Shoka, Śoka, Soka, Śokā: 31 definitions


Shoka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śoka and Śokā can be transliterated into English as Soka or Shoka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shok.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”).—One of the eight ‘permanent states’ (sthāyibhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7.31. These ‘permanent states’ are called ‘the source of delight’ and are not interfered with by other States. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.43-44)

Source: Natya Shastra

Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as death of the beloved one, loss of wealth, experience of sorrow due to any one’s murder or captivity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as shedding tears, lamentation, bewailing, change of colour, loss of voice, looseness of limbs, falling on the ground, crying, deep breathing, paralysis, insanity, death and the like. Weeping here (i.e. in a play) is of three kinds: [weeping) of joy, [weeping] of affliction and [weeping] due to jealousy.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) Śoka (शोक) is the sthāyībhāva (“durable psychological state”) associated with Karuṇa or the “pathetic sentiment”, which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.— Karuṇa i.e., pathos is the sentiment delineated in the circumstances of sorrow. The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa says that it is enacted through frightened limbs, crying in grief, pale and dry face. [...] Śoka is the sthāyibhāva of karuṇarasa. Kapota i.e., the colour of pigeon is the colour of this sentiment. Yama is the God of this sentiment.

2) Śokā (शोका) refers to one of the Thirty six kinds of Glances (dṛṣṭi) or “proper accomplishment of glances” (in Indian Dramas).—Dṛṣṭi is very important in a dance form. The appropriate movements of eyes, eyeballs and eyebrows of an artist make the performance more charming. There are thirty six kinds of glances (dṛṣṭi) accepted in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, for example śokā, belonging to the sañcāriṇadṛṣṭi division.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Śoka (शोक) refers to “sorrow” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (e.g., śoka) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śoka (शोक).—A son of Droṇa and a Vasu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11.

1b) A son of Mṛtyu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 41.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Śoka (शोक):—Sorrow, Grief

2) [śokaḥ] Misery: A state of ill-being due to loss of children or affliction or misfortune.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Śoka (शोक) refers to “grief”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 9.33.—Accordingly: “You spoke about the king’s grief (śokanarādhipasya śokaṃ) on account of me; I am not pleased that he is so distressed, amidst associations as fleeting as dreams, when separation is bound to take place”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Śoka (शोक) refers to “grief”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi (verse 24.1-2).—Accordingly, [while describing kāyasiddhi in terms redolent of tapas (i.e., purification and bindu):] “When the accomplishment of [destroying] the [five] impurities [is achieved], as well as the union of the two Bindus, then one should know the body to be perfected and endowed with all good qualities. [Such a Siddha] is free from cold, heat, thirst, fear, desire and greed. He has crossed over the ocean of anxiety, disease, fever, suffering and grief (śoka)”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śoka (शोक) refers to “sadness”, as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI in the section called “four foundations of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna)”.—Accordingly:—“[...] there are two kinds of suffering (duḥkha): inner suffering and outer suffering. [...] Inner suffering (ādhyātmika-duḥkha) is of two types: physical suffering and mental suffering. Mental suffering is grief (daurmanasya), sadness (śoka), hatred (dveṣa), fear (bhaya), jealousy (īrṣyā), doubt (vicikitsā), etc.: those are mental suffering. These two sufferings together are inner suffering. [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Śoka (शोक) refers to “distress”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] At that time, sixty koṭis of Bodhisattvas, having stood up from the congregation, joined their palms, paid homage to the Lord, and then uttered these verses in one voice: ‘[...] (201) The ignorant among monks, devoting themselves to observances, giving up to practice meditation, will not act in accordance with the three jewels. (202) Without learning or morality, seeking a profit within the congregation, and exerting themselves all over the time to get gifts, they will be full of thought-constructions with distress (śoka). [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Śokā (शोका) (or Abhiśokā) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Śokacinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Śokā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Śoka (शोक, “grief”) or Śokabhaya refers to the “fear of grief” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 71). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., śoka). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śoka (शोक, “grief”) refers to “the feeling of sadness at the loss or separation of desirable or useful objects” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending unpleasant feelings (asātāvedanīya).

Śoka is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Jaina Yoga

Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”) refers to a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (attachment) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras mention fourteen varieties  of abhyantara-parigraha (for example, śoka).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Śoka (शोक).—What is meant by sorrow (śoka)? Plunging others in sorrow or making merry at other’s sorrows is sorrow.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Śoka (शोक, “grief”) refers to one of the nine types of the Akaṣāya (“quasi passions”) classification of of  Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. Cāritramohanīya refers to one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha). What is meant by sorrow /grief (śoka) karmas? The karmas rise of which cause sorrow /grief are called sorrow /grief karmas. 

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Soka in Indonesia is the name of a plant defined with Pavetta indica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Ixora indica (L.) Baill. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Nucleus (1987)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1986)
· Cytologia (1988)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Hist. Pl. (Baillon) (1880)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Soka, for example diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

soka : (m.) grief; sorrow.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Soka, (fr. śuc, to gleam (which to the Dhtp however is known only in meaning “soka”: Dhtp 39); cp. Vedic śoka the flame of fire, later in sense of “burning grief”) grief, sorrow, mourning; defd as “socanā socitattaṃ anto-soko ... cetaso parijjhāyanā domanassaṃ” at Ps. I, 38=Nd1 128=Nd2 694; shorter as “ñāti-vyasan’‹-› ādīhi phuṭṭhassa citta-santāpo” at Vism. 503=VbhA. Cp. the foll. : Vin. I, 6; D. I, 6; II, 305, 103; S. I, 110, 123, 137; A. I, 51, 144; II, 21; V, 141; Sn. 584, 586; J. I, 189; SnA 155; DhA. II, 166; KhA 153 (abbūḷha°); Pv. I, 43 (=citta-santāpa PvA. 18); PvA. 6, 14, 38, 42, 61.—asoka without grief: see viraja. See also dukkha B III, 1 b.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śōka (शोक).—m (S) Grief or sorrow. 2 Lamentation, sorrowing, mourning, regretting. śōkākula or śōkākulita, śōkātura, śōkānvita, śōkārtta, śōkāviṣṭa, śōkākrānta, śōkagrasta &c. Filled with, seized by &c. sorrow or affliction. Similar compounds at pleasure.

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ṣōka (षोक).—& ṣōkī See śauka & śaukī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śōka (शोक).—m Grief, sorrow; lamentation.

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ṣōka (षोक).—

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śoka (शोक).—[śuc-ghañ] Sorrow, grief, distress, affliction, lamentation, wailing, deep anguish; श्लोकत्वमापद्यत यस्य शोकः (ślokatvamāpadyata yasya śokaḥ) R.14.7.

Derivable forms: śokaḥ (शोकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śoka (शोक).—m.

(-kaḥ) Sorrow, grief. E. śuc to regret, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śoka (शोक).—i. e. 1. śuc + a, m. Sorrow, grief, [Pañcatantra] 103, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śoka (शोक).—1. [adjective] glowing.

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Śoka (शोक).—2. [masculine] heat, flame; pain, distress, sorrow, grief at ([genetive] or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śoka (शोक):—[from śuc] a etc. See p. 1091, col. 1.

2) b mfn. (√śuc) burning, hot, [Atharva-veda]

3) m. (ifc. f(ā). ) flame, glow, heat, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

4) sorrow, affliction, anguish, pain, trouble, grief for ([genitive case] or [compound]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

5) Sorrow personified (as a son of Death or of Droṇa and Abhimati), [Purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śoka (शोक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. Sorrow, grief.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śoka (शोक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Soa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shoka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śoka (शोक) [Also spelled shok]:—(nm) sorrow, grief; condolence; -[gīta] an elegy; dirge; ~[grasta] sorrowful, grieved, afflicted by sorrow; bereaved; ~[maya] sorrowful, full of grief/sorrow; ~[vikala] overwhelmed by sorrow; ~[vihvala] afflicted with sorrow; ~[saṃtapta] consumed by sorrow, griefstricken; -[saṃdeśa] a condolence message; -[sabhā] a condolence meeting.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śōka (ಶೋಕ):—

1) [noun] sorrow; pain; grief; anguish; affliction.

2) [noun] (rhet.) the sentiment of grief or sorrow.

3) [noun] ಶೋಕಪಡು [shokapadu] śoka paḍu = ಶೋಕಿಸು [shokisu].

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Soka (ಸೊಕ):—[noun] = ಸೊಗ [soga].

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Sōka (ಸೋಕ):—[noun] sorrow; anguish; affliction; pain; grief.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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