Nama, aka: Nāma; 15 Definition(s)

Introduction

Nama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Nāma (नाम, “name”) refers to one of the five cause of songs (dhrūva) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“The tāla of six or eight kalās observed in dhruvās will constitute their neasure (pramāṇa), and just as names (nāma) are applied to men according to their clan (gotra) family (kula) and customs (ācāra), so they are applied to dhruvās according to their depending on an occasions (sthāna)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Nāma (नाम) refers to “nouns” (in Sanskrit grammar) and forms part of the “verbal representation” (vācika), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. Vācika itself represents one of the four categories of representation (abhinaya).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Nāma (नाम, “nouns”).—The noun has its functions determined by the case-endings such as ‘su’ and the like, and by special meanings derived therefrom; and it is of five kinds and has a ‘basic meaning’ (prātipadikārtha) and gender.

It (the noun) is known to be of seven classes, and has six cases, and it is well-known as something to be ‘constituted’ (sādhya), and when combined thus with different case-endings it may imply ‘indication’ (nirdeśa), ‘giving to’ (sampradāna), ‘taking away’ (apādāna) and the like.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Nāma (नाम) refers to “nouns and pronouns” and represents one of the four classes of words according to Pāṇini (7th century BCE) and Yāska (9th century BCE) in his works dealing with Nirukta (etymology): the science of study of the meaning of words used in texts. Yāska classifies all words into four classes: nāma (nouns and pronouns), ākhyāta (verbs), upasarga (prefixes) and nipāta (indeclinables).

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (nirukta)
context information

Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Mental phenomena. This term refers to the mental components of the five khandhas, and includes: vedana (feeling), sanna (perception), sankhara (mental fashionings), and vinnana (consciousness). Compare rupa.Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

N Consciousness. (Sensation, perception, volition and consciousness).

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Nama (mentality) is divided into 3 kinds. Two kinds of nama are conditioned and the third kind is unconditioned. The four kinds of absolute realities are then:

  1. consciousness (citta)
  2. mental factors or mental formations (cetasikas)
  3. materiality (rupa)
  4. nibbana
Source: Dhamma Study: Introduction to the Dhamma

(lit. 'name'): 'mind', mentality.

This term is generally used as a collective name for the 4 mental groups (arūpino khandha), viz.

  • feeling (vedanā),
  • perception (saññā),
  • mental formations (sankhāra) and
  • consciousness (viññāna).

Within the 4th link (nāma-rūpa) in the formula of the paticcasamuppāda, however, it applies only to karma-resultant (vipāka) feeling and perception and a few karma-resultant mental functions inseparable from any consciousness.

As it is said (M.9; D.15; S.XII.2): "Feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), volition (cetanā), impression (phassa), mental advertence (manasikāra): this, o brother, is called mind (nāma)."

With the addition of 2 more mental factors, namely, mental vitality (jīvita) and concentration (samādhi), here 'stationary phase of mind' (cittatthiti), these 7 factors are said in the Abhidhammattha Sangaha to be the inseparable mental factors in any state of consciousness.

For the complete list of all the 50 mental formations of the sankhāra-kkhandha (not including feeling and perception), s. Tab. II.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Citta and cetasika are mental phenomena, nama, which are real in the ultimate sense.

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Nāma (नाम) or Nāmakarma refers to “physique-making (karmas)” and represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.—Accordingly, “what is meant physique-making karma (nāma)? The karmas rise of which gives various forms and their characteristics are called physique -making or name karma”.

The physique-making karmas (nāma) comprise the following:

  • four types of gati (condition),
  • five types of jāti (genus of beings),
  • five types of śarīra (bodies),
  • three types of aṅgopāṅga (limbs),
  • nirmāṇa (formation),
  • five types of bandhana (bondage),
  • five types of saṅghāta (interfusion),
  • six types of saṃsthāna (figure),
  • six types of saṃhanana (skeleton),
  • eight types of sparśa (touch),
  • five types of rasa (tastes),
  • two types of gandha (smell),
  • five types of varṇa (color),
  • four types of ānupūrvī (migratory form),
  • agurulaghu (not-heavy-light),
  • upaghāta (self-destructive),
  • parāghāta (destructive of others),
  • ātapa (hot light; radiant heat),
  • udyota (cold light; phosphorescence),
  • ucchvāsa (respiration).
  • two types of vihāyogati (movement).

As well as the following couples of opposites:

  • pratyeka-śarīra (individual body) and sādhāraṇa-śarīra (common body),
  • trasa (mobile) and sthāvara (immobile),
  • subhaga (amiable) and durbhaga (unprepossessing),
  • susvara (sweet-voiced) and duḥsvara (harsh-voiced),
  • śubha (beautiful body) and aśubha (ugly body), 
  • sūkṣma (fine body) and bādara (gross body), 
  • paryāpta (developable) and aparyāpta (undevelopable), 
  • sthira (steady) and asthira (unsteady), 
  • ādeya (impressive) and anādeya (non-impressive), 
  • yaśaḥkīrti (fame) and ayaśaḥkīrti (notoriety), 

And finally:

  • Tīrthakara: A Tīrthaṅkara’s career with all its grandeur when he preaches and completes his ministry.
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

nāma : (nt.) name; the immaterial factors such as consciousness, perception. (adj.), (in cpds.) having the name of.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Nāma, (nt.) (Vedic nāman, cp. Gr. o)/noma (a)n-w/numos without name); Lat. nomen; Goth. namō; Ags. noma, Ohg. namo) name.—

1. Literal. Nom. nāmaṃ S. I, 39; Sn. 808; J. II, 131; Miln. 27; Acc. nāmaṃ PvA. 145 (likhi: he wrote her name).—nāmaṃ karoti to give a name Sn. 344; Nd2 466 (n’etaṃ nāmaṃ mātarā kataṃ on “Bhagavā”); J. I, 203, 262 (w. double Acc.).—nāmaṃ gaṇhāti to call by name, to enumerate J. IV, 402; PvA. 18 (v. l. BB nāmato g.). Definitions at Vin. IV, 6 (two kinds hīna° & ukkatṭha°) and at Vism. 528 (=namanalakkhaṇa).—

2. Specified. nāma as metaphysical term is opposed to rūpa, & comprises the 4 immaterial factors of an individual (arūpino khandhā, viz. vedanā saññā saṅkhāra viññāṇa; see khandha II. Ba). These as the noëtic principle combd with the material principle make up the individual as it is distinguished by “name & body” from other individuals. Thus nāmarūpa= individuality, individual being. These two are inseparable (aññamaññûpanissitā ete dhammā, ekato va uppajjanti Miln. 49). S. I, 35 (yattha n. ca rūpañ ca asesaṃ uparujjhati taṃ te dhammaṃ idh’aññāya acchiduṃ bhavabandhanaṃ); Sn. 1036, 1100; Nd1 435=Nd2 339 (nāma=cattāro arūpino khandhā); DhA. IV, 100 (on Dh. 367): vedanādīnaṃ catunnaṃ rūpakkhandhassa cā ti pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ vasena pavattaṃ nāmarūpaṃ; DhsA. 52: nāmarūpa-duke nāmakaraṇaṭṭhena nāmaṭṭhena namanaṭṭhena ca nāmaṃ ruppanaṭṭhena rūpaṃ. Cp. D. I, 223; II, 32, 34, 56, 62; S. I, 12 (taṇhā nrūpe), 23 (n-rūpasmiṃ asajjamāna); II, 3, 4, 66 (nrūpassa avakkanti), 101 sq. (id.); M. I, 53; A. I, 83, 176; III, 400; IV, 385 (°ārammaṇa); V, 51, 56; Sn. 355, 537, 756, 909; Dh. 367; It. 35; Ps. I, 193; II, 72, 112 sq.; Vbh. 294; Nett 15 sq. , 28, 69; Miln. 46. Nāma+rūpa form an elementary pair D. III, 212; Kh IV.

Also in the Paṭicca-samuppāda (q. v.), where it is said to be caused (conditioned) by viññāṇa & to cause saḷāyatana (the 6 senses), D. II, 34; Vin. I, 1 sq.; S. II, 6 sq.; Sn. 872 (nāmañ ca rūpañca paṭicca phassā; see in detail expld at Nd1 276). Synonymous with nāmarūpa is nāmakāya: Sn. 1074; Nd2 338; Ps. I, 183; Nett 27, 41, 69, 77. ‹-› In this connection to be mentioned are var. definitions of nāma as the principle or distinguishing mark (“label”) of the individual, given by Coms, e.g. Nd1 109, 127; KhA 78; with which cp. Bdhgh’s speculation concerning the connotation of nāma mentioned by Mrs. Rh. D. at Dhs. trsl. p. 341.—

3. Use of Cases. Instr. nāmena by name PvA. 1 (Petavatthū ti n.); Mhvs VII. 32 (Sirīsavatthu n.).—Acc. nāma (the older form, cp. Sk. nāma) by name S. I, 33, 235 (Anoma°); Sn. 153, 177; J. I, 59 (ko nām’esa “who by name is this one”=what is his name), 149 (nāmena Nigrodhamigarājā n.), 203 (kiṃsaddo nāma esa); II, 4; III, 187; VI, 364 (kā nāma tvaṃ). See also evaṃnāma, kinnāma; & cp. the foll.—

4. nāma (Acc.) as adv. is used as emphatic particle=just, indeed, for sure, certainly J. I, 222; II, 133, 160, 326; III, 90; PvA. 6, 13, 63 etc. Therefore freq. in exclamation & exhortation (“please, ” certainly) J. VI, 367; DhA. III, 171; PvA. 29 (n. detha do give); in combn with interr. pron. =now, then J. I, 221 (kiṃ n.), 266 (kathaṃ n.); III, 55 (kiṃ); Kh IV. (ekaṃ n. kiṃ); with neg. =not at all, certainly not J. I, 222; II, 352; III, 126 etc.—Often further emphasised or emphasising other part.; e.g. pi (=api) nāma really, just so Vin. I, 16 (seyyathā p. n.); Sn. p. 15 (id.); VvA. 22 (read nāma kāro); PvA. 76; app’(=api) eva n. thus indeed, forsooth Vin. I, 16; It. 89=M. I, 460; J. I, 168; Pv. II, 26 (=api nāma PvA. 80); eva nāma in truth PvA. 2; nāma tāva certainly DhA. I, 392, etc.
 

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

nama (नम).—m (S) Bending, bowing, yielding, giving way. v khā, ghē, yē, jā.

--- OR ---

nāma (नाम).—n (S) A name. 2 A noun. For figurative significations and idiomatic applications see nāṃva. 3 m The perpendicular mark made on the forehead. Hence applied to a white vertical streak upon the forehead of a horse, dog &c.

--- OR ---

nāmā (नामा).—a masc nāmnī a fem S Bearing the name of; as harīpanta nāmā ēka puruṣa, gaṅgā nāmnī ēka strī &c. Confined to books and writings and to composition.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nama (नम).—m Bending, yielding.

--- OR ---

nāma (नाम).—n A name. A noun. The perpendi- cular mark made on the forehead.

--- OR ---

nāmā (नामा).—

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nāma (नाम).—ind. A particle used in the following senses:-

1) Named, called, by name; हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः (himālayo nāma nagādhirājaḥ) Ku. 1.1; तन्नन्दिनीं सुवृत्तां नाम (tannandinīṃ suvṛttāṃ nāma) Dk.7.

2) Indeed, certainly, truly, forsooth, verily, to be sure; मया नाम जितम् (mayā nāma jitam) V.2. 17.; विनीतवेषेण प्रवेष्टव्यानि तपोवनानि नाम (vinītaveṣeṇa praveṣṭavyāni tapovanāni nāma) Ś.1; आश्वासितस्य मम नाम (āśvāsitasya mama nāma) V.5.16 'when I was just consoled'; तन्नाम निष्ठुराः पुरुषाः (tannāma niṣṭhurāḥ puruṣāḥ) Mk.5.32 'that means men are cruel'.

3) Probably, perhaps; oft. with मा ()' अये पदशब्द इव मा नाम रक्षिणः (aye padaśabda iva mā nāma rakṣiṇaḥ) Mk.3 'herhaps (but I hope not) that of guards'; मा नाम अकार्यं कुर्यात् (mā nāma akāryaṃ kuryāt) Mk.4.

4) possibility; तवैव नामास्त्रगतिः (tavaiva nāmāstragatiḥ) Ku.3.19; त्वया नाम मुनिर्विमान्यः (tvayā nāma munirvimānyaḥ) Ś.5.2 'is it possible &c.' (implying censure); frequently used with अपि (api) in the sense of 'I wish', 'would that', 'is it likely that &c.'; see under अपि (api)

5) A feigned or pretended action, pretence (alīka); कार्न्तान्तिको नाम भूत्वा (kārntāntiko nāma bhūtvā) Dk.13; so भीतो नामावप्लुत्य (bhīto nāmāvaplutya) 14 'as if afraid', परिश्रमं नाम विनीय च क्षणम् (pariśramaṃ nāma vinīya ca kṣaṇam) Ku.5.32.

6) (With imperatives) Granted, though, it may be, well, it may be; तद् भवतु नाम शोकावेगाय (tad bhavatu nāma śokāvegāya) K.328; अतनुषु विभवेषु ज्ञातयः सन्तु नाम (atanuṣu vibhaveṣu jñātayaḥ santu nāma) Ś.5.8; Bh.1.16; एवं नामास्तु (evaṃ nāmāstu) 'be it so, if you like'; करोतु नाम नीतिज्ञो व्यवसायमितस्ततः (karotu nāma nītijño vyavasāyamitastataḥ) H.2.14 'though he may exert himself'; Māl.1.7.

7) Anger or censure; ममापि नाम दशाननस्य परैः परिभवः (mamāpi nāma daśānanasya paraiḥ paribhavaḥ) G. M.; (the sentence may imply 'censure' also किं नाम विस्फुरन्ति शस्त्राणि (kiṃ nāma visphuranti śastrāṇi) U.4; ममापि नाम सत्त्वैरभिभूयन्ते गृहाः (mamāpi nāma sattvairabhibhūyante gṛhāḥ) Ś.6.

8) Wonder; आश्चर्यमन्धो नाम पुत्रं द्रक्ष्यति (āścaryamandho nāma putraṃ drakṣyati) Sk.

9) Recollection. नाम (nāma) is often used with the interrogative pronoun and its derivatives कथम्, कदा (katham, kadā) &c. in the sense of 'possibly', 'indeed', 'I should like to know'; अयि कथं नामैतत् (ayi kathaṃ nāmaitat) U.6; R.16.82; Bh.2.44; H.1.14; को नाम राज्ञां प्रियः (ko nāma rājñāṃ priyaḥ) Pt.1.146; को नाम पाकाभिमुखस्य जन्तुर्द्वाराणि दैवस्य पिधातुमीष्टे (ko nāma pākābhimukhasya janturdvārāṇi daivasya pidhātumīṣṭe) U.7.4.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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