or transmigration is called pure state. Who is a liberated soul? The soul which is free from the eight types of karmas and attains the state of siddha is called pure soul.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Muktā.—(BL), epithet of a grant; a grant; possibly Arabic mukhta. Note: muktā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
mukta (मुक्त).—p (S) Released, liberated, loosed, freed. 2 Par eminence. Liberated from personal existence and absorbed into the divine substance and universe-basis called brahma. 3 Discharged--a missile or projectile.
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muktā (मुक्ता).—f S A pearl.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
mukta (मुक्त).—p Released; discharged.
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Mukta (मुक्त).—p. p. [muc-kta]
1) Loosened, relaxed, slackened.
2) Set free, liberated, relaxed.
3) Abandoned, left, given up, set aside, taken off.
4) Thrown, cast, discharged, hurled.
5) Fallen down, dropped down from; विदन्ति मार्गं नखरन्ध्रमुक्तैर्मुक्ताफलैः (vidanti mārgaṃ nakharandhramuktairmuktāphalaiḥ) Ku.1.6.
6) Drooping, unnerved; मुक्तैरवयवैरशयिषि (muktairavayavairaśayiṣi) Dk.
7) Given, bestowed.
8) Sent forth, emitted.
9) Finally saved or emancipated.
1) Ejected, spit out.
12) Absolved or emancipated (from sin or worldly existence); see मुच् (muc) also.
13) Opened, blown (as a flower); मुक्तपुष्पावकीर्णेन (muktapuṣpāvakīrṇena) (śobhitā) Rām.5.1.8.
14) Set up, established (pravartita); स दण्डो विधिवन्मुक्तः (sa daṇḍo vidhivanmuktaḥ) Rām.7.79.9.
-ktaḥ One who is finally emancipated from the bonds of worldly existence, one who has renounced all worldly attachments and secured final beatitude, an absolved saint; सुभाषितेन गीतेन युवतीनां च लीलया । मनो न भिद्यते यस्य स वै मुक्तोऽथवा पशुः (subhāṣitena gītena yuvatīnāṃ ca līlayā | mano na bhidyate yasya sa vai mukto'thavā paśuḥ) || Subhāṣ.
-ktam The spirit released from worldly existence.
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1) A pearl; हारोऽयं हरिणाक्षीणां लुठति स्तनमण्डले । मुक्तानामप्यवस्थेयं के वयं स्मरकिङ्कराः (hāro'yaṃ hariṇākṣīṇāṃ luṭhati stanamaṇḍale | muktānāmapyavastheyaṃ ke vayaṃ smarakiṅkarāḥ) Amaru.138 (where muktānāṃ means also 'of absolved saints'); Śukra.4.157. (Pearls are said to be produced from various sources, but particularly from oyster-shells :karīndrajīmūtavarāhaśaṅkha- matsyāhiśuktyudbhavaveṇujāni | muktāphalāni prathitāni loke teṣāṃ tu śuktyu- dbhavameva bhūri || Malli.).
2) A harlot, courtezan.
3) Name of a plant (rāsnā).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Mukta (मुक्त).—adj.-ppp. (in Sanskrit used of fruit fallen from its stem), loose, fallen (from its stalk), of a flower: mukta- kusuma Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 103.4 (Burnouf and Kern pearls, as if muktā); the oldest Chinese translation(s) (Dharmarakṣa, dated 286 A.D.) renders loose flowers; mukta-puṣpa Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 31.22; 52.13; 100.11 (Lévi une simple fleur, also wrong).
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Muktā (मुक्ता).—Pearl, name of a daughter of Puṣya (3) of Śrāvastī: Avadāna-śataka ii.36.12 ff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) 1. Released, liberated, loosed, let go. 2. Liberated from corporal existence, finally happy. 3. Discharged, loosed, as a weapon; this may be in two ways, as pāṇimukta thrown with the hand, as a dart, etc., and yantramukta thrown from an instrument, as an arrow from a bow, etc. n.
(-ktaṃ) The spirit released from mundane existence, and re-integrated with its divine original. f.
(-ktā) 1. A pearl. 2. A harlot. E. muc to set free, aff. kta .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Muktā (मुक्ता).— (f. of the ptcple. pf. pass. of muc), f. A pearl, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 153.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mukta (मुक्त).—[adjective] released, freed from, rid of ([ablative] or [instrumental]); loosened, relaxed, fallen off or down; set free, dismissed; relinquished, given up; put off, laid aside, cast away; discharged, shed; thrown, hurled; liberated, emancipated (from sin or worldly existence).
— [feminine] muktā pearl.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mukta (मुक्त):—a muktā, mukti See p.816etc.
2) [from muc] b mfn. loosened, let loose, set free, relaxed, slackened, opened, open, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] liberated, delivered, emancipated ([especially] from sin or worldly existence), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (with [instrumental case] or ifc. = released from, deprived or destitute of; cf. [Pāṇini 2-1, 38])
4) [v.s. ...] fallen or dropped down (as fruit), [Harivaṃśa]
5) [v.s. ...] abandoned, relinquished, quitted, given up, laid aside, deposed, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
6) [v.s. ...] sent forth, emitted, discharged, poured out, hurled, thrown, [ib.]
7) [v.s. ...] left free (as a road), [Meghadūta]
8) [v.s. ...] uttered (as sound), [Mahābhārata]
9) [v.s. ...] shed (as tears), [Pañcatantra]
10) [v.s. ...] let fly, applied (as a kick), [Raghuvaṃśa]
11) [v.s. ...] gone, vanished, disappeared ([especially] [in the beginning of a compound]; cf. below)
12) [v.s. ...] m. Name of one of the 7 sages under Manu Bhautya, [Mahābhārata]
13) [v.s. ...] of a cook, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
14) Muktā (मुक्ता):—[from mukta > muc] a f. (with or [scilicet] dis) the quarter or cardinal point just quitted by the sun, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
15) [v.s. ...] a pearl (as loosened from the pearl-oyster shell), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
16) [v.s. ...] an unchaste woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] a species of plant (= rāsnā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
19) Mukta (मुक्त):—[from muc] n. the spirit released from corporeal existence, [Horace H. Wilson]
20) Muktā (मुक्ता):—[from muc] b f. of mukta, in [compound]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mukta (मुक्त):—[(ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) a.] Relased. f. (ktā) A pearl. n. A relased spirit, one absorbed in the deity.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Mukta (मुक्त) [Also spelled mukt]:—(a) free/freed, independent, released; unfettered; liberated, delivered, emancipated; ~[kaṃṭha se] freely, without any reserve/reservation; enjoying liberty of speech; •[praśaṃsā karanā] to shower unreserved ~केशpraises (upon); ~[keśa] having uncombed / unbraided/dishevelled hair; ~[cakṣu] open-eyed ~[cetā] a free/non-committed thinker; —[chaṃda] free verse; —[jala] free water; ~[tā] salvation; liberation, freedom; deliverance; ~[dvāra] having doors thrown open, ever-ready to welcome; —[pattana] free port; —[vyāpāra] free trade; ~[hasta] liberal, bounteous; —[karanā] to liberate, to free, to cause salvation.
2) Muktā (मुक्ता):—(nf) a pearl; ~[phala] a pearl; ~[klī] a string of pearls.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] released (from the bow, as an arrow).
2) [adjective] released from bondages, restrictions, another’s rule, etc.
3) [adjective] not bound, tied; left free.
4) [adjective] released from worldly attachments, sufferings; free from the cycle of birth, death, rebirth; emancipated.
5) [adjective] in a state which permits access, entrance or exit; not closed, covered, clogged or shut; open.
6) [adjective] free from prejudice or bigotry; not closed to new ideas, etc.; open.
7) [adjective] liberal; generous; not limited.
8) [adjective] free from legal restrictions.
9) [adjective] free from discriminatory restrictions based on race, religion, etc.
10) [adjective] free from vice (as drinking alcoholic liquors, committing robbery, etc.).
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1) [noun] a man, animal, state, etc. who is freed from bondage, another’s control, authority, obligation.
2) [noun] a man who is not bound by the worldly obligations, relations, attachments, etc.
3) [noun] a man whose soul is emancipated.
4) [noun] that which is not closed.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+144): Mukta-uparikara, Muktabamdha, Muktabandhana, Muktabha, Muktabharana, Muktabharanasaptamivrata, Muktabharane, Muktabhasma, Muktabuddhi, Muktacakshus, Muktacarita, Muktacaritra, Muktacetas, Muktachakshus, Muktachamdassu, Muktacharita, Muktachattra, Muktachattrapravatasadrisha, Muktachetas, Muktachhattra.
Ends with (+91): Abdamukta, Abhinirmmukta, Abhinirmukta, Abimukta, Adhimukta, Adimukta, Ahimukta, Akarnamukta, Akshayamukta, Amukta, Anadimukta, Anamukta, Anirmukta, Anunmukta, Apadamukta, Apratimukta, Ardhamukta, Asamayavimukta, Atimukta, Avamtaramukta.
Full-text (+319): Muktahasta, Muktagara, Panimukta, Muktakancuka, Muktabandhana, Muktaphala, Muktavali, Karamukta, Mauktika, Muktasphota, Muktahara, Atimukta, Muktakalapa, Muktakarata, Muktaprasu, Muktabharana, Muktata, Muktavyapara, Muktacakshus, Muktapushpa.
Search found 79 books and stories containing Mukta, Muktā; (plurals include: Muktas, Muktās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 1.2.85 < [Chapter 2 - Divya (the celestial plane)]
Verse 2.4.170 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Verse 2.2.186 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Siddhanta Sangraha of Sri Sailacharya (by E. Sowmya Narayanan)
Parables of Rama (by Swami Rama Tirtha)
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)
Mandukya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
Mantra 3.4 < [Chapter 3 - Third Khanda]
Karika verse 2.2 < [Chapter 2 - Second Khanda]
Mantra 2.1 < [Chapter 2 - Second Khanda]
Kathopanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)