Vishaya, Viṣaya, Visaya, Viśaya, Viśāya: 45 definitions
- In Hinduism
- In Buddhism
- In Jainism
- India history
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Vishaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Viṣaya and Viśaya and Viśāya can be transliterated into English as Visaya or Vishaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Viṣaya (विसय).—The object of worship; an object of material sense gratification.Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to:—Object; an object of the senses; an object of affection, concern, or attention; sensual enjoyment; matter; the person who is the object of love; one of the three components of vibhāva. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to “kingdom”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.11.—Accordingly, as Himācala (i.e., Himālaya) said to Śiva: “O great lord of the universe, I have come myself and worshipped you. What shall I ask you who stay in my own kingdom [i.e., viṣaya]? O great lord, you cannot be attained by great penance even by the gods who put forth great efforts. But you yourself have come here. There is none more fortunate than me; there is none more meritorious than me, since you have come to perform penance on my summit. [...]”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review
Viṣaya (विषय, “object”).—So far as Gauḍapāda and Māṭhara’s interpretations of Sāṃkhyakārikā 11 are concerned, viṣaya stands for object of enjoyment (bhogya), but for Vācaspati, viṣaya is the object of knowledge (bhogya); whereas in Yuktidīpikā of the concerned kārikā is missing.
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Viṣaya (विषय).—Domain; province; cf. प्रकल्प्य चापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते । (prakalpya cāpavādaviṣayaṃ tata utsargobhiniviśate |) Par. Śek. Pari. 63.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Viṣaya (विषय) is a synonym for Deśa (“region”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands [viz., Viṣaya], soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to “worldly objects”, as mentioned in verse 4.35 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] (by) always keeping to wholesome nourishment and deportment, acting upon mature consideration, being indifferent [viz., asakta] to worldly objects [viz., viṣaya], generous, balanced, intent on truth, (and) full of patience, and keeping to the great: one becomes free from disease”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Viṣaya (विषय, “district”) refers to “(that region possessing seven) districts” (referring to Kāmarūpa), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] Then he (i.e., Siddhanātha) became (a god with a) divine body and went along with the goddess to the very holy (mahāpuṇya) place (where they were to enjoy love) games. Adorned with the sea and other (such beautiful sites) and possessing seven districts (viṣaya), it was called the venerable Kāmākhya. It is the venerable (land of) Kāmarūpa where (the god of) Love (Kāma) himself resides and is supremely beautiful. Thus, (my) descent (into the world) takes place there in (that) land along with you. [...]”.
2) Viṣaya (विषय) refers to the “objects of sense”, according to the Jñānanetra’s Yonigahvaratantra (which was traditionally said to be ‘brought down to earth’).—Accordingly, “I bow to Kālī, the Supreme who illumines (all things) with her own Light; to her who is the Light that arises from the Void (within which) burns the Fire of (universal) Destruction; (I bow to her who is) established in the centre of the (reality that) contains the three paths of Moon, Sun and Fire and whose state is one in which consciousness, the object of thought, the mind, the objects of sense [i.e., viṣaya] and the senses have dissolved away”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (nyaya)
Viṣaya (विषय) or Jñānaviṣaya (Cf. Jayantabhaṭṭa) refers to the “object (of knowledge)”, according to Jayanta Bhaṭṭa (ninth–tenth century), the great Naiyāyika from Kashmir, who was a close reader of Kumārila’s work.—In the [Nyāyamañjarī], Jayanta presents another, more inclusivist position according to which all religious scriptures are equally valid (sarvāgamaprāmāṇya). The imagined proponent of this view compares, in a way akin to neo-Hindus, the many means (abhyupāya) taught by the various distinct āgamas to the streams (pravāha) of the Ganges that flow into the same ocean. Although they differ in terms of their object of knowledge (jñāna-viṣaya), all āgamas converge upon the same summum bonum (upeya) taught in all śāstras―final liberation (apavarga)―and also agree that knowledge is the only means (upāya) to achieve this goal.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to the “object (upon which human activity may be exerted)” [?], according to the Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.8-9.—Accordingly, “[...] And this mere [realization that the object is something separated from the subject] is not enough to transform this object into something on which [human] activity may be exerted (pravṛtti-viṣaya); therefore [this object] is [also] made manifest as having a specific place and time, because only a particular having a specific place and time can be something on which [human] activity may be exerted, since [only such a particular] can be obtained and since [only such a particular] may have the efficacy that [we] expect [from it]. [...]”.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to the “pleasures of the senses”, according to the Mālinīvijayottaratantra, chapter 18 (“appropriate conduct of the accomplished Yogin”) verses 18.74-81 (as quoted in the Tantrāloka verse 4.213-221ab).—Accordingly, “[...] Absolutely everything is performed here [according to the rules of the Mālinīvijayottara], and, contrariwise, omitted. Yet, this (alone) is necessarily enjoined here [in the Mālinīvijayottara], O Goddess, that the wholly pleased Yogin must fix his consciousness [cetas] on reality; and he should therefore act only in accordance with that [reality (tattva)], whatever that may be for him. Moreover, the one whose consciousness [citta] is fixed on reality, partaking even in the pleasures of the senses [viṣaya], is not touched by bad consequences, just as the petal of a lotus (is not affected) by water. [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to the “objects (of the senses)”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.88-90.—Accordingly: “The wise say that death is the natural state of embodied creatures and life is a change in that state. If a being remains breathing even for a moment it is surely fortunate. The foolish man regards the loss of his dear one as a dart shot into his heart. Another man looks on the same as a dart that has been pulled out, for it is a door to beatitude. When we are taught that our own body and soul unite and then separate, tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects (bāhya-viṣaya—bāhyairviṣayaiḥ) of the senses?”.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to a “district”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “A ruler who is a Universal Sovereign is entitled to the first, a Provincial Governor to the second and a District Governor (viṣaya-īśvara) to the third [level of] Creative Energy. [To the same are entitled] a chief minister or a twice-born, provided he is in charge of the protection of many people. No single man is entitled to [deploy] Her for [just] another man”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics
Viṣaya (विषय) represents the number 5 (five) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 5—viṣaya] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.
Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
The Visayas or the Visayan Islands, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea. Its inhabitants are predominantly the Visayan people.
The term Visayas was derived from the name of the 7th-century thalassocratic empire of Śrīvijaya in Sumatra. In Sanskrit, śrī means “fortunate,” “prosperous,” or “happy” and vijaya means “victorious” or “excellent”. The archipelagoes of Visayas and Sulu were once Hindu-Buddhist and were either subject states or tributaries of the empire.
Buddhist philosophySource: Google Books: The Treasury of Knowledge: Book six, parts one and two (philosophy)
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to “objects” (i.e., ‘that which is to be comprehended or known’).—Accordingly, “That which is to be understood through valid cognition is ‘the knowable’. The terms ‘object’ (viṣaya; yul), ‘knowable’ (jñeya; shes bya), and ‘appraisable’ (prameya; gzhal bya) are all essentially equivalent, but it is the defining characteristic of the ‘object’ that it is to be comprehended or known, it is the defining characteristic of the ‘knowable’ that it can be objectified by the intellect, and it is the defining characteristic of the ‘appraisable’ that it is to be understood through valid cognition.”.
When objects (viṣaya) are analyzed in terms of their essential nature, they may be:
- “substantial objects” (vastu; dngos po) are causally effective (arthakriyākāraṇa; don byed nus pa);
- “insubstantial objects” (avastu; dngos med) are not causally effective, like space, for example;
- “compounded objects” (saṃskṛta; ’dus byas) can be produced from their own primary causes and secondary conditions;
- “uncompounded objects” (asaṃskṛta; ’dus ma byas) cannot be produced from their own primary causes and secondary conditions;
- “permanent objects” (nitya; rtag pa) are imperishable phenomena; and
- “impermanent objects” (anitya; mi rtag pa) do not endure from the moment of their formation into a second moment.
When objects (viṣaya) are analyzed in terms of their different functionalities as objects (yul du byed tshul), they fall into three distinct categories, namely,
- apparent (snang yul) or apprehended objects (grāhyaka-viṣaya—bzung yul),
- conceived objects (adhyavasāya-viṣaya—zhen yul), and
- applied or engaged objects (pravṛtti-viṣaya—’jug yul).
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to the “(engaged) object (of one’s action)”.—The notion that conceptual cognitions are necessarily mistaken—even when they are epistemically reliable—reflects an overall suspicion of conceptuality that characterizes Indian Buddhism from its earliest days, but the technical account in part 1 draws especially on Dharmakīrti and other Buddhist epistemologists. For these theorists, conceptual cognitions are always mistaken in two ways. First, the object that appears phenomenally in my awareness, known as the conceptual “image” (pratibimba) of the object, is taken to be identical to the functional thing that I seek to act upon as the engaged object (pravṛtti-viṣaya) of my action. In other words, the phenomenally presented object “fire” in my conceptual cognition does not have the causal properties of an actual fire—the thought of a fire cannot burn wood. Yet our cognitive system creates a fusion (ekīkaraṇa) of this phenomenal appearance with the engaged object to which the conceptual image of “fire” refers.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to the “realm” (of five eyes), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, in the buddha-field of the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, there is a Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja who is resplendent by the splendor of merit (puṇya-tejas), [...] who enters the intention of thought of all living beings as adorned with knowledge (jñāna), penetrates the roots of good of all living beings as adorned with consciousness (buddhi-alaṃkṛta), is purified in the realm of five eyes (pañcacakṣus-viṣaya-suviśuddha) adorned with the [divine] sight (cakṣus), [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Google Books: Dignaga’s Investigation of the Percept
Viṣaya (विषय).—Derived from the Sanskrit root viṣ, meaning “to act, to do, perform,” it can refer to a region or domain. In Buddhist epistemology, it often denotes the range of the senses and their objects. It can also mean something with which one is engaged, an object of concertn or attention. In epistemology, this can be anything that is noticed or cognized, and like ālambana it does not imply a judgement regarding its ontological status.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: academia.edu: The epoch of the Mahavira-nirvana
Vishaya dynasty according to Harivamsa Purana and Tiloyapannati.—Starting from the epoch of Mahavira nirvana (1189 BCE), Palaka ruled for 60 years, Vishaya kings for 150 years, Murundas for 40 years, Pushpamitra for 30 years, Vasumitra & Agnimitra for 60 years, Gandhavvaya or Rasabha kings for 100 years, Naravahana for 40 years, Bhattubanas for 242 years and Guptas for 231 years.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra
Viṣaya (विषय, “object”).—What is the meaning of ‘nature of the objects identified’ (viṣaya)? The objects of thoughts in the mind of others which the owner of mental-modes knowledge wishes to cognize are its subjects. according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.25, “Telepathy (manaḥparyaya) and clairvoyance (avadhi) differ with regard to purity (viśuddhi), spatial-range, and species of the knower and the nature of the objects (viṣaya) identified by them”.Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to “sense objects”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The mind which is inflamed by the fire of passion [and] disordered by sense objects (viṣaya) accumulates karma which shows a connection with life. Speech which is based on truth, freed from all [worldly] concern [and] supported by knowledge of the [Jain] scriptures, is to be considered to produce good influx of karma”.
Synonyms: Hṛṣīka, Akṣa, Indriya.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). According to Monier Williams viṣaya means a dominion, kingdom, territory, region, district, country, or abode and in plural it meant lands or possessions. In the Aṣṭādhyāyī viṣaya denotes regions or provinces, called after their inhabitants, e.g. Śaiba, the region of the Śibis; Mālavaka, the region of the Mālava people; Rājanyaka, of the Rājanya tribe and so forth.
Kātayāyana and Patañjali interpret viṣaya as being identical with janapada in some cases, but their comments give the impression that even such geographical units as were not a janapada were called viṣaya. A viṣaya denoted both a bigger unit having the status of a janapada, and a smaller area which was but an estate. If viṣaya and janapada had been identical, Pāṇini would not have treated the former under a separate heading. In the post-Pāṇinian period, distinction between janapada and viṣaya was lost, both being called by the same names.
The viṣaya usually corresponded with the district of the modern administration. Minor bhuktis, maṇḍalas and the viṣayas were used to denote the same administrative division in many cases. The district administration was well organised in the Gupta period. Some of the land-grant charters bear the seals of the district administration. Sealings of the district administration of Rājagṛha and Gayā have been found at Nālandā, showing that their correspondence to outsiders bore the impress of their official seals.Source: Early History Of The Deccan Pts.1 To 6: Principal Administrative Divisions from the Rise of the Sātavāhanas
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to an “administrative designation”.—Viṣaya is the most common administrative unit in the Deccan from the fourth century a.d. to the tenth century. The antiquity of the term is carried back to the third century B.C. In the Sārnāth Pillar Edict of Aśoka we have reference to the kota-viṣava (Koṭṭa-viṣaya), “district round a fort”. The designation did not find much favour with the Sātavāhanas, the Ikṣhvākus, the Bṛhatphalāyanas, and the early Pallavas, but was popular with the Śālaṅkāyanas, Kadambas, and succeeding dynasties. In the time of the Chālukyas of Vātāpi and Veṅgī, and the Rāṣṭrakūṭas of Mānyakheṭa, three designations largely held the field—deśa, maṇḍala, and viṣaya. The term viṣaya occurs most frequently.Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
Viṣaya is the name of a division of deśa (administrative unit) under the rule of the Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1029 A.D.).—The deśas were divided into viṣayas in North and south Koṅkaṇ. Several viṣayas are mentioned in the records of the Śilāhāras. As very few Śilāhāra records from South Koṅkaṇ have been found, only few viṣayas from that region are Known. Deśas, viṣaya and khollas are sometimes named together with the numbers of the villages comprised in them. The viṣayas and khollas comprised nagaras or towns, and grāmas or villages. Very few towns in the kingdoms of the Śilāhāras find mention in their inscriptions.Source: Shodhganga: A study of place names of Nalgonda district
Vishaya is one of the terms designating an ‘administrative division’ used in the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh.—This term is used to denote an administrative division of a State, governed by an official called Vishayapati. The extent of a vishaya was not always uniform. Sometimes the term meant the whole country (Arthasastra). In some cases a vishaya was included in a mandala and in some cases a mandala was included in a vishaya, while in certain places both the terms were used as synonymous.
Vishaya as an administrative unit was one of the early and most widely used appellations all over the country, especially in the North. In Andhra Pradesh the vishaya appellation was used right from the time of the Vishnukundis. Guddavadi-vishaya is the earliest occurrence at the time of the Vishnukundi king Madhavavarman-III. The same vishaya continued to function as a unit under the Eastern Chalukyas and the Chalukya Cholas. From the time of the Vishnukundis all the ruling families of Andhra Pradesh had employed this appellation.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Viṣaya.—(EI 8-4), a district; often a kingdom or terri- tory; sometimes a viṣaya was included in a maṇḍala; but, in some cases, a maṇḍala was included in a viṣaya; at times maṇḍala and viṣaya were synonymous. (IE 8-5; EI 30; CII 3, 4; BL; SITI), a district; cf. viṣaya-suṅka (EI 24), the tax of a district; Viṣaya-vyavahārin, officer in the service of a district. (ASLV), same as nirvṛtti or koṭṭam; an administrative division. (IE 8-4; CII 4), sometimes used in a wider sense to indi- cate ‘a country’. (IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: viṣaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Visaya.—(CITD), same as Telugu visā, visāmu. Note: visaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
visaya : (m.) locality; region; sphere; object; scope; sensual pleasure; footing.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Visaya, (cp. Sk. viśaya, fr. vi+śī) 1. locality, spot, region; world, realm, province, neighbourhood Sn. 977. Often in foll. combinations: petti° (or pitti°) and pettika (a) the world of the manes or petas M. I, 73; S. III, 224; V, 342, 356 sq.; A. I, 37, 267; II, 126 sq.; III, 211, 339, 414 sq.; IV, 405 sq.; V, 182 sq.; Pv. II, 22; II, 79; J. I, 51; PvA. 25 sq. 59 sq. 214. (b) the way of the fathers, native or proper beat or range D. III, 58; S. V, 146 sq.; A. III, 67; J. II, 59. Yama° the realm of Yama or the Dead Pv. II, 82 (=petaloka PvA. 107).—2. reach, sphere (of the senses), range, scope; object, characteristic, attribute (cp. Cpd. 143 n. 2) S. V, 218 (gocara°); Nett 23 (iddhi°); Miln. 186, 215, 316; Vism. 216 (visayī-bhūta), 570=VbhA. 182 (mahā° & appa°); KhA 17; SnA 22, 154 (buddha°), 228 (id.); PvA. 72, 89.—avisaya not forming an object, a wrong object, indefinable A. V, 50; J. V, 117 (so read for °ara); PvA. 122, 197.—3. object of sense, sensual pleasure SnA 100. (Page 639)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
viṣaya (विषय).—m (S) An object of sense or the mind; anything apprehensible or cognizable by the senses, the mind, or other principle of percipience. Ex. of comp. viṣayabhōga, viṣayatyāga, viṣayāsakti, viṣayābhiruci, viṣaya-sēvā, -sēvana, -prīti, -tiraskāra, -sambandha, -kathana, -nindā, -jñāna, -sukha, -duḥkha. 2 The object or subject of the action or operation of; the object of any passion, affection, or sentiment; the department, province, field, sphere, element, seat of the conversancy, exercise, or being (of any agent, instrument, faculty, power). Ex. śarīra jōṃ rōgaviṣaya jhālēṃ nāhīṃ tōṃ pathyāpathyavicāra hī tumhāsa maskarīśī vāṭatī; kāmācā vi0 strī; mōhācā vi0 putra; lōbhācā vi0 vitta; krōdhācā vi0; harṣācā vi0; daṇḍācā vi0. In this sense are many valuable compounds; as vivādaviṣaya, vyākhyāṣaya, gāyanaviṣaya, lēkhanaviṣaya, gamanaviṣaya, vicāraviṣaya, dharmaviṣaya, jñātiviṣaya, hāsyaviṣaya, kāma- viṣaya, saṅkalpaviṣaya, vidhiviṣaya, niṣēdhaviṣaya. 3 The office, function, peculiar or proper business of. Ex. bōlaṇēṃ hā vāgindriyācā vi0; māmalata karaṇēṃ hā bhikṣukācā vi0 navhē; raphū karaṇēṃ tara bārīka suī ghyā hā dābhaṇācā vi0 navhē. 4 Object, aim, the point or matter attempted or contemplated. Ex. tumhī jō hā udyōga karitāṃ hyācā vi0 kōṇa? 5 A subject, topic, general head, particular branch, class, division. Ex. śabdasādhanarūpaviṣaya jyānta asatō tyālā vyākaraṇa mhaṇāvēṃ. 6 Goods or things considered as identical with or convertible into money, matter, moneysworth. Ex. bhaṭajī bāvāṃsa kēvaḷa rōkha śambhara rupayē pōhañcata nāhīnta parantu sārē varṣānta śambhara rupayāñcā vi0 pōṃhacatō Old bhaṭajī does not indeed get a hundred rupees down on the nail, but, in the course of the year, he makes the matter of it Sir. viṣayāntarasañcārarahita Exempt from the intrusion of any other object or matter;--used of the mind, the attention &c.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
viṣaya (विषय).—m An object of sense or the mind. The office or function of; object. A subject. Goods or things. The object of any passion. Affection.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Doubt, uncertainty, the second of the five members of an Adhikaraṇa, q. v.; मुञ्चन्ति गुर्वशुचिता- विशयेन किं न चक्राङ्कवैष्णवमनुग्रहणादि सर्वम् (muñcanti gurvaśucitā- viśayena kiṃ na cakrāṅkavaiṣṇavamanugrahaṇādi sarvam) Viś. Guṇa.368.
2) Refuge, asylum.
Derivable forms: viśayaḥ (विशयः).
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Viśāya (विशाय).—Sleeping in rotation, the rest enjoyed in rotation by the sentinels on watch.
Derivable forms: viśāyaḥ (विशायः).
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Viṣaya (विषय).—1 An object of sense; (these are five, corresponding to the five organs of sense; rūpa, rasa, gandha, sparśa and śabda corresponding to the eye, tongue, nose, skin, and ear); श्रुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वम् (śrutiviṣayaguṇā yā sthitā vyāpya viśvam) Ś.1.1.
2) A worldly object or concern, an affair, a transaction.
3) The pleasures of sense, worldly or sensual objects (usually in pl.); यौवने विषयैषिणाम् (yauvane viṣayaiṣiṇām) R.1.8; शब्दादीन् विषयान् भोक्तुम् (śabdādīn viṣayān bhoktum) 1.25; विषयव्यावृत्तकौतूहलः (viṣayavyāvṛttakautūhalaḥ) V.1.9; निर्विष्टविषयस्नेहः (nirviṣṭaviṣayasnehaḥ) 12.1;3.7;8.1;19.49; विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः (viṣayā vinivartante nirāhārasya dehinaḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.59.
4) An object, a thing, matter; नार्यो न जग्मुर्विषयान्तराणि (nāryo na jagmurviṣayāntarāṇi) R.7.12;8.89.
5) An object or thing aimed at, mark, object; भूयिष्ठ- मन्यविषया न तु दृष्टिरस्याः (bhūyiṣṭha- manyaviṣayā na tu dṛṣṭirasyāḥ) Ś.1.3; Śiśupālavadha 9.4.
6) Scope, range, reach, compass; सौमित्रेरपि पत्रिणामविषये तत्र प्रिये क्वासि भोः (saumitrerapi patriṇāmaviṣaye tatra priye kvāsi bhoḥ) Uttararāmacarita 3.45; यस्मिन्नीश्वर इत्यनन्यविषयः शब्दो यथार्थाक्षरः (yasminnīśvara ityananyaviṣayaḥ śabdo yathārthākṣaraḥ) V. 1.1; सकलवचनानामविषयः (sakalavacanānāmaviṣayaḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.3,36; Uttararāmacarita 5.19; Kumārasambhava 6. 17.
7) Department, sphere, province, field, element; सर्वत्रौदरिकस्याभ्यवहार्यमेव विषयः (sarvatraudarikasyābhyavahāryameva viṣayaḥ) V.3.
8) A subject, subjectmatter, topic; अयि मलयज महिमायं कस्य गिरामस्तु विषयस्ते (ayi malayaja mahimāyaṃ kasya girāmastu viṣayaste) Bv.1.11; so शृङ्गारविषयको ग्रन्थः (śṛṅgāraviṣayako granthaḥ) 'treating of love'.
9) The topic or subject to be explained, general head; the first of the five members of an Adhikaraṇa q. v.
1) A place spot; परिसरविषयेषु लीढमुक्ताः (parisaraviṣayeṣu līḍhamuktāḥ) Kirātārjunīya 5.38.
11) A country, realm, domain, territory, district, kingdom; 'विषयः स्यादिन्द्रियार्थे देशे जनपदेऽपि च (viṣayaḥ syādindriyārthe deśe janapade'pi ca)' इति विश्वः (iti viśvaḥ); अप्रविष्ट- विषयस्य सक्षसाम् (apraviṣṭa- viṣayasya sakṣasām) R.11.18; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.2.
12) A refuge, an asylum.
13) A collection of villages.
14) A lover, husband.
15) Semen virile.
16) A religious observance.
17) A symbolical expression for the number 'five'. (viṣaye means 'with regard or reference to', 'in respect of', 'in the case of', 'regarding', 'concerning'; yā tatrāste yuvativiṣaye sṛṣṭirādyeva dhātuḥ Meghadūta 84; strīṇāṃ viṣaye; dhanaviṣaye &c.)
Derivable forms: viṣayaḥ (विषयः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Viṣaya (विषय).—(= Sanskrit), range, sphere; on two somewhat dubious uses of the word in Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 2.7 and 13 see s.vv. pratyātma and ālayavijñāna.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-yaḥ) 1. Doubt. 2. Refuge, asylum. E. vi, śī to sleep, ac aff.
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(-yaḥ) Sleeping and watching alternately, the rest taken in rotation by soldiers on watch. E. vi intervening, śī to sleep, aff. ghañ or paryāye ṇac .
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(-yaḥ) 1. Any object of sense, any thing perceivable by the senses, as colour, form, flavour, odour and sound; they are five for the five Indriyas, viz:—śabda for the ear, sparśa for the skin, rūpa for the eye, rasa for the tongue, gandha for the nose. 2. An object in general, as of affection or desire, &c. 3. Worldly object or pursuit, affair, business, transaction, &c. 4. A country, whether inhabited or uninhabited. 5. Refuge, asylum. 6. Department, sphere, element, home, province, that which is peculiarly known or frequented, as a particular study by its professors, a particular town by its townsfolk, water by fish, air by birds, &c. 7. A collection of villages. 8. Any thing indigenous or peculiar to a province, &c. 9. A religious obligation or observance. 10. Semen virile. 11. A lover, a husband. 12. Sensual enjoyment, sensuality. 13. Subject, topic, subject-matter. 14. The subject of an Adhikarana, (in Phil.) 15. A thing aimed at. 16. Scope, range, compass, reach. 17. A realm, a kingdom, a domain. E. vi before ṣi to bind, aff. ac .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viśaya (विशय).—i. e. vi-śī + a, m. Doubt, uncertainty.
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Viśāya (विशाय).—i. e. vi-śī + a, m. Sleeping and watching alternately.
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Viṣaya (विषय).— (probably vi-kṣi + a), m. 1. A collection of villages. 2. A country, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 51; [Pañcatantra] 129, 14; a kingdom, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 12; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 54, 28 (yama-, The lower regions, death); a place, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 104, 14; [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 38. 3. Anything indigenous or peculiar to a province. 4. Home, province, department, sphere, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 39, 14; [Pañcatantra] 4, 17 (jīvitavya-, Duration of life); [Pañcatantra] 227, 22 (application); element, that which is peculiarly known to those who occupy themselves with it or live therein. 5. Horizon, sight, a place which may be looked over by somebody, reach, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 148; [Hitopadeśa] 28, 3, M.M.; [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 35; 101. 6. Anything perceivable by the senses, an object of sense, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 15; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 9. 7. An object in general, Bhāṣāp. 36; atra viṣaye, Concerning this object, [Pañcatantra] 114, 20; dhanaviṣaye, Concerning wealth, [Pañcatantra] 139, 3; strīṇāṃ viṣaye, Concerning women, 27, 18; an object of art, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] [distich] 29. 8. Worldly object, affair, business, enjoyment, etc., [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 244; sensual enjoyment, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 116. 9. Aim, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 40. 10. A religious observance. 11. Refuge, asylum. 12. A lover, a husband.
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Viṣāya (विषाय).—a [denominative.] derived from viṣa with ya, [Ātmanepada.] To turn into poison, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 34.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viśaya (विशय).—[masculine] middle, centre; uncertainty, doubt, p. viśayavant & viśayin.
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Viṣaya (विषय).—[masculine] reach, sphere, domain, province, country; the right place for ([genetive]); object, [especially] of sense, [plural] (sgl.) the pleasures of sense or the external world. chandasi viṣaye in the sphere of i.e. only in the Veda ([grammar]). Adj. —° falling into the sphere of, belonging or relating to. — Abstr. tā [feminine], tva [neuter]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Viśaya (विशय):—[=vi-śaya] a etc. See under vi-√śī.
2) [=vi-śaya] [from vi-śī] b m. the middle, centre, [Śulba-sūtra]
3) [v.s. ...] doubt, uncertainty, [Jaimini; Śaṃkarācārya]
4) [v.s. ...] = āśraya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) Viśāya (विशाय):—[=vi-śāya] [from vi-śī] m. sleeping and watching alternately, [Horace H. Wilson] (cf. [Pāṇini 3-3, 39]).
6) Viṣāya (विषाय):—[from viṣ] [Nominal verb] [Ātmanepada] yate (mc. also [Parasmaipada] yati), to become poison, turn into poison, [Bhartṛhari; Subhāṣitāvali]
7) Viṣaya (विषय):—m. (ifc. f(ā). ; [probably] either [from] √1. viṣ, ‘to act’, or [from] vi + √si, ‘to extend’ cf. [Pāṇini 8-3, 70 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) sphere (of influence or activity), dominion, kingdom, territory, region, district, country, abode ([plural] = lands, possessions), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
8) scope, compass, horizon, range, reach (of eyes, ears, mind etc.), [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.
9) period or duration (of life), [Pañcatantra]
10) special sphere or department, peculiar province or field of action, peculiar element, concern (ifc. = ‘concerned with, belonging to, intently engaged on’; viṣaye, with [genitive case] or ifc. = ‘in the sphere of, with regard or reference to’; atra viṣaye, ‘with regard to this object’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
11) space or room (sometimes = fitness) for ([genitive case]), [Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra]
12) an object of sense (these are five in number, the five indriya, or organs of sense having each their proper viṣaya or object, viz. 1. śabda, ‘sound’, for the ear cf. śruti-viṣaya; 2. sparśa, ‘tangibility’, for the skin; 3. rūpa, ‘form’ or ‘colour’, for the eye; 4. rasa, ‘savour’, for the tongue; 5. gandha, ‘odour’ for the nose: and these five Viṣayas are sometimes called the Guṇas or ‘properties’ of the five elements, ether, air, fire, water, earth, respectively; cf. śruti-viṣaya-guṇa), [Yājñavalkya; Śaṃkarācārya; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 83]
13) a symbolical Name of the number ‘five’ [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
14) anything perceptible by the senses, any object of affection or concern or attention, any special worldly object or aim or matter or business, ([plural]) sensual enjoyments, sensuality, [Kaṭha-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
15) any subject or topic, subject-matter, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
16) an object (as opp. to ‘a subject’), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
17) a fit or suitable object (‘for’ [dative case] [genitive case], or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
18) (in [philosophy]) the subject of an argument, category, general head (one of the 5 members of an Adhikaraṇa [q.v.], the other 4 being viśaya or saṃśaya, pūrva-pakṣa, uttara-pakṣa or siddhānta, and saṃgati or nirṇaya), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
19) un-organic matter, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 73]
20) (in gram.) limited or restricted sphere (e.g. chandasi viṣaye, ‘only in the Veda’), [Kāśikā-vṛtti] (ifc. = restricted or exclusively belonging to)
21) (in [rhetoric]) the subject of a comparison (e.g. in the [compound] ‘lotus-eye’ the second member is the viṣaya, and the first the viṣayin), [Kuvalayānanda; Pratāparudrīya]
22) a country with more than 100 villages, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
23) a refuge, asylum, [Horace H. Wilson]
24) a religious obligation or observance, [ib.]
25) a lover, husband, [ib.]
26) semen virile, [ib.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Viśaya (विशय):—[vi-śaya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Doubt; refuge.
2) Viśāya (विशाय):—[vi-śāya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Sleeping and watching alternately.
3) Viṣaya (विषय):—[vi-ṣaya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Worldly object; possession; thing; object of sense or of desire; sphere of observation or action; country; cluster of villages; resort; provincial peculiarity; ceremony; husband.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Viśaya (विशय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Visaya.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Viṣaya (विषय) [Also spelled vishay]:—(nm) a subject; topic; matter; content; sexual sensual pleasure/enjoyment; an affair; object; ~[gata/paraka] subjective; sexual, pertaining to sexual affairs; ~[niṣṭha] subjective; ~[niṣṭhatā] subjectivity; ~[parakatā] subjectivity; ~[bhogavāda] sensualism; ~[rata] sexy, engrossed in sexual pleasure; hence ~[rati] (nf); ~[lolupa] voluptuous, lustful, sexy, sensual; hence ~[lolupatā]; (nf) -[vāsanā] sexuality, and lust; sensuality, sensualism; ~[vastu] theme; -[saṃbaṃdhī] sensual, sensuous; concerning a topic/subject; -[samiti] subjects committee; -[sukha] sensual pleasure, sexual pleasure; -[sūcī] a list of contents, table of contents.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Visaya (विसय) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Viśada.
2) Visaya (विसय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Viśaya.
3) Visaya (विसय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Viṣaya.
4) Visāya (विसाय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Visvāda.
5) Visāya (विसाय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Viṣāda.
6) Visāya (विसाय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Visāta.
7) Visāya (विसाय) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Visvāda.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a sleeping and keeping guard alternatively.
2) [noun] the act of succeeding or coming after another in order or sequence; succession.
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1) [noun] feeling, impression or perception through the senses; a sense.
2) [noun] any of the five sense organs eye (sight), skin (touch), tongue (taste), nose (smell) and ear (hearing).
3) [noun] the experience of external world got through the sense organs.
4) [noun] anything that is desired.
5) [noun] excessive inclination toward sexual enjoyments.
6) [noun] the subject matter of a literary work; theme.
7) [noun] any of the various courses of study in a school or college; a subject.
8) [noun] something dealt with in discussion; a subject.
9) [noun] the object to be attained; intention, aim or purpose.
10) [noun] a state, nation or country.
11) [noun] a place of protection; a shelter.
12) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number five.
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1) [noun] sensuous enjoyments.
2) [noun] the whole land or territory of a nation; a country.
3) [noun] a report of a recent event; intelligence; information; news.
4) [noun] something dealt with in discussion, study, writing, painting, etc.; subject.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+93): Vishaya-bhogika, Vishaya-bhubhuj, Vishaya-dana, Vishaya-danika, Vishaya-karana, Vishaya-vyapritaka, Vishaya-vyavaharin, Vishayabaddha, Vishayabhilasha, Vishayabhimukhikriti, Vishayabhirati, Vishayacandrika, Vishayadhikrita, Vishayadhipa, Vishayadhipati, Vishayagrahana, Vishayagrama, Vishayaishin, Vishayajna, Vishayajnana.
Ends with (+116): Acakshurvishaya, Adhyavasayavishaya, Adurgavishaya, Ahara-vishaya, Aicchikavishaya, Akhandavishaya, Alpavishaya, Amtarvishaya, Ananyavishaya, Anitapallavishaya, Anuvishaya, Anyavishaya, Aptavishaya, Arthavishaya, Asadvishaya, Avagvishaya, Avakashavishaya, Avashyavishaya, Avishaya, Bahyavishaya.
Full-text (+692): Vishayin, Svalpavishaya, Cakshurvishaya, Vishayakarman, Visada, Vishayapati, Alpavishaya, Vishayavat, Ananyavishaya, Mahiriharavishaya, Vaishaya, Nirvishaya, Pandavishaya, Mandarajavishaya, Vishayitva, Cipulanavishaya, Chikkhaladavishaya, Karakutavishaya, Darshtivishayika, Varetikavishaya.
Search found 82 books and stories containing Vishaya, Vi-śaya, Vi-saya, Vi-śāya, Vi-ṣaya, Vi-shaya, Viṣaya, Visaya, Viśaya, Viśāya, Viṣāya, Visāya; (plurals include: Vishayas, śayas, sayas, śāyas, ṣayas, shayas, Viṣayas, Visayas, Viśayas, Viśāyas, Viṣāyas, Visāyas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Impact of Vedic Culture on Society (by Kaushik Acharya)
Territorial Units < [Chapter 5]
District and Village Administration < [Chapter 5]
3. The Donee Brāhmaṇas < [Chapter 2]
Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.6.3 < [Part 5 - Dread (bhayānaka-rasa)]
Verse 4.8.75 < [Part 8 - Compatible & Incompatible Mellows (maitrī-vaira-sthiti)]
Verse 4.2.2 < [Part 2 - Astonishment (adbhuta-rasa)]
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 1.26 - The range of sensory knowledge (matijñāna) < [Chapter 1 - Right Faith and Knowledge]
Verse 1.27 - The subject matter of clairvoyance (avadhijñāna) < [Chapter 1 - Right Faith and Knowledge]
Verse 1.25 - Difference between telepathy and clairvoyance < [Chapter 1 - Right Faith and Knowledge]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 3 - Explanation of the word ‘śrutam’ (śruta) < [Chapter II - Evam Mayā Śrutam Ekasmin Samaye]
I. The knowledge of knowing another’s mind (paracittajñāna) < [Part 2 - Distinguishing the movements of mind of all beings]
VI. The knowledge of all the aspects is practiced after omniscience < [VII. Winning omniscience and the knowledge of all the aspects]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Introduction (Natavadi Dynasty) < [Chapter VII - The Natavadis (A.D. 1104-1269)]
Introduction (Saronatha Dynasty) < [Chapter X - The Saronathas (A.D. 950-1260)]
Introduction (Kondapadumati Dynasty) < [Chapter IV - The Kondapadumatis (A.D. 1100-1282)]
Mimamsa interpretation of Vedic Injunctions (Vidhi) (by Shreebas Debnath)