Shaiva, aka: Śaiva; 7 Definition(s)


Shaiva means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śaiva can be transliterated into English as Saiva or Shaiva, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Shaiva in Purana glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

1a) Śaiva (शैव).—The sin of being of an ardent type.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 8. 44.

1b) One day of Śiva equals 100 years of Brahmā.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 290. 21.

1c) One of the six darśanas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 16.

1d) In the Sīmantasīma of the personified Veda.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 81.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Śaiva (शैव).— According to Śaṅkarācārya’s work there were four Śaiva schools viz.,

  1. Śaiva,
  2. Pāśupata,
  3. Kārukasiddhāntin
  4. and Kāpālika.

Some comparatively later Purāṇas, like Śivapurāna, qualifies the Śaiva schools as following the Siddhāntamārga and mentions the Kālāmukha Śaivas as Mahāvratadharins.

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaivism)

Śaiva (शैव) is the name of an Āgama or Tantra mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra  verse 1.5-7.—“At a previous time, when Pārvatī asked him, Śaṅkara told of the attainments of vidyā in the wide worldly life, in various ways. I observed each teaching taught also by the troops of Gods, Siddhas (those who have attained supernatural power), Munis (saints), Deśikas (spiritual teachers), and Sādhakas (tantric practicioners). They are [, for example]: Śaiva... I shall carefully extract all the above-mentioned āgamas, which are transmitted from mouth to mouth, like butter extracted from coagulated milk”.

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Śaiva (शैव) represents an undesirable Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He with whom one constructs a temple should not be a Śaiva, or a Saura, nor a Naiṣṭhika, nor a naked one, nor born of mixed marriage, nor unclean, old, or one who is of a despicable form or marked by great sin. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., śaiva), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., śaiva) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

śaiva (शैव).—a (S) That worships Shiva as the Supreme deity. 2 Relating to Shiva.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaiva (शैव).—a. (- f.) [शिवो देवताऽस्य अण् (śivo devatā'sya aṇ)] Relating to the god Śiva.

-vaḥ 1 Name of one of the three principal Hindu sects.

2) A member of the Śaiva sect.

3) The thorn-apple.

-vam Name of one of the eighteen Purāṇas, of a Śāstra or Tantra.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaiva (शैव).—mfn.

(-vaḥ-vī-vaṃ) Relating or appertaining to the god Siva. m.

(-vaḥ) A worshipper of Siva. n.

(-vaṃ) An aquatic plant, (Vallisneria octandra.) E. śiva the deity, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 1013 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Śaivāgama (शैवागम) refers the canonical texts of Śaivism. The āgama texts are the philosophical...
Ādiśaiva (आदिशैव) refers to the Śaiva initiates qualified to rituals and ceremonies.—The Ādiśai...
Śaivasiddhānta (शैवसिद्धान्त).—The system of Śaivasiddhānta, holds the idea that Śiva is capabl...
Śaivācārya (शैवाचार्य) is synonymous with Ādiśaiva: the title of an important priest in the Śai...
Śaiva-dīkṣā.—(EI 32), initiation into the Śaiva faith. Note: śaiva-dīkṣā is defined in the “Ind...
Santānika-śaiva.—(SITI), Śaivas who belong to the line of ācāryas of the santāna-kuravar. Note:...
Śaivaliṅga (शैवलिङ्ग) refers to a type of sthāvaraliṅgas, or, “immovable liṅgas”, according ...
Pravaraśaiva (प्रवरशैव) refers to one of the seven types of śaivas, according to the Vīrāgam...
Antyaśaiva (अन्त्यशैव) refers to one of the seven types of śaivas, according to the Vīrāgama...
Avāntaraśaiva (अवान्तरशैव) refers to one of the seven types of śaivas, according to the Vīrā...
Anuśaiva (अनुशैव) refers to one of the seven types of śaivas, according to the Vīrāgama, whi...
Anādiśaiva (अनादिशैव) refers to one of the seven types of śaivas, according to the Vīrāgama,...
Śaivamallikā (शैवमल्लिका) is another name for Liṅginī, an unidentified medicinal plant, accordi...
Āgama (आगम) or Āgamamantra is the name of a mantra that is chanted during Dhārāpūjā, according ...
Vijayā (विजया) refers to one the twenty-four Horā (astronomical) Goddess to be invoked during p...

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