Shoka, Śoka, Soka, Śokā: 24 definitions
Shoka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śoka and Śokā can be transliterated into English as Soka or Shoka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Shok.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”).—One of the eight ‘permanent states’ (sthāyibhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7.31. These ‘permanent states’ are called ‘the source of delight’ and are not interfered with by other States. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.43-44)Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as death of the beloved one, loss of wealth, experience of sorrow due to any one’s murder or captivity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as shedding tears, lamentation, bewailing, change of colour, loss of voice, looseness of limbs, falling on the ground, crying, deep breathing, paralysis, insanity, death and the like. Weeping here (i.e. in a play) is of three kinds: [weeping) of joy, [weeping] of affliction and [weeping] due to jealousy.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa
Śoka (शोक) refers to “sorrow” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”
Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (e.g., śoka) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.
The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Śoka (शोक).—A son of Droṇa and a Vasu.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11.
1b) A son of Mṛtyu.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 41.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Śoka (शोक) refers to “sadness”, as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI in the section called “four foundations of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna)”.—Accordingly:—“[...] there are two kinds of suffering (duḥkha): inner suffering and outer suffering. [...] Inner suffering (ādhyātmika-duḥkha) is of two types: physical suffering and mental suffering. Mental suffering is grief (daurmanasya), sadness (śoka), hatred (dveṣa), fear (bhaya), jealousy (īrṣyā), doubt (vicikitsā), etc.: those are mental suffering. These two sufferings together are inner suffering. [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Śokā (शोका) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Śokacinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Śokā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Śoka (शोक, “grief”) or Śokabhaya refers to the “fear of grief” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 71). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., śoka). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Śoka (शोक, “grief”) refers to “the feeling of sadness at the loss or separation of desirable or useful objects” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending unpleasant feelings (asātāvedanīya).
Śoka is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Śoka (शोक, “sorrow”) refers to a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (attachment) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras mention fourteen varieties of abhyantara-parigraha (for example, śoka).Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas
Śoka (शोक).—What is meant by sorrow (śoka)? Plunging others in sorrow or making merry at other’s sorrows is sorrow.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
Śoka (शोक, “grief”) refers to one of the nine types of the Akaṣāya (“quasi passions”) classification of of Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. Cāritramohanīya refers to one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha). What is meant by sorrow /grief (śoka) karmas? The karmas rise of which cause sorrow /grief are called sorrow /grief karmas.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
soka : (m.) grief; sorrow.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Soka, (fr. śuc, to gleam (which to the Dhtp however is known only in meaning “soka”: Dhtp 39); cp. Vedic śoka the flame of fire, later in sense of “burning grief”) grief, sorrow, mourning; defd as “socanā socitattaṃ anto-soko ... cetaso parijjhāyanā domanassaṃ” at Ps. I, 38=Nd1 128=Nd2 694; shorter as “ñāti-vyasan’‹-› ādīhi phuṭṭhassa citta-santāpo” at Vism. 503=VbhA. Cp. the foll. : Vin. I, 6; D. I, 6; II, 305, 103; S. I, 110, 123, 137; A. I, 51, 144; II, 21; V, 141; Sn. 584, 586; J. I, 189; SnA 155; DhA. II, 166; KhA 153 (abbūḷha°); Pv. I, 43 (=citta-santāpa PvA. 18); PvA. 6, 14, 38, 42, 61.—asoka without grief: see viraja. See also dukkha B III, 1 b.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śōka (शोक).—m (S) Grief or sorrow. 2 Lamentation, sorrowing, mourning, regretting. śōkākula or śōkākulita, śōkātura, śōkānvita, śōkārtta, śōkāviṣṭa, śōkākrānta, śōkagrasta &c. Filled with, seized by &c. sorrow or affliction. Similar compounds at pleasure.
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ṣōka (षोक).—& ṣōkī See śauka & śaukī.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śōka (शोक).—m Grief, sorrow; lamentation.
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śoka (शोक).—[śuc-ghañ] Sorrow, grief, distress, affliction, lamentation, wailing, deep anguish; श्लोकत्वमापद्यत यस्य शोकः (ślokatvamāpadyata yasya śokaḥ) R.14.7.
Derivable forms: śokaḥ (शोकः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kaḥ) Sorrow, grief. E. śuc to regret, aff. ghañ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śoka (शोक).—i. e. 1. śuc + a, m. Sorrow, grief, [Pañcatantra] 103, 2.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śoka (शोक).—1. [adjective] glowing.
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Śoka (शोक).—2. [masculine] heat, flame; pain, distress, sorrow, grief at ([genetive] or —°).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śoka (शोक):—[from śuc] a etc. See p. 1091, col. 1.
2) b mfn. (√śuc) burning, hot, [Atharva-veda]
3) m. (ifc. f(ā). ) flame, glow, heat, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]
4) sorrow, affliction, anguish, pain, trouble, grief for ([genitive case] or [compound]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
5) Sorrow personified (as a son of Death or of Droṇa and Abhimati), [Purāṇa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śoka (शोक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. Sorrow, grief.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+56): Shokabhanga, Shokabhara, Shokabhibhuta, Shokacarca, Shokacarcca, Shokacchid, Shokacharcha, Shokachchhid, Shokachinta, Shokacinta, Shokaduhkhasamanvita, Shokagara, Shokaghna, Shokagni, Shokagnisamtapta, Shokagnisantapta, Shokahari, Shokaikamaya, Shokaja, Shokakara.
Ends with (+22): Abhishoka, Anushoka, Apashoka, Arkashoka, Ashoka, Balashoka, Bandhushoka, Bhartrishoka, Candashoka, Devaranyavishoka, Dharmashoka, Edicts Of Ashoka, Gatavishoka, Harshashoka, Hricchoka, Hridayashoka, Kalashoka, Kamashoka, Kashoka, Lohinyashoka.
Full-text (+265): Ashoka, Shokas, Vitasoka, Shokagni, Shokanihata, Vishoka, Apashoka, Hricchoka, Shokakula, Shokapanoda, Sokavant, Shokakarshita, Ugrashoka, Lalapya, Shokodbhava, Shokavishta, Sokari, Bhartrishoka, Shokabhibhuta, Sashoka.
Search found 52 books and stories containing Shoka, Śoka, Soka, Śōka, Ṣōka, Ṣoka, Śokā; (plurals include: Shokas, Śokas, Sokas, Śōkas, Ṣōkas, Ṣokas, Śokās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.60 < [Part 5 - Permanent Ecstatic Mood (sthāyī-bhāva)]
Verse 4.4.7 < [Part 4 - Compassion (karuṇa-rasa)]
Verse 2.5.40 < [Part 5 - Permanent Ecstatic Mood (sthāyī-bhāva)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.2.137 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 2.2.33 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 1.7.125 < [Chapter 7 - Pūrṇa (pinnacle of excellent devotees)]
The Catusacca Dipani (by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw)
Three Psycho-physical Elements < [Part I - The Manual Of The Four Noble Truths]
Part II - The Burden of Dukkha in the Deva World < [The Exposition Of Four Characteristics]
The Doctrine of Paticcasamuppada (by U Than Daing)
Abhidhamma in Daily Life (by Ashin Janakabhivamsa) (by Ashin Janakabhivamsa)
Factor 8 - Dosa (hatred) < [Chapter 2 - On akusala cetasikas (unwholesome mental factors)]
Factor 2 - Vedana (feeling, sensation) < [Chapter 4 - Cetasikas Associated With Both Good And Bad Cittas (mind)]
Factor 9 - Karuna (pitta, compassion) < [Chapter 3 - On kusala cetasikas (wholesome mental factors)]