Pinda, Piṇḍā, Piṇḍa: 17 definitions
Pinda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā
Piṇḍā (पिण्डा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Piṇḍa, the seventh seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Piṇḍā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड) is the town associated with Vṛddhanātha, who was one of the twelve princes born to Kuṃkumā, consort to Mīnanātha, who is the incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas. Vṛddhanātha was one of the six princes having the authority to teach.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Piṇḍā (पिण्डा).—Rice balls given on ceremonial occasions to Pitṛs: three to be given; like the calf in search of the cow lost in the stall, mantra takes them to the Pitṛs; to be given in the name of the gotra of the person;1 can be given to cows, Brahmanas, females, crows, hen or thrown into fire or water; the middle Piṇḍa can be eaten by the wife which leads to increase of santānam;2 Piṇḍadānam on the 12th day after death is supposed to be the Pātheyam or food for the way to heaven;3 seven Piṇḍas for seven generations;4 giving of, in the tīrthas of the Narmadā;5 at Gayā with tila.6
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 20. 10-16.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 16. 21, 35, 53-54; Vāyu-purāṇa 71. 10; 75. 25, 36.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 17. 46. 55.
- 4) Ib. 18. 5 and 29.
- 5) Ib. 186. 15. 39; 239. 34.
- 6) Vāyu-purāṇa 105, 12, 33; 108. 15, 21; 110. 23-59.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Manblunder: Garuda Purana series (dharmashastra)
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड).—When a person dies, the maximum number of days of impurity to the deceased’s relative is ten and this period is called aśauca period. Piṇḍa is offered everyday during the first ten days along with water, honey, ghee, sesame seeds, etc. Any rites to ancestors are performed only with sesame seeds. Piṇḍa is a ball of cooked rice. The preta body of dead is formed only on offering piṇḍas.
The entire piṇḍa is not consumed by the preta. A piṇḍa is divided into four parts. One part is offered to the servants of Yama, the god of death. Two portions are used to convert the preta-śarīra into piṇḍa-śarīra and only the last quarter is consumed by the preta. Piṇḍas are also offered on the day of sapiṇḍīkaraṇa. On taking this piṇḍa, the preta-śarīra becomes a pitṛ and can reach the world of ancestors.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (dharma)
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड) refers to a “ball of cooked food”, the offering of which forms part of (the ritual of sacrificing material to the Pitṛs) according to the Dharmaśāstra taught in the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—According to some śrāddha denotes homa, the offering of piṇḍa (ball of cooked food) and gratification of the Brāhmaṇas invited to a dinner.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड, “solid mass”) represents one of the four stages of creation corresponding to the Mūlādhāra-cakra, and is explained in terms of kuṇḍalinī by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka verse 25.62-63.—“(62) The ‘solid mass’ (piṇḍa) is doubtlessly the kuṇḍalinī, equivalent to Śiva; the “position” (pada), on the other hand, is doubtlessly the haṃsaḥ, the inner Self of all. The “form” (rūpa) is doubtlessly the bindu of infinite lustre; the blissful union (sāmarasya) with Śiva is “form transcended” (atītarūpa). (63) Those who are good speak of the union with the piṇḍa and the others, through blissful union [with Śiva], as the [type of] union that produces a seed (sabījayoga). The dissolution into Śiva, who is endowed with the quality of being eternal, [they call] the [type of] union that produces no seed (nirbījayoga), [that is, the type] which is indifferent to rewards”.
Note: The terms piṇḍa, pada, rūpa and rūpātīta refer to four stages of creation. These four are also said to correspond to four Cakras: piṇḍa to mūlādhāra, pada to anāhata, rūpa to ājñā and rūpātīta to sahasrāra.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड) is a Sanskrit word referring to an offering made to departed ancestors.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
(Food offered to the bhikkhus).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
piṇḍa : (m.) a lump; a lump of food.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Piṇḍa, (cp. Vedic piṇḍa; probably connected with piṣ i.e. crush, grind, make into a lump; Grassmann compares pīḍ to press; on other attempts at etym. see Walde, Lat. Wtb. s. v. puls) 1. a lump, ball, thick (& round) mass S. I, 206 (aṭṭhīyaka°); Pv III, 55 (nonīta°); VvA. 62 (kummāsa°), 65; Sdhp. 529 (ayo°).—2. a lump of food, esp. of alms, alms given as food S. I, 76; Sn. 217, 388, 391; J. I, 7 (nibbuta° cooled); Miln. 243 (para °ṃ ajjhupagata living on food given by others). piṇḍāya (Dat.) for alms, frequent in combn with carati, paṭikkamati, (gāmaṃ) pavisati, e.g. Vin. II, 195; III, 15; M. III, 157; Sn. 386; SnA 141, 175; PvA. 12, 13, 16, 47, 81, 136 and passim.—3. a conglomeration, accumulation, compressed form, heap, in akkhara° sequence of letters or syllables, context DhA. IV, 70.—attha condensed meaning, résumé J. I, 233, 275, 306; KhA 124, 192. Cp. sampiṇḍanattha.—ukkhepakaṃ in the manner of taking up lumps (of food), a forbidden way of eating Vin. II, 214=IV. 195, cp. Vin. Texts I. 64 (=piṇḍaṃ piṇḍaṃ ukkhipitvā C.).—gaṇanā counting in a lump, summing up DA. I, 95.—cāra alms-round, wandering for alms Sn. 414.—cārika one who goes for alms, begging Vin. II, 215; III, 34, 80; IV, 79; J. I, 116; VvA. 6.—dāyika (& °dāvika) one who deals out food (as occupation of a certain class of soldiers) D. I, 51 (°dāvika); A. IV, 107 (v. l. °dāyaka); Miln. 331; cp. DA. I, 156. See also Geiger, P. Gr. 46, 1; Rh. D. Dial. I. 68 (trsl. “camp-follower”); Franke, Dīgha trsl. 531 trsl. “Vorkämpfer” but recommends trsl. “Klossverteiler” as well).—dhītalikā a doll made of a lump of dough, or of pastry PvA. 17; cp. piṭṭha°.—paṭipiṇḍa (kamma) giving lump after lump, alms for alms, i.e. reciprocatory begging J. II, 82 (piṇḍa-paṭipiṇḍena jīvikaṃ kappesuṃ), 307 (piṇḍapāta-paṭipiṇḍena jīvikaṃ kappenti); V, 390 (mayaṃ piṇḍa-paṭipiṇḍa-kammaṃ na karoma).—pāta food received in the alms-bowl (of the bhikkhu), alms-gathering (on term see Vism. 31 yo hi koci āhāro bhikkhuno piṇḍolyena patte patitattā piṇḍapāto ti vuccati, and cp. BSk. piṇḍapāta-praviṣṭha AvŚ I. 359; piṇḍapāta-nirhāraka Divy 239) Vin. I, 46; II, 32 (°ṃ nīharāpeti), 77, 198, 223; III, 80, 99; IV, 66 sq. , 77; M. III, 297; S. I, 76, 92; A. I, 240; II, 27, 143; III, 109, 145 sq.; V, 100; Sn. 339; J. I, 7, 149, 212, 233; Pug. 59; Vism. 31, 60; VbhA. 279 (°âpacāyana); SnA 374; PvA. 11 sq. , 16, 38, 240.—pātika one who eats only food received in the alms-bowl; °aṅga is one of the dhutaṅga ordinances (see dhutaṅga) Vin. I, 253; II, 32 (°aṅga), 299 (+paṃsukūlika); III, 15 (id.); M. I, 30; III, 41; A. III, 391; Pug. 59, 69; SnA 57 (°dhutaṅga).—piṇḍapātika bhikkhu a bh. on his alms-round Vism. 246 (in simile); VbhA. 229 (id.). Cp. BSk. piṇḍapātika AvŚ I. 248.—pātikatta (abstr. to prec.) the state of eating alms-food, a characteristic of the Buddhist bhikkhu M. III, 41; S. II, 202, 208 sq.; A. I, 38; III, 109. (Page 458)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
piṇḍa (पिंड).—m (S) A lump, heap, cluster, a quantity or collection. 2 An oblation to deceased ancestors,--a ball or lump (of rice &c. mixed up with milk, curds, flowers) offered to the manes, at a Shraddh, by the nearest surviving relation. 3 The body. 4 A ball or globe, any globose body, a gland &c. 5 In geometry. The dimension of thickness. 6 The fœtus in an early stage of gestation, the embryo. 7 A sum in arithmetic.
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piṇḍā (पिंडा).—m (piṇḍa) A ball of thread.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
piṇḍa (पिंड).—m A lump. An oblation to deceased ancestors. The body. The embryo. piṇḍāsa basaṇēṃ-lāgaṇēṃ-khiḷaṇēṃ-jaḍaṇēṃ To stick closely to; to follow to the death. piṇḍī tē bramhāṇḍī Whatever is in the body is in the universe at large; man is a microcosm.
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piṇḍā (पिंडा).—m A ball of thread.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड).—a. (-ṇḍī f.) [पिण्ड्-अच् (piṇḍ-ac)]
1) Solid (ghana).
2) Compact, dense, close.
-ṇḍaḥ, -ṇḍam 1 A round mass, ball, globe; as in अयःपिण्डः, नेत्रपिण्डः (ayaḥpiṇḍaḥ, netrapiṇḍaḥ) &c.
2) A lump, clod (of earth &c.).
3) A round lump of food, morsel, mouthful; स न्यस्तशस्त्रो हरये स्वदेहमुपानयत् पिण्डमिवामिषस्य (sa nyastaśastro haraye svadehamupānayat piṇḍamivāmiṣasya) R. 2.59.
4) A ball or lump of rice offered to the Manes at obsequial ceremonies or Śrāddhas; नूनं मत्तः परं वंश्याः पिण्डविच्छेददर्शिनः । न प्रकामभुजः श्राद्धे स्वधासंग्रहतत्पराः (nūnaṃ mattaḥ paraṃ vaṃśyāḥ piṇḍavicchedadarśinaḥ | na prakāmabhujaḥ śrāddhe svadhāsaṃgrahatatparāḥ) | R.1.66; 8.26; Ms.3.216;9.132,136,14; Y.1.159.
5) Food in general; सफलीकृतभर्तृपिण्डः (saphalīkṛtabhartṛpiṇḍaḥ) M.5. 'who was true to his master's salt'.
6) Livelihood, sustenance, subsistence; पिण्डार्थमायस्यतः (piṇḍārthamāyasyataḥ) Mu.3.14.
7) Alms; पिण्डपातवेला (piṇḍapātavelā) Māl.2.
8) Flesh, meat.
9) The fœtus or embryo in an early stage of gestation.
1) The body, corporeal frame; एकान्तविध्वंसिषु मद्विधानां पिण्डेष्वनास्था खलु भौतिकेषु (ekāntavidhvaṃsiṣu madvidhānāṃ piṇḍeṣvanāsthā khalu bhautikeṣu) R.2.57.
11) A heap, collection, multitude.
12) The calf of the leg; Māl.5.16.
13) A round button.
14) Anything round, thick, gross or solid.
15) An object in general.
16) A particular part of a house.
17) (In astr.) A sine expressed in numbers.
18) The twenty-fourth part of the quadrant of a circle.
19) The frontal sinus of an elephant or its projection.
2) A portico or shed in front of the door.
21) Incense, frank-incense.
22) (In arith.) Sum, total, amount.
23) (In geom.) Thickness.
24) The flower of a China rose.
-ṇḍam 1 Power, strength, might.
3) Fresh butter.
4) An army.
5) Water; L. D. B.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍaṃ) A lump, a heap, a cluster, a quantity or collection. mf. (-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī) An oblation to deceased ancestors as a ball or lump of meat, or rice, mixed up with milk, curds, flowers, &c. and offered to the manes at the several Shradd'has. by the nearest surviving relations. m.
(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. A ball, a globe. 2. A mouthful, or roundish lump of food, considered as equivalent to a mouthful. 3. Presenting water or cake to a deceased relation. 4. The body. 5. The side immediately below the armpit. 6. A part of a house; a sort of portico or shed, in front of the door. 7. Coarse, gross, thick, solid. 8. Strength, power. 9. Myrrh. 10. Franki- ncense. 11. The China rose. 12. Food. 13. Flesh, meat. 14. The projection of an elephant’s frontal sinus. 15. The embryo or fetus in an early stage of gestation. 16. A sum, (in arithmetic.) 17. Thickness, (In geometry.) 18. (In astronomy,) The twenty-fourth part of the quadrant of a circle, or 30-45’. n.
(-ṇḍaṃ) 1. Livelihood, means, means of living. 2. Iron. 3. Fresh butter. 4. Power, strength. 5. An army. f. (-ṇḍī) 1. A long gourd, (Cucurbita lagenaria.) 2. A sort of palm, (Phœnix dactylifera.) 3. A flowering shrub, (Tabernæmontana coronaria flor. plen.) 4. Performance of certain gesticulations, accompanying the silent repetition of prayers, &c. in meditation on real or divine knowledge. 5. The nave of a wheel. 6. A house. 7. Solid, compact, close. 8. The calf of the leg. 9. A round mass. E. piḍi to heap, to gather, to collect, &c. aff. ac fem. aff. ṅīp .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड).—probably akin to piṣ, I. m., f. ḍī, and n. 1. A lump, [Pañcatantra] 136, 2; a heap, a cluster, a quantity, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 4, 81. 2. A ball, a globe, a little button, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 26, 19. Ii. m. n. 1. A mouthful, or roundish lump of food, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 216. 2. Food. 3. Livelihood, means of living, Mahābhārata 1, 4148. 4. Alms, [Daśakumāracarita] in
Piṇḍa (पिण्ड).—[masculine] [neuter] (piṇḍī [feminine]) a round mass, lump, globe, ball, knob, clod; [especially] a cake of meal offered to the Manes, also i.[grammar] a mouthful or lump of bread, victuals, subsistence.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Piṇḍa (पिण्ड):—[from piṇḍ] m. (rarely n.) any round or roundish mass or heap, a ball, globe, knob, button, clod, lump, piece (cf. ayaḥ-., māṃsaetc.), [Ṛg-veda] (only [i, 162, 19] and here applied to lumps of flesh), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] a roundish lump of food, a bite, morsel, mouthful
3) [v.s. ...] ([especially]) a ball of rice or flour etc. offered to the Pitṛs or deceased ancestors, a Śrāddha oblation ([Religious Thought and Life in India 293; 298-310]), [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] food, daily bread, livelihood, subsistence, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] any solid mass or material object, the body, bodily frame, [Raghuvaṃśa; Śaṃkarācārya; Vajracchedikā]
6) [v.s. ...] the calf of the leg, [Mālatīmādhava v, 16]
7) [v.s. ...] the flower of a China rose, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] a portico or [particular] part of a house, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] power, force, an army, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] m. ([dual number]) the fleshy parts of the shoulder situated above the collar-bone, [Mahābhārata]
11) [v.s. ...] ([dual number]) the two projections of an elephant’s frontal sinus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] the embryo in an early stage of gestation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] a [particular] kind of incense, [Varāha-mihira] (‘myrrh’ or ‘olibanum’ [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])
14) [v.s. ...] meat, flesh, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] alms, [Mālatīmādhava] (cf. -pāta below)
16) [v.s. ...] Vangueriya Spinosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] quantity, collection, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) sum, total amount
19) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) a sine expressed in numbers
20) [v.s. ...] (in music) a sound, tone
21) [v.s. ...] Name of a man [gana] naḍādi
22) [v.s. ...] n. ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) iron
23) [v.s. ...] steel
24) [v.s. ...] fresh butter
25) Piṇḍā (पिण्डा):—[from piṇḍa > piṇḍ] f. a kind of musk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+98): Pinda-kara, Pindabhaj, Pindabhaktva, Pindabhanjanashanti, Pindabhra, Pindabhriti, Pindabija, Pindabijaka, Pindabrahmandaracana, Pindacara, Pindacarika, Pindacharika, Pindada, Pindadana, Pindadatri, Pindadayaka, Pindagosa, Pindagra, Pindaguduchika, Pindaguducika.
Ends with (+61): Aggapinda, Akkharapinda, Annaca Pinda, Apinda, Asapinda, Ashrupinda, Aukapinda, Ayahpinda, Bahitpinda, Bhakarica Pinda, Bhataca Pinda, Cunnapinda, Dadhipinda, Dashapinda, Dharmapinda, Dyupinda, Ekapinda, Gandapinda, Haripinda, Hastipinda.
Full-text (+280): Pindadana, Rajapinda, Pindada, Pindapata, Svadupinda, Sapindata, Pindagosa, Pindasveda, Pindataila, Pindasharkara, Pindayasa, Pindin, Paindinya, Pretashila, Preta, Hritpinda, Pindabhra, Pindalopa, Sapinda, Pindasa.
Search found 60 books and stories containing Pinda, Piṇḍā, Piṇḍa; (plurals include: Pindas, Piṇḍās, Piṇḍas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Narayaniya (Narayaneeyam) (by Vishwa Adluri)
Gobhila-grihya-sutra (by Hermann Oldenberg)
Paraskara-grihya-sutra (by Hermann Oldenberg)
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 12 - Rules regarding Śrāddha rituals and the five Mahāyajñas < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 11 - Offering rice-cake (piṇḍa) to the Manes (Pitāmahas) < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 20 - Seven classes of Pitṛs and the rites of propitiating them < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 9.142 < [Section XVIII - Adoption]
Verse 3.253 < [Section XV - Procedure after Feeding]
Verse 5.138 < [Section XIII - Purification of Substances]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 137 - Vikīrṇatīrtha and Śvetodbhava < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
Chapter 10 - The Greatness of Pitṛs < [Section 1 - Sṛṣṭi-khaṇḍa (section on creation)]
Chapter 9 - General Rules of Śrāddha Performance < [Section 1 - Sṛṣṭi-khaṇḍa (section on creation)]