Vishaya, aka: Viṣaya, Visaya, Viśaya, Viśāya; 21 Definition(s)
Vishaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Viṣaya and Viśaya and Viśāya can be transliterated into English as Visaya or Vishaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Samkhya (school of philosophy)
Viṣaya (विषय, “object”).—So far as Gauḍapāda and Māṭhara’s interpretations of Sāṃkhyakārikā 11 are concerned, viṣaya stands for object of enjoyment (bhogya), but for Vācaspati, viṣaya is the object of knowledge (bhogya); whereas in Yuktidīpikā of the concerned kārikā is missing.Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Viṣaya (विषय).—Domain; province; cf. प्रकल्प्य चापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते । (prakalpya cāpavādaviṣayaṃ tata utsargobhiniviśate |) Par. Śek. Pari. 63.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Viṣaya (विषय) is a synonym for Deśa (“region”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands [viz., Viṣaya], soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Viṣaya (विसय).—The object of worship; an object of material sense gratification.Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
The Visayas or the Visayan Islands, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea. Its inhabitants are predominantly the Visayan people.
The term Visayas was derived from the name of the 7th-century thalassocratic empire of Śrīvijaya in Sumatra. In Sanskrit, śrī means “fortunate,” “prosperous,” or “happy” and vijaya means “victorious” or “excellent”. The archipelagoes of Visayas and Sulu were once Hindu-Buddhist and were either subject states or tributaries of the empire.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
General definition (in Buddhism)
Viṣaya (विषय).—Derived from the Sanskrit root viṣ, meaning “to act, to do, perform,” it can refer to a region or domain. In Buddhist epistemology, it often denotes the range of the senses and their objects. It can also mean something with which one is engaged, an object of concertn or attention. In epistemology, this can be anything that is noticed or cognized, and like ālambana it does not imply a judgement regarding its ontological status.Source: Google Books: Dignaga’s Investigation of the Percept
General definition (in Jainism)
Vishaya dynasty according to Harivamsa Purana and Tiloyapannati.—Starting from the epoch of Mahavira nirvana (1189 BCE), Palaka ruled for 60 years, Vishaya kings for 150 years, Murundas for 40 years, Pushpamitra for 30 years, Vasumitra & Agnimitra for 60 years, Gandhavvaya or Rasabha kings for 100 years, Naravahana for 40 years, Bhattubanas for 242 years and Guptas for 231 years.Source: academia.edu: The epoch of the Mahavira-nirvana
Viṣaya (विषय, “object”).—What is the meaning of ‘nature of the objects identified’ (viṣaya)? The objects of thoughts in the mind of others which the owner of mental-modes knowledge wishes to cognize are its subjects. according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.25, “Telepathy (manaḥparyaya) and clairvoyance (avadhi) differ with regard to purity (viśuddhi), spatial-range, and species of the knower and the nature of the objects (viṣaya) identified by them”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). According to Monier Williams viṣaya means a dominion, kingdom, territory, region, district, country, or abode and in plural it meant lands or possessions. In the Aṣṭādhyāyī viṣaya denotes regions or provinces, called after their inhabitants, e.g. Śaiba, the region of the Śibis; Mālavaka, the region of the Mālava people; Rājanyaka, of the Rājanya tribe and so forth.
Kātayāyana and Patañjali interpret viṣaya as being identical with janapada in some cases, but their comments give the impression that even such geographical units as were not a janapada were called viṣaya. A viṣaya denoted both a bigger unit having the status of a janapada, and a smaller area which was but an estate. If viṣaya and janapada had been identical, Pāṇini would not have treated the former under a separate heading. In the post-Pāṇinian period, distinction between janapada and viṣaya was lost, both being called by the same names.
The viṣaya usually corresponded with the district of the modern administration. Minor bhuktis, maṇḍalas and the viṣayas were used to denote the same administrative division in many cases. The district administration was well organised in the Gupta period. Some of the land-grant charters bear the seals of the district administration. Sealings of the district administration of Rājagṛha and Gayā have been found at Nālandā, showing that their correspondence to outsiders bore the impress of their official seals.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Viṣaya (विषय) refers to an “administrative designation”.—Viṣaya is the most common administrative unit in the Deccan from the fourth century a.d. to the tenth century. The antiquity of the term is carried back to the third century B.C. In the Sārnāth Pillar Edict of Aśoka we have reference to the kota-viṣava (Koṭṭa-viṣaya), “district round a fort”. The designation did not find much favour with the Sātavāhanas, the Ikṣhvākus, the Bṛhatphalāyanas, and the early Pallavas, but was popular with the Śālaṅkāyanas, Kadambas, and succeeding dynasties. In the time of the Chālukyas of Vātāpi and Veṅgī, and the Rāṣṭrakūṭas of Mānyakheṭa, three designations largely held the field—deśa, maṇḍala, and viṣaya. The term viṣaya occurs most frequently.Source: Early History Of The Deccan Pts.1 To 6: Principal Administrative Divisions from the Rise of the Sātavāhanas
Viṣaya is the name of a division of deśa (administrative unit) under the rule of the Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1029 A.D.).—The deśas were divided into viṣayas in North and south Koṅkaṇ. Several viṣayas are mentioned in the records of the Śilāhāras. As very few Śilāhāra records from South Koṅkaṇ have been found, only few viṣayas from that region are Known. Deśas, viṣaya and khollas are sometimes named together with the numbers of the villages comprised in them. The viṣayas and khollas comprised nagaras or towns, and grāmas or villages. Very few towns in the kingdoms of the Śilāhāras find mention in their inscriptions.Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
Vishaya is one of the terms designating an ‘administrative division’ used in the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh.—This term is used to denote an administrative division of a State, governed by an official called Vishayapati. The extent of a vishaya was not always uniform. Sometimes the term meant the whole country (Arthasastra). In some cases a vishaya was included in a mandala and in some cases a mandala was included in a vishaya, while in certain places both the terms were used as synonymous.
Vishaya as an administrative unit was one of the early and most widely used appellations all over the country, especially in the North. In Andhra Pradesh the vishaya appellation was used right from the time of the Vishnukundis. Guddavadi-vishaya is the earliest occurrence at the time of the Vishnukundi king Madhavavarman-III. The same vishaya continued to function as a unit under the Eastern Chalukyas and the Chalukya Cholas. From the time of the Vishnukundis all the ruling families of Andhra Pradesh had employed this appellation.Source: Shodhganga: A study of place names of Nalgonda district
Viṣaya.—(EI 8-4), a district; often a kingdom or terri- tory; sometimes a viṣaya was included in a maṇḍala; but, in some cases, a maṇḍala was included in a viṣaya; at times maṇḍala and viṣaya were synonymous. (IE 8-5; EI 30; CII 3, 4; BL; SITI), a district; cf. viṣaya-suṅka (EI 24), the tax of a district; Viṣaya-vyavahārin, officer in the service of a district. (ASLV), same as nirvṛtti or koṭṭam; an administrative division. (IE 8-4; CII 4), sometimes used in a wider sense to indi- cate ‘a country’. (IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: viṣaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Visaya.—(CITD), same as Telugu visā, visāmu. Note: visaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
visaya : (m.) locality; region; sphere; object; scope; sensual pleasure; footing.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Visaya, (cp. Sk. viśaya, fr. vi+śī) 1. locality, spot, region; world, realm, province, neighbourhood Sn. 977. Often in foll. combinations: petti° (or pitti°) and pettika (a) the world of the manes or petas M. I, 73; S. III, 224; V, 342, 356 sq.; A. I, 37, 267; II, 126 sq.; III, 211, 339, 414 sq.; IV, 405 sq.; V, 182 sq.; Pv. II, 22; II, 79; J. I, 51; PvA. 25 sq. 59 sq. 214. (b) the way of the fathers, native or proper beat or range D. III, 58; S. V, 146 sq.; A. III, 67; J. II, 59. Yama° the realm of Yama or the Dead Pv. II, 82 (=petaloka PvA. 107).—2. reach, sphere (of the senses), range, scope; object, characteristic, attribute (cp. Cpd. 143 n. 2) S. V, 218 (gocara°); Nett 23 (iddhi°); Miln. 186, 215, 316; Vism. 216 (visayī-bhūta), 570=VbhA. 182 (mahā° & appa°); KhA 17; SnA 22, 154 (buddha°), 228 (id.); PvA. 72, 89.—avisaya not forming an object, a wrong object, indefinable A. V, 50; J. V, 117 (so read for °ara); PvA. 122, 197.—3. object of sense, sensual pleasure SnA 100. (Page 639)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
viṣaya (विषय).—m (S) An object of sense or the mind; anything apprehensible or cognizable by the senses, the mind, or other principle of percipience. Ex. of comp. viṣayabhōga, viṣayatyāga, viṣayāsakti, viṣayābhiruci, viṣaya-sēvā, -sēvana, -prīti, -tiraskāra, -sambandha, -kathana, -nindā, -jñāna, -sukha, -duḥkha. 2 The object or subject of the action or operation of; the object of any passion, affection, or sentiment; the department, province, field, sphere, element, seat of the conversancy, exercise, or being (of any agent, instrument, faculty, power). Ex. śarīra jōṃ rōgaviṣaya jhālēṃ nāhīṃ tōṃ pathyāpathyavicāra hī tumhāsa maskarīśī vāṭatī; kāmācā vi0 strī; mōhācā vi0 putra; lōbhācā vi0 vitta; krōdhācā vi0; harṣācā vi0; daṇḍācā vi0. In this sense are many valuable compounds; as vivādaviṣaya, vyākhyāṣaya, gāyanaviṣaya, lēkhanaviṣaya, gamanaviṣaya, vicāraviṣaya, dharmaviṣaya, jñātiviṣaya, hāsyaviṣaya, kāma- viṣaya, saṅkalpaviṣaya, vidhiviṣaya, niṣēdhaviṣaya. 3 The office, function, peculiar or proper business of. Ex. bōlaṇēṃ hā vāgindriyācā vi0; māmalata karaṇēṃ hā bhikṣukācā vi0 navhē; raphū karaṇēṃ tara bārīka suī ghyā hā dābhaṇācā vi0 navhē. 4 Object, aim, the point or matter attempted or contemplated. Ex. tumhī jō hā udyōga karitāṃ hyācā vi0 kōṇa? 5 A subject, topic, general head, particular branch, class, division. Ex. śabdasādhanarūpaviṣaya jyānta asatō tyālā vyākaraṇa mhaṇāvēṃ. 6 Goods or things considered as identical with or convertible into money, matter, moneysworth. Ex. bhaṭajī bāvāṃsa kēvaḷa rōkha śambhara rupayē pōhañcata nāhīnta parantu sārē varṣānta śambhara rupayāñcā vi0 pōṃhacatō Old bhaṭajī does not indeed get a hundred rupees down on the nail, but, in the course of the year, he makes the matter of it Sir. viṣayāntarasañcārarahita Exempt from the intrusion of any other object or matter;--used of the mind, the attention &c.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
viṣaya (विषय).—m An object of sense or the mind. The office or function of; object. A subject. Goods or things. The object of any passion. Affection.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) Doubt, uncertainty, the second of the five members of an Adhikaraṇa, q. v.; मुञ्चन्ति गुर्वशुचिता- विशयेन किं न चक्राङ्कवैष्णवमनुग्रहणादि सर्वम् (muñcanti gurvaśucitā- viśayena kiṃ na cakrāṅkavaiṣṇavamanugrahaṇādi sarvam) Viś. Guṇa.368.
2) Refuge, asylum.
Derivable forms: viśayaḥ (विशयः).
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Viśāya (विशाय).—Sleeping in rotation, the rest enjoyed in rotation by the sentinels on watch.
Derivable forms: viśāyaḥ (विशायः).
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Viṣaya (विषय).—1 An object of sense; (these are five, corresponding to the five organs of sense; rūpa, rasa, gandha, sparśa and śabda corresponding to the eye, tongue, nose, skin, and ear); श्रुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वम् (śrutiviṣayaguṇā yā sthitā vyāpya viśvam) Ś.1.1.
2) A worldly object or concern, an affair, a transaction.
3) The pleasures of sense, worldly or sensual objects (usually in pl.); यौवने विषयैषिणाम् (yauvane viṣayaiṣiṇām) R.1.8; शब्दादीन् विषयान् भोक्तुम् (śabdādīn viṣayān bhoktum) 1.25; विषयव्यावृत्तकौतूहलः (viṣayavyāvṛttakautūhalaḥ) V.1.9; निर्विष्टविषयस्नेहः (nirviṣṭaviṣayasnehaḥ) 12.1;3.7;8.1;19.49; विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः (viṣayā vinivartante nirāhārasya dehinaḥ) Bg.2.59.
4) An object, a thing, matter; नार्यो न जग्मुर्विषयान्तराणि (nāryo na jagmurviṣayāntarāṇi) R.7.12;8.89.
5) An object or thing aimed at, mark, object; भूयिष्ठ- मन्यविषया न तु दृष्टिरस्याः (bhūyiṣṭha- manyaviṣayā na tu dṛṣṭirasyāḥ) Ś.1.3; Śi.9.4.
6) Scope, range, reach, compass; सौमित्रेरपि पत्रिणामविषये तत्र प्रिये क्वासि भोः (saumitrerapi patriṇāmaviṣaye tatra priye kvāsi bhoḥ) U.3.45; यस्मिन्नीश्वर इत्यनन्यविषयः शब्दो यथार्थाक्षरः (yasminnīśvara ityananyaviṣayaḥ śabdo yathārthākṣaraḥ) V. 1.1; सकलवचनानामविषयः (sakalavacanānāmaviṣayaḥ) Māl.1.3,36; U.5.19; Ku.6. 17.
7) Department, sphere, province, field, element; सर्वत्रौदरिकस्याभ्यवहार्यमेव विषयः (sarvatraudarikasyābhyavahāryameva viṣayaḥ) V.3.
8) A subject, subjectmatter, topic; अयि मलयज महिमायं कस्य गिरामस्तु विषयस्ते (ayi malayaja mahimāyaṃ kasya girāmastu viṣayaste) Bv.1.11; so शृङ्गारविषयको ग्रन्थः (śṛṅgāraviṣayako granthaḥ) 'treating of love'.
9) The topic or subject to be explained, general head; the first of the five members of an Adhikaraṇa q. v.
1) A place spot; परिसरविषयेषु लीढमुक्ताः (parisaraviṣayeṣu līḍhamuktāḥ) Ki.5.38.
11) A country, realm, domain, territory, district, kingdom; 'विषयः स्यादिन्द्रियार्थे देशे जनपदेऽपि च (viṣayaḥ syādindriyārthe deśe janapade'pi ca)' इति विश्वः (iti viśvaḥ); अप्रविष्ट- विषयस्य सक्षसाम् (apraviṣṭa- viṣayasya sakṣasām) R.11.18; Pt.2.2.
12) A refuge, an asylum.
13) A collection of villages.
14) A lover, husband.
15) Semen virile.
16) A religious observance.
17) A symbolical expression for the number 'five'. (viṣaye means 'with regard or reference to', 'in respect of', 'in the case of', 'regarding', 'concerning'; yā tatrāste yuvativiṣaye sṛṣṭirādyeva dhātuḥ Me.84; strīṇāṃ viṣaye; dhanaviṣaye &c.)
Derivable forms: viṣayaḥ (विषयः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Viṣaya (विषय).—(= Sanskrit), range, sphere; on two somewhat dubious uses of the word in Laṅk 2.7 and 13 see s.vv. pratyātma and ālayavijñāna.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-yaḥ) 1. Doubt. 2. Refuge, asylum. E. vi, śī to sleep, ac aff.
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(-yaḥ) Sleeping and watching alternately, the rest taken in rotation by soldiers on watch. E. vi intervening, śī to sleep, aff. ghañ or paryāye ṇac .
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(-yaḥ) 1. Any object of sense, any thing perceivable by the senses, as colour, form, flavour, odour and sound; they are five for the five Indriyas, viz:—śabda for the ear, sparśa for the skin, rūpa for the eye, rasa for the tongue, gandha for the nose. 2. An object in general, as of affection or desire, &c. 3. Worldly object or pursuit, affair, business, transaction, &c. 4. A country, whether inhabited or uninhabited. 5. Refuge, asylum. 6. Department, sphere, element, home, province, that which is peculiarly known or frequented, as a particular study by its professors, a particular town by its townsfolk, water by fish, air by birds, &c. 7. A collection of villages. 8. Any thing indigenous or peculiar to a province, &c. 9. A religious obligation or observance. 10. Semen virile. 11. A lover, a husband. 12. Sensual enjoyment, sensuality. 13. Subject, topic, subject-matter. 14. The subject of an Adhikarana, (in Phil.) 15. A thing aimed at. 16. Scope, range, compass, reach. 17. A realm, a kingdom, a domain. E. vi before ṣi to bind, aff. ac .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Starts with (+37): Vishaya-bhogika, Vishaya-bhubhuj, Vishaya-dana, Vishaya-danika, Vishaya-karana, Vishaya-vyapritaka, Vishaya-vyavaharin, Vishayabaddha, Vishayabhirati, Vishayadhikrita, Vishayadhipati, Vishayagrama, Vishayaishin, Vishayajna, Vishayajnana, Vishayaka, Vishayakama, Vishayakarman, Vishayakarmman, Vishayakatva.
Ends with (+36): Ahara-vishaya, Alpavishaya, Ananyavishaya, Anitapallavishaya, Anuvishaya, Aptavishaya, Avishaya, Buddhivishaya, Cakshurvishaya, Chakshurvishaya, Chikkhaladavishaya, Cipulanavishaya, Divani Vishaya, Gandharvavishaya, Gaudavishaya, Gayavishaya, Karakutavishaya, Katashadivishaya, Klishtavishaya, Kotivarshavishaya.
Full-text (+469): Mandala, Mahiriharavishaya, Mandarajavishaya, Pandavishaya, Chikkhaladavishaya, Karakutavishaya, Cipulanavishaya, Varetikavishaya, Anitapallavishaya, Katashadivishaya, Shatshashtivishaya, Vishayopaseva, Samjnavishaya, Vishayatmaka, Svalpavishaya, Vishayapati, Alpavishaya, Vishayasakta, Desha, Nibbisaya.
Search found 51 books and stories containing Vishaya, Viṣaya, Visaya, Viśaya, Viśāya; (plurals include: Vishayas, Viṣayas, Visayas, Viśayas, Viśāyas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.6.3 < [Part 5 - Dread (bhayānaka-rasa)]
Verse 4.8.75 < [Part 8 - Compatible & Incompatible Mellows (maitrī-vaira-sthiti)]
Verse 4.2.2 < [Part 2 - Astonishment (adbhuta-rasa)]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 3 - Explanation of the word ‘śrutam’ (śruta) < [Chapter II - Evam Mayā Śrutam Ekasmin Samaye]
I. The knowledge of knowing another’s mind (paracittajñāna) < [Part 2 - Distinguishing the movements of mind of all beings]
VI. The knowledge of all the aspects is practiced after omniscience < [VII. Winning omniscience and the knowledge of all the aspects]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Introduction (Natavadi Dynasty) < [Chapter VII - The Natavadis (A.D. 1104-1269)]
Introduction (Saronatha Dynasty) < [Chapter X - The Saronathas (A.D. 950-1260)]
Introduction (Kondapadumati Dynasty) < [Chapter IV - The Kondapadumatis (A.D. 1100-1282)]
Settlement in Early Historic Ganga Plain (by Chirantani Das)
Part 7 - Nalanda’s Rise of a Multi-functional Nodal Centre < [Chapter III - Nālandā: Evidence for rise and progress of the settlement]
Part 8 - Growth of Secondary Sites (Nālandā and Sārnāth) < [Conclusion]
Patthana Dhamma (by Htoo Naing)
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)