Shaiva, Śaiva, Śaivā: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Shaiva means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śaiva and Śaivā can be transliterated into English as Saiva or Shaiva, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śaiva (शैव).—The sin of being of an ardent type.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 8. 44.

1b) One day of Śiva equals 100 years of Brahmā.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 290. 21.

1c) One of the six darśanas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 16.

1d) In the Sīmantasīma of the personified Veda.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 81.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaivism)

Śaiva (शैव).—According to Śaṅkarācārya’s work there were four Śaiva schools viz.,

  1. Śaiva,
  2. Pāśupata,
  3. Kārukasiddhāntin
  4. and Kāpālika.

Some comparatively later Purāṇas, like Śivapurāna, qualifies the Śaiva schools as following the Siddhāntamārga and mentions the Kālāmukha Śaivas as Mahāvratadharins.

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Śaiva (शैव) is the name of an Āgama or Tantra mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra  verse 1.5-7.—“At a previous time, when Pārvatī asked him, Śaṅkara told of the attainments of vidyā in the wide worldly life, in various ways. I observed each teaching taught also by the troops of Gods, Siddhas (those who have attained supernatural power), Munis (saints), Deśikas (spiritual teachers), and Sādhakas (tantric practicioners). They are [, for example]: Śaiva... I shall carefully extract all the above-mentioned āgamas, which are transmitted from mouth to mouth, like butter extracted from coagulated milk”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Śaiva (शैव) represents an undesirable Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He with whom one constructs a temple should not be a Śaiva, or a Saura, nor a Naiṣṭhika, nor a naked one, nor born of mixed marriage, nor unclean, old, or one who is of a despicable form or marked by great sin. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., śaiva), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., śaiva) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Śaivā (शैवा) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Śaivā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Śaivā (शैवा) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Śaivā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śaiva (शैव).—a (S) That worships Shiva as the Supreme deity. 2 Relating to Shiva.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaiva (शैव).—a. (- f.) [शिवो देवताऽस्य अण् (śivo devatā'sya aṇ)] Relating to the god Śiva.

-vaḥ 1 Name of one of the three principal Hindu sects.

2) A member of the Śaiva sect.

3) The thorn-apple.

-vam Name of one of the eighteen Purāṇas, of a Śāstra or Tantra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaiva (शैव).—mfn.

(-vaḥ-vī-vaṃ) Relating or appertaining to the god Siva. m.

(-vaḥ) A worshipper of Siva. n.

(-vaṃ) An aquatic plant, (Vallisneria octandra.) E. śiva the deity, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaiva (शैव).—i. e. śiva + a, I. adj. Relating, belonging, to Śiva, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 66, 19. Ii. m. A worshipper of Śiva. Iii. n. A plant, Vallisneria octandra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaiva (शैव).—[feminine] ī relating to Śiva, Śiva’s; [masculine] a worshipper of Ś.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaiva (शैव):—1. śaiva mf(ī)n. ([from] śiva) relating or belonging or sacred to the god Śiva, coming or derived from Śiva, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Purāṇa] etc.

2) m. [patronymic] [from] śiva, [Pāṇini 4-1, 112]

3) ‘a worshipper or follower of Śiva’, Name of one of the three great divisions of modern Hindūism (the other two being the Vaiṣṇavas and Śāktas, qq.vv.; the Śaivas identify Śiva-rather than Brahmā and Viṣṇu-with the Supreme Being and are exclusively devoted to his worship, regarding him as the source and essence of the universe as well as its disintegrator and destroyer; the temples dedicated to him in his reproducing and vivifying character [as denoted by the Liṅga q.v.] are scattered all over India; the various sects of Śaivas are described in [Religious Thought and Life in India 86 etc.])

4) a particular religious rite in honour of Durgā (consisting of devout meditation and prostration of the body), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

5) the thorn-apple, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) a kind of plant (= vasuka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) (with Jainas), Name of the fifth black Vāsudeva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) n. auspiciousness, welfare, prosperity, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

9) Name of a Śāstra and of a Tantra and of a Purāṇa (See below).

10) 2. śaiva Vṛddhi form of śiva in [compound]

11) 3. śaiva n. a kind of aquatic plant, Blyxa Octandra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) 4. śaiva [wrong reading] for śaiba.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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