Kriya, Kriyā: 27 definitions

Introduction

Kriya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Kriyā (क्रिया, “performance, undertaking”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ क्रियायै नमः
oṃ kriyāyai namaḥ.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Kriyā (क्रिया, “activity, endeavour”):—One of the twenty-four emanations of Lakṣmī accompanying Nārāyaṇa. This particular manifestation couples with his counterpart form called Trivikrama and together they form the seventh celestial couple. Lakṣmī represents a form of the Goddess (Devī) as the wife of Viṣṇu, while Nārāyaṇa represents the personification of his creative energy, according to the Pāñcarātra literature.

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Kriyā (क्रिया) or Kriyāpāda refers to the second of four sections (pāda) of the Pāñcarātra system of thought.—With kriyā is meant the canons and principles governing the construction of the icons of its deities and other religious as well as non-religious buildings. The best description of all these four aspects of Pāñcarātra (eg., jñāna) is found in the Padma-saṃhitā, a simplified elaboration of the Jayākhya-saṃhitā.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kriyā (क्रिया).—One of the daughters of Dakṣa. Dharmadeva married her and three sons Daṇḍa, Naya and Vinaya were born to him of Kriyā. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa I, Chapter 7).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kriyā (क्रिया, “intelligence”) is one of the twenty-four daughters of Dakṣa by Prasūti: one of the three daughters of Svāyambhuvamanu and Śatarūpā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“Dakṣa begot twenty-four daughters. Thirteen daughters Śraddhā etc. were given to Dharma in marriage by Dakṣa. O lordly sage, listen to the names of Dharma’s wives. Their names are [... Kriyā (rite, activity),...]. Thereupon the entire universe consisting of three worlds, mobile and immobile was filled (with progeny). Thus according to their own actions and at the bidding of Śiva innumerable famous Brahmins were born out of the various living beings”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kriyā (क्रिया).—A daughter of Kardama married to Kratu. Mother of 6,000 Vālakhilyas.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 24. 23; IV. 1. 39.

1b) A daughter of Dakṣa, and a wife of Dharma; mother of Yoga and of Manus;1 also of Naya, Daṇḍa (Dama, Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa) and Samaya (Śama, Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa), (Vinaya, vāyu-purāṇa.).2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 49 and 51; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 24.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 49, 60; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 25, 35; 55. 43; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 23 and 29.

1c) The wife of Samanantara.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 4.

1d) A R. from the Ṛkṣa hills.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 29.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kriyā (क्रिया) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.13). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kriyā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (shaivism)

Kriyā (क्रिया, “making”) or kriyāpada refers to the second division of the āgamas.—The four classes of devotees (bhakta) or the states of spiritual life somewhat correspond to the four divisions of the Āgamas and the four modes of sādhana, spiritual practice, they entail. Thus, sālokya corresponds to carya, ritual and moral conduct, sāmīpya to kriyā, architectural and iconographic making, sārūpya to yoga, meditation, and sāyūjya ta jñāna, theology and gnosis.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra

Kriyā (क्रिया, “making”).—Since the distinction between carya and kriyā in the Āgamic scheme is not always c1ear, architectural and iconographic making, which is primarily kriyā, may be seen as encompassing both the modes. Making, at the most fundamental level, is a legitimate mode of sādhana, “spiritual practice”, in the four-fald scheme of spiritual realizatian. It is the primary and most accessible mode of sādhana for the sthapati a.nd his guild, being makers of temple and image.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Kriyā (क्रिया).—Verbal quality; philosophically speaking it is defined as sattā appearing in temporal sequence in various things.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kriyā (क्रिया).—Action, verbal activity; cf. क्रिया-वचनो धातुः (kriyā-vacano dhātuḥ) M. Bh. on I. 3.1 ; cf. also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् (kriyāvācakamākhyātam) R. Pr. XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa in his Bhāṣya on V. Pr. VIII. 50; cf. also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे (upasargāḥ kriyāyoge) P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेः क्रियायाः (lakṣaṇahetveḥ kriyāyāḥ) P.III. 2.126; cf. also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा (yattarhi tadiṅgitaṃ ceṣṭitaṃ nimiṣitaṃ sa śabdaḥ | netyāha kriyā nāma sā) M. Bh. Āhnika 1. The word भाव (bhāva) many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. cf. P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; cf. also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति (kṛdabhihito bhāvo dravyavadbhavati) a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया (kriyā) and भाव, क्रिया (bhāva, kriyā) meaning dynamic activity and भाव (bhāva) meaning static activity: cf. अपरिस्पन्दन-साधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दन-साधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया (aparispandana-sādhanasādhyo dhātvartho bhāvaḥ | saparispandana-sādhanasādhyastu kriyā) Kaiyaṭa's Pradīpa on M. Bh. III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया (kriyā) is defined as सत्ता (sattā) appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता (sattā) does not so appear it is called सत्त्व (sattva).

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Kriya (क्रिय).—The zodiacal sign, Aries. Note: Kriya is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Kriyā (क्रिया) refers to “activity”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: HereNow4U: Kāla (Time) Substance

Kriyā (क्रिया, “action”).—Action includes motion etc. Motion (gati) means: orderly changing of positions in space. That is why in motion of any matter; the thought of changing of positions is associated with the time for which it takes place. Similarly, all other actions are also associated with the lapse of time in which it takes place.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Kriyā (क्रिया, “activity”) or Kriyāriddhi refers to one of the eight types of ṛddhi (extraordinary powers), that can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people): one of the two classes of human beings, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46.—Some ascetics attain extraordinary powers to produce worldly miracles. Such attainments are called ṛddhi. There are eight types of such extraordinary powers (eg., Kriyā).

Kriyā-ṛddhi (extraordinary activity) has two primary and ten secondary subtypes:

  1. cāraṇa-riddhi (capability to move in the sky),
  2. ākāśagāmini-riddhi (extraordinary power to walk above the land).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Kriyā (क्रिया, “activity”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—What is the meaning of kriyā? Movement of an entity from one place to another is called activity (kriyā).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kriyā.—(CII 4), Śaiva ceremonies. Note: kriyā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kriyā : (f.) action; deed; performance.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kriyā (क्रिया).—f (S) An act, action, deed. 2 Obsequial rites performed immediately after death; as disting. from those performed at various periods afterwards. 3 A religious ceremony or rite. 4 The several matters and points, the minutiæ or parts (of any process, business, work). 5 Substantiating, establishing, verifying (by oath, ordeal, citing witnesses, producing documents). 6 Medical treatment. 7 In grammar. A verb: also a noun of action. kriyā dharaṇēṃ, kriyēlā jāgaṇēṃ To remember the (good) deeds or deed of. kriyā ṭākaṇēṃ-sōḍaṇēṃ-sāṇḍaṇēṃ-visaraṇēṃ To forget the (good) deeds or deed of.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kriyā (क्रिया).—f An act, action, deed. Obsequial rites performed immediately after death. A religious ceremony or rite. The several matters and points, the minutiæ or parts of any process, business, work). kriyā dharaṇēṃ, kriyēlā jāgaṇēṃ Remember the (good) deeds of.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kriya (क्रिय).—The sign of the Zodiac called Aries.

Derivable forms: kriyaḥ (क्रियः).

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Kriyā (क्रिया).—[kṛ bhāve karaṇādau vā śa cf. P.III]

1) Doing, execution, performance, accomplishment; उपचार°, धर्म° (upacāra°, dharma°); प्रत्युक्तं हि प्रणयिषु सतामीप्सितार्थक्रियैव (pratyuktaṃ hi praṇayiṣu satāmīpsitārthakriyaiva) Me.116.

2) An action, act, business, undertaking; प्रणयिक्रिया (praṇayikriyā) V.4.15; Ms.2.4.

3) Activity, bodily action, labour.

4) Teaching, instruction; क्रिया हि वस्तूपहिता प्रसीदति (kriyā hi vastūpahitā prasīdati) R.3.29. क्रिया हि द्रव्यं विनयति नाद्रव्यम् (kriyā hi dravyaṃ vinayati nādravyam) Kau. A.1.5.

5) Possession of some act (as of singing, dancing &c.), knowledge; शिष्टा क्रिया कस्यचिदात्मसंस्था (śiṣṭā kriyā kasyacidātmasaṃsthā) M.1.16.

6) Practice (opp. śāstra theory).

7) A literary work, composition; शृणुत मनोभिर- वहितैः क्रियामिमां कालिदासस्य (śṛṇuta manobhira- vahitaiḥ kriyāmimāṃ kālidāsasya) V.1.2; कालिदासस्य क्रियायां कथं परिषदो बहुमानः (kālidāsasya kriyāyāṃ kathaṃ pariṣado bahumānaḥ) M.1.

8) A purificatory rite, a religious rite or ceremony; Ms.1.43.

9) An expiatory rite, expiation.

1) (a) The ceremony of offering oblations to the deceased ancestors (śrāddha). (b) Obsequies.

11) Worship; त्रैतादिषु हरेरर्चा क्रियायै कविभिः (traitādiṣu harerarcā kriyāyai kavibhiḥ) 'कृता (kṛtā) Bhāg.7.14.39.

12) Medical treatment, application of remedies, cure; शीतक्रिया (śītakriyā) M.4 cold remedies.

13) (In gram.) Action, the general idea expressed by a verb.

14) Motion.

15) Especially, motion as one of the seven categories of the Vaiśeṣikas; see कर्मन् (karman).

16) (In law) Judicial investigation by human means (witnesses &c.) or by ordeals.

17) Burden of proof; क्रिया स्याद्वादिनोर्द्वयोः, द्वयो- रपि वादिनोः क्रिया प्राप्नोति (kriyā syādvādinordvayoḥ, dvayo- rapi vādinoḥ kriyā prāpnoti) V. May.

18) A verb.

19) A noun of action.

2) Disquisition.

21) Study.

22) Means, expedients.

23) Instrument, implement.

24) A construction; कूपप्रपापुष्करिणीवनानां चक्रुः क्रियास्तत्र च धर्मकामाः (kūpaprapāpuṣkariṇīvanānāṃ cakruḥ kriyāstatra ca dharmakāmāḥ) Bu. Ch.2.12.

25) Spirit (adhyātma) ?; द्रव्यक्रियाकारकाख्यं धूत्वा यान्त्यपुनर्भवम् (dravyakriyākārakākhyaṃ dhūtvā yāntyapunarbhavam) Bhāg.12.6.38.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kriyā (क्रिया).—(not in this sense in Sanskrit, nor so far as I have found in Pali; the definition promise, vow, given [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] s.v. kiriyā 1(b), is not supported by a careful study of the few passages cited), decision, determination: Mahāvastu i.310.6 (compare line 8 and Senart's note p. 602) eṣa brāhmaṇapariṣāya kriyā anuparivartitavyā, this decision of the brahman- assembly must be followed (observed, concurred in); Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 186.6—7 etāṃ kriyāṃ śroṣyanti, they will hear this decision (determination, viz. what is then stated, that there is only one nirvāṇa). Cf. kriyākāra, kriyābandha, in which kriyā- seems to have this same meaning; neither of them has been recorded elsewhere. In Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.109.8, 16, kriyāhṛta (kriyā-āhṛta), with lābha, kriyā is short for kriyākāra, agreement; note kriyākāraṃ kṛtvā, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kriya (क्रिय).—m.

(-yaḥ) The sign Aries. E. kṛ to do, śa aff.

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Kriyā (क्रिया).—f.

(-yā) 1. An act, action, acting. 2. Means, expedient. 2. Beginning, undertaking. 4. Atonement. 4. Study. 6. Worship. 7. Disquisition. 1. Bodily action. 9. Remedying, physical treatment or practice. 10. Instrument, implement. 11. A religious or initiatory ceremony. 12. Obsequies, rites performed immediately after death. 13. Purificatory rites, as ablution, &c. 14. Judicial investigation, by human means, as witnesses, documents, &c. or by superhuman or ordeals of various kinds. 15. In grammar, a verb of two kinds sakarmmakriyā active or akarmmakriyā intransitive: 16. A noun of action. E. kṛ to act, to do, śa affix, fem. aff ṭāp; the above meanings may be all resolved into the first.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kriyā (क्रिया).—[feminine] action, performance, occupation, labour, pains; activity, verb; work, [especially] religious work, sacrifice, ceremony, worship; argument, document, bond, contract.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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