Shamya, Śamyā, Saṃya, Saṃyā: 20 definitions


Shamya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śamyā can be transliterated into English as Samya or Shamya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Samy.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śamyā (शम्या) refers to one of the twenty aspects of tāla (time-measure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstrahapter chapter 28. In musical performance, tāla refers to any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time. It is an important concept in ancient Indian musical theory (gāndharvaśāstra) traceable to the Vedic era.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31, śamyā is one of the four varieties of the audible tāla. Accordingly, “the alternate placing (lit. falling) of these, is known as the pāta. These are to be known śamyā, tāla and sannipāta. The śamyā is of the right hand, the tāla of the left hand, and the two hands coming together is the sannipāta, and the dhruvā is stopping (lit. falling) for a mātrā, and it makes for the way of the rāgas, and moreover the placing (lit. falling) of the three kalās mentioned before, is also called dhruvā”. The tāla is so called because it measures time by a division of songs into kalās”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Sāmya (साम्य).—Similarity, homogeneity: described to be of two kindsin words and in sense; cf. किं पुनः शब्दतः साम्ये संख्यातानुदेशो भवत्याहोस्विदर्थतः (kiṃ punaḥ śabdataḥ sāmye saṃkhyātānudeśo bhavatyāhosvidarthataḥ) M. Bh. on P. I. 3. 10 Vart 3; cf. also स्थानकरण-कालादिभिः तौल्यम् (sthānakaraṇa-kālādibhiḥ taulyam) T. Pr XXIV. 5.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Sāmya (साम्य):—State of equilibrium or balance

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Sāmya (साम्य, “equality”) refers to “equation”, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—The equation is called by Brahmagupta (628) in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta samakaraṇa or samīkaraṇa (making equal) or more simply sama (equation). Pṛthūdakasvāmī (860) in his commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta employs also the term sāmya (equality or equation); and Śrīpati (1039) in the Siddhāntaśekhara uses sadṛśīkaraṇa (making similar). Nārāyaṇa (1350) in the Bījagaṇita uses the terms samīkaraṇa, sāmya and samatva (equality). An equation has always two pakṣa (side). This term occurs in the works of Śrīdhara, Padmanābha and others.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śamyā (शम्या) refers to the “pins of the yoke” (of a chariot), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.8 (“The detailed description of the chariot etc.”).—Accordingly, as Sanatkumāra narrated to Vyāsa: “The divine chariot of lord Śiva consisting of all the worlds was built by Viśvakarman with devoted effort. [...] The year constituted its velocity. The two Ayanas northern and southern constituted the junctions of the wheels and axles. The Muhūrtas constituted the joints and the Kalās the pins of the yoke (śamyā). The division of time Kāṣṭhā constituted the nose of the chariot and the Kṣaṇas the axle-shaft. The Nimeṣas constituted the bottom of the carriage and the minutest divisions of time constituted the poles. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Sāmya (साम्य) refers to “equanimity”, according to the Jain Yogaśāstra (vol. 2, p. 839).—Accordingly, “Equanimity (sāmya) is attained through the state of non-attachment. In order to attain that [state of non-attachment], one should cultivate the twelve themes of contemplation: on impermanence, helplessness, the cycle of transmigration, solitude, the distinction [of the Self and the body], the impurity [of the body], the influx of karmic matter, the stopping [of karmic influx], the elimination of karmic matter, the correctly expounded law, the universe, and the [difficulty of attaining] enlightenment”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sāmya.—(EI 23), often written for svāmya; cf. leja-sāmya standing for tejaḥ-svāmya. Note: sāmya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sāmya (साम्य).—n (S) corruptly sāmyatā f & sāmyatva n Equality, parity, similarity, likeness. 2 Evenness, levelness, uniformness. 3 Evenness; opp. to oddness (of numbers). 4 Impartiality, indifference, neutrality, non-respect of persons. 5 In modern translations of arithmetic &c. Comparison.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

samya (सम्य).—a Polite, fit for good company.

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sāmya (साम्य).—n sāmyatā f sāmyatvaf Equality. Comparison. Evenness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śamyā (शम्या).—[śam-yat ṭāp]

1) A wooden stick or post.

2) A staff, a measure of length (= 36 Aṅgulas).

3) The pin of a yoke.

4) A kind of cymbal; वीणा नैवाद्य वाद्यन्ते शम्यातालस्वनैः सह (vīṇā naivādya vādyante śamyātālasvanaiḥ saha) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.72.12.

5) A sacrificial vessel.

6) A kind of medical instrument.

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Saṃya (संय).—A skeleton.

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Saṃya (संय).—1 P.

1) To restrain, curb, check, control, govern, subdue (Ātm.) as passions &c.); असंयतात्मनो योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मतिः (asaṃyatātmano yogo duṣprāpa iti me matiḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 6.36; Manusmṛti 2.1.

2) To bind, imprison, fasten, confine; वानरं मा न संयसीः (vānaraṃ mā na saṃyasīḥ) Bhaṭṭikāvya 9.5; M.1.7; R.3.2,42.

3) To gather (Ātm.); व्रीहीन् संयच्छते (vrīhīn saṃyacchate) Sk.

4) To shut, close; सर्वद्वाराणि संयभ्य मनो हृदि निरुध्य च (sarvadvārāṇi saṃyabhya mano hṛdi nirudhya ca) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 8.12.

5) To hold together, hold fast.

6) To guide or drive (as horses).

7) (a) To collect. (b) To bind or tie into a knot (as hair); संयम्यमानशिखण्डः (saṃyamyamānaśikhaṇḍaḥ) V.5.

8) To keep in order.

9) To present with, give to.

1) To press close to or against; Suśr.

Derivable forms: saṃyam (संयम्).

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Saṃyā (संया).—2 P.

1) To go or proceed together; यथा प्रयान्ति संयान्ति स्रोतोवेगेन वालुकाः (yathā prayānti saṃyānti srotovegena vālukāḥ) Bhāgavata 6.15.3.

2) To go away, depart, walk away; गृहीत्वैतानि संयाति वायुर्गन्धानिवाशयात् (gṛhītvaitāni saṃyāti vāyurgandhānivāśayāt) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 15.8.

3) To go to, go or enter into; तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णान्यन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही (tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇānyanyāni saṃyāti navāni dehī) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.22.

4) To reach or attain to.

5) To assemble, meet.

6) To fight.

7) To be directed towards, aim at.

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Sāmya (साम्य).—

1) Equality, sameness, evenness; प्रवृत्तं कर्म संसेव्य देवानामेति साम्यताम् (pravṛttaṃ karma saṃsevya devānāmeti sāmyatām) Manusmṛti 12.9; भवन्ति साम्येऽपि निविष्टचेतसाम् (bhavanti sāmye'pi niviṣṭacetasām) Kumārasambhava 5.31.

2) Likeness, resemblance, similarity; स्पष्टं प्रापत् साम्यमुर्वीधरस्य (spaṣṭaṃ prāpat sāmyamurvīdharasya) Śiśupālavadha 18.38; H.1.45; Kirātārjunīya 17.51.

3) Equability.

4) Concord, harmony.

5) Indifference, impartiality, sameness of view; येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः (yeṣāṃ sāmye sthitaṃ manaḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 5.19.

6) Measure, time.

Derivable forms: sāmyam (साम्यम्), sāmyam (साम्यम्).

See also (synonyms): sāmyatā, sāmyatva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śamya (शम्य).—or (in Lalitavistara always written) sa° (= Pali samma, here m.; for Sanskrit see below), a kind of cymbal, always in Lalitavistara and often in Pali in [compound] with tāḍa (tāḷa), which usually follows but in Lalitavistara 301.16 precedes this ([Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] wrongly makes sammatāḷa the name of a single instrument; Pali comms., e.g. Jātaka (Pali) vi.61.7—8, make it a dvandva, and samma occurs alone in Pali); Sanskrit has only śamyā- (-tāla, e.g. Mahābhārata Cr. ed. 2.4.31), which is known in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] only in Mahāvyutpatti 5018; in Sanskrit often and in Lalitavistara always, according to Lefm., written with p for y, but (compare [Boehtlingk] 6.208) Pali proves that y is right, p a graphic corruption; probably identical with Sanskrit śamyā, wedge, from the shape of the instrument; the m. (or ṇt.) stem in -a is not recorded in Sanskrit but is the only one recorded in Pali as name of a mus. instrument, and so (except for Mahāvyutpatti) in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]; in Lalitavistara only stem-form recorded in long dvandva cpds. of names of mus. instruments: Lalitavistara 40.20; 163.6 (here Calcutta (see LV.) samya); 206.14; 212.4 (here °tāḍāvacara-); -tāḍa-sampādīṃś ca (no v.l.) 301.16.

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Samya (सम्य).—see śamya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṃya (शंय) or Śaṃyya.—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Happy, fortunate. f.

(-yā) Knowledge, understanding. E. śam happily, and yas aff.

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Śamyā (शम्या).—f.

(-myā) 1. The pin of a yoke. 2. A sacrificial vessel. 3. A stick, a staff. E. śam to be kept quiet, yat aff., fem. aff. ṭāp .

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Saṃya (संय).—m.

(-yaḥ) The skeleton. E. sam together, yam to restrain, aff. ḍa .

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Sāmya (साम्य).—n.

(-myaṃ) 1. Equality, sameness. 2. Likeness, sim ilarity. 3. Indifference. E. sama same, and ṣyañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śamyā (शम्या).—[śam + yā], f. 1. The pin of a yoke, Kātyāyana S. in Journ. of the German Oriental Society, ix. xxxvii. 2. A sacrificial vessel, ib. 3. A staff.

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Sāmya (साम्य).—i. e. sama + ya, n. 1. Equality, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 195. 2. Lquability, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 6, 33. 3. Harmony, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 4, 4. Likeness, similarity, [Kirātārjunīya] 17, 51.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śamyā (शम्या).—[feminine] staff, peg, prop, stay; a cert. measure of length.

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Śāmya (शाम्य).—[adjective] aiming at peae, peaceable; [neuter] & [feminine] peace, tranquillity.

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Sāmya (साम्य).—[neuter] equality, resemblance or likeness to ([instrumental] ±saha, [genetive], [locative], or —°); right or normal condition; equanimity, impartiality, justice.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṃya (शंय):—a śṃyu etc. See p.1054.

2) Śamya (शम्य):—[from śam] a mfn. to be appeased or kept quiet etc., [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

3) [v.s. ...] = rūkṣa, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) [v.s. ...] m. a [particular] personification, [Sāma-vidhāna-brāhmaṇa]

5) Śamyā (शम्या):—[from śamya > śam] a f. See next.

6) [v.s. ...] b f. a stick, staff, ([especially]) a wooden pin or peg, wedge etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra]

7) [v.s. ...] the pin of a yoke (See yuga-ś)

8) [v.s. ...] a [particular] instrument used in the treatment of hemorrhoids, [Vāgbhaṭālaṃkāra]

9) [v.s. ...] a sacrificial vessel, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of cymbal or other musical instrument (= tāla-viśeṣa), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) [v.s. ...] a [particular] measure of length = 36 Aṅgulas, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka] (or = 32 A°s [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]; cf. -kṣepa, -nipāta etc. below)

12) [v.s. ...] [dual number] (dhuroḥ śamye) Name of two Śāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

13) Śaṃya (शंय):—[from śam] b mfn., [Pāṇini 5-2, 138.]

14) Śamya (शम्य):—b śamyā etc. See p. 1054, col. 2.

15) Śāmya (शाम्य):—[from śāma] a mfn. relating to peace, peaceful, [Mahābhārata]

16) [v.s. ...] n. peace, reconciliation, [ib.]

17) b See above.

18) Saṃya (संय):—[=saṃ-ya] a m. ([from] 2. sam and √yam, or yat) a skeleton, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [=saṃ-ya] [from saṃ-yam] b See above.

20) Saṃyā (संया):—[=saṃ-√yā] [Parasmaipada] -yāti, to go or proceed together, go, wander, travel, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. etc.;

—to come together, meet, encounter (as friends or foes), contend with ([accusative]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

—to come to or into, attain (any state or condition e.g. ekatāṃ saṃ-√yā, ‘to go to oneness, become one’), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to conform to ([accusative]), [Mahābhārata]

21) Sāmya (साम्य):—n. ([from] 2. sama) equality, evenness, equilibrium, equipoise, equal or normal state ([accusative] with √, ‘to bring to that st°’, ‘calm’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

22) likeness, sameness, identity with ([instrumental case] with and without saha, or [genitive case], or [locative case], or [compound]), [Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

23) equality of rank or position, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

24) homogeneousness (of sounds), [Vopadeva]

25) measure, time, [Mahābhārata]

26) equability towards ([locative case] or prati), impartiality, indifference, [Bhagavad-gītā; Kumāra-sambhava; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

27) justice (sāmyam-√kṛ, ‘to act justly towards [loc.]’), [Mahābhārata]

28) [varia lectio] for śalyā, [Kāvyādarśa i, 39.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṃya (शंय):—[(yyaḥ-yyā-yyaṃ) a.] Happy, fortunate. 1. f. Knowledge, understanding.

2) Śamyā (शम्या):—(myā) 1. f. The pin of a yoke; a stick; sacrificial vessel.

3) Saṃya (संय):—[saṃ-ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. A skeleton.

4) Sāmya (साम्य):—(myaṃ) 1. n. Sameness, likeness.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sāmya (साम्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Samia, Samilā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shamya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sāmya (साम्य) [Also spelled samy]:—(nm) community; equality; resemblance, similarity; equilibrium; -[taṃtra] communism; ~[vāda] communism; ~[vādī] a communist; communistic.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sāmya (ಸಾಮ್ಯ):—[noun] the relation of an owner to the thing possessed; ownership.

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Sāmya (ಸಾಮ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the state or instance of being equal; equality.

2) [noun] the state or quality of being similar; resemblance or likeness.

3) [noun] accord; agreement; consonance; harmony.

4) [noun] absence of partiality, biasedness; impartiality.

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Sāmya (ಸಾಮ್ಯ):—[adjective] appropriate; fit; proper.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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