Shoka, aka: Śoka, Soka; 14 Definition(s)


Shoka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śoka can be transliterated into English as Soka or Shoka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”).—One of the eight ‘permanent states’ (sthāyibhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7.31. These ‘permanent states’ are called ‘the source of delight’ and are not interfered with by other States. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.43-44)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as death of the beloved one, loss of wealth, experience of sorrow due to any one’s murder or captivity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as shedding tears, lamentation, bewailing, change of colour, loss of voice, looseness of limbs, falling on the ground, crying, deep breathing, paralysis, insanity, death and the like. Weeping here (i.e. in a play) is of three kinds: [weeping) of joy, [weeping] of affliction and [weeping] due to jealousy.

Source: Natya Shastra
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Śoka (शोक) refers to “sorrow” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (eg., śoka) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

1a) Śoka (शोक).—A son of Droṇa and a Vasu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11.

1b) A son of Mṛtyu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 41.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Śoka (शोक, “grief”) or Śokabhaya refers to the “fear of grief” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 71). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., śoka). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Śoka (शोक, “grief”) refers to “the feeling of sadness at the loss or separation of desirable or useful objects” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending unpleasant feelings (asātāvedanīya).

Śoka is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”) refers to a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (attachment) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras mention fourteen varieties  of abhyantara-parigraha (for example, śoka).

Source: Jaina Yoga

Śoka (शोक).—What is meant by sorrow (śoka)? Plunging others in sorrow or making merry at other’s sorrows is sorrow.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Śoka (शोक, “grief”) refers to one of the nine types of the Akaṣāya (“quasi passions”) classification of of  Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. Cāritramohanīya refers to one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha). What is meant by sorrow /grief (śoka) karmas? The karmas rise of which cause sorrow /grief are called sorrow /grief karmas. 

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Shoka in Pali glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

soka : (m.) grief; sorrow.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Soka, (fr. śuc, to gleam (which to the Dhtp however is known only in meaning “soka”: Dhtp 39); cp. Vedic śoka the flame of fire, later in sense of “burning grief”) grief, sorrow, mourning; defd as “socanā socitattaṃ anto-soko ... cetaso parijjhāyanā domanassaṃ” at Ps. I, 38=Nd1 128=Nd2 694; shorter as “ñāti-vyasan’‹-› ādīhi phuṭṭhassa citta-santāpo” at Vism. 503=VbhA. Cp. the foll. : Vin. I, 6; D. I, 6; II, 305, 103; S. I, 110, 123, 137; A. I, 51, 144; II, 21; V, 141; Sn. 584, 586; J. I, 189; SnA 155; DhA. II, 166; KhA 153 (abbūḷha°); Pv. I, 43 (=citta-santāpa PvA. 18); PvA. 6, 14, 38, 42, 61.—asoka without grief: see viraja. See also dukkha B III, 1 b.

—aggi the fire of sorrow PvA. 41. pl. —divasā the days of mourning (at the king’s court after the death of the queen) SnA 89. —parideva sorrow and lamenting A. III, 32, 326 sq.; V, 216 sq.; Vism. 503; Nd1 128. —pariddava id. Vv 8430. —pareta overcome with grief Pv. I, 86. —vinaya dispelling of grief PvA. 39. —vinodana id. PvA. 61. —salla the dart or sting of sorrow A. III, 54, 58; Nd1 59, 414; Pv. I, 86; PvA. 93, 162. (Page 724)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

śōka (शोक).—m (S) Grief or sorrow. 2 Lamentation, sorrowing, mourning, regretting. śōkākula or śōkākulita, śōkātura, śōkānvita, śōkārtta, śōkāviṣṭa, śōkākrānta, śōkagrasta &c. Filled with, seized by &c. sorrow or affliction. Similar compounds at pleasure.

--- OR ---

ṣōka (षोक).—& ṣōkī See śauka & śaukī.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śōka (शोक).—m Grief, sorrow; lamentation.

--- OR ---

ṣōka (षोक).—

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 102 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Vītaśoka (वीतशोक) is the younger brother of king Aśoka, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñā...
Śokākula (शोकाकुल).—a. afflicted or agonized by grief. Śokākula is a Sanskrit compound consisti...
Śokāri (शोकारि).—the Kadamba tree. Derivable forms: śokāriḥ (शोकारिः).Śokāri is a Sanskrit comp...
Triśoka (त्रिशोक).—A sage who was the son of Kaṇva. The Aśvinīdevas once redeemed the cows belo...
Samudra-soka in the Hindi language is another another name for Vṛddhadāruka, a medicinal plant ...
Śokāviṣṭa (शोकाविष्ट).—a. afflicted or agonized by grief. Śokāviṣṭa is a Sanskrit compound cons...
Śokāpanoda (शोकापनोद).—removal of grief. Derivable forms: śokāpanodaḥ (शोकापनोदः).Śokāpanoda is...
Śokānala (शोकानल).—the fire of grief. Derivable forms: śokānalaḥ (शोकानलः).Śokānala is a Sanskr...
Arkaśoka (अर्कशोक).—Ved. brilliancy of rays. Derivable forms: arkaśokaḥ (अर्कशोकः).Arkaśoka is ...
Śokavihvala (शोकविह्वल).—a. afflicted or agonized by grief. Śokavihvala is a Sanskrit compound ...
samudraśōka-śōṣa-sōka-sōkha (समुद्रशोक-शोष-सोक-सोख).—m (samudraśōṣa S) A creeping plant, Convol...
Śokāgni (शोकाग्नि).—the fire of grief. Derivable forms: śokāgniḥ (शोकाग्निः).Śokāgni is a Sansk...
Śokanihata (शोकनिहत).—a. overcome with sarrow. Śokanihata is a Sanskrit compound consisting of ...
Śokopahata (शोकोपहत).—a. afflicted or agonized by grief. Śokopahata is a Sanskrit compound cons...
Śokasthāna (शोकस्थान).—any cause of sorrow.Derivable forms: śokasthānam (शोकस्थानम्).Śokasthāna...

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