Ganda, Gaṇḍa: 20 definitions

Introduction

Ganda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Daivi Varnashram: Nakṣatra Gaṇḍānta

Gaṇḍa has been clearly defined by Nārada as the period of a prahara (3 hours) covering the junction of agni and jala rāśi.

These junctions are

  1. Jyeṣṭha-Mūla (in Scorpio-Sagittarius) ,
  2. Aśleṣā-Maghā (in Cancer-Leo)
  3. and Revatī-Aśvinī (in Pisces-Aries).
Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “goiter”, which is a visible abnormal enlargement of the Thyroid gland. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and Suśruta-saṃhitā. The thyroid gland is a large endocrine gland in the human body consisting of two connected lobes. It controls energy sources, protein synthessis and the body’s hormone sensitivity.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Gaṇḍa (गण्ड) refers to an “abrupt remark”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5.

2) Gaṇḍa (गण्ड, “undue combination of words”) refers to one of the thirteen types of vīthi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 20. Gaṇḍa can also be translated as “abrupt remark”. Vīthi represents one of the daśarūpa or, “ten kinds of dramatic plays”, which are said to have originated from the various styles (vṛtti), discussed in chapter 22 of the same work.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड).—One of the thirteen types of vīthi;—Undue Combination of Words (gaṇḍa) according to the wise, occurs due to excitement, confusion, quarrel, reviling and many people’s abusive words

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Gaṇḍā (गण्डा).—A dāsī, who served the saptarṣis. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 93).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Gardener of Pasenadi, king of Kusala. It was he who offered to the Buddha the mango, the seed of which produced the Gandamba (J.iv.264). The Apadana Commentary (i.97) calls the gardener Gandabba, and the Divyavadana (p.157) calls him Gandaka.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड, “ulcer”) refers to one of the eight kinds of contemplations (anupaśyanā) among the Buddha’s disciples, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “for them, everything is impermanent (anitya), suffering (duḥkha), empty (śūnya), egoless (anātmaka), like a sickness (roga), an ulcer (gaṇḍa), like an arrow (śalya) stuck in one’s body, like an agony (agha)”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Gaṇḍī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Gaṇḍa] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड) is an example of a name based on animalso mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Derivation of personal names (eg., Gaṇḍa) during the rule of the Guptas followed patterns such as tribes, places, rivers and mountains.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Gaṇḍa.—(EI 12), cf. Tamil Gaṇḍaṉ; a hero, probably from the meaning ‘rhinoceros’; cf. similar use of vyāghra, siṃha, etc.; also cf. Paragaṇḍabhairava (EI 29). See Gaṇdaṉ and Gaṇda- peṇḍāra; also Calamartigaṇḍa. Note: gaṇḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Gaṇḍā.—(IE 8-6; EI 19; IA 27), in the monetary system of some areas of medieval and modern India, regarded as equal to four cowrie-shells and (1/20) of a paṇa; also a small area of land, twenty of which make one kānī. Note: gaṇḍā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Gaṇḍa.—ṉ (SITI), Tamil; a warrior. Note: gaṇḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Gaṇḍā.—equal to 4 cowrie-shells; (1/20) of a paṇa; cf. gaṇḍaka. Note: gaṇḍā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

gaṇḍa : (m.) a boil; a swelling; a protuberance.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Gaṇḍa, (a variation of gaṇṭha (-i), in both meanings of (1) swelling, knot, protuberance, and (2) the interstice between two knots or the whole of the knotty object, i.e. stem, stalk)—1. a swelling, esp. as a disease, an abscess, a boil. frequent in similes with ref. to kāma and kāya. Mentioned with similar cutaneous diseases under kilāsa (q. v. for loci). As Ep. of kāya S.IV, 83=A.IV, 386, of kāmā A.III, 310, IV.289; Nd2 on Sn.51; also Th.2, 491 (=dukkhatā sūlaya ThA.288); S.IV, 64 (=ejā); Sn.51, 61 (v. l. for gaḷa); J.I, 293; Vism.360 (°pilakā); DhA.III, 297 (gaṇḍ-ā-gaṇḍajāta, covered with all kinds of boils); IV, 175; PvA.55. Cp. Av. S.II, 1681.—2. a stalk, a shaft, in N. of a plant —°tindu-rukkha J.V, 99, and in der. gaṇḍikā & gaṇḍī, cp. also Av. S.II, 13312. ‹-› 3.=gaṇḍuppāda in cpd. gaṇḍamattikā clay mixed with earth-worms Vin.II, 151 (cp. Bdhgh. gaṇḍuppādagūtha-mattikā clay mixed with excrement of earthworms Vin. Texts III, 172).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gaṇḍa (गंड).—m (S) A side of the face including the temple, a cheek. 2 An elephant's cheek or temple. 3 The name of the tenth Yog. Hence fig. 4 The force, fierceness, violence, vehemence (of any disease, of rain, wind, the itch). 5 fig. The vaunting or swelling of pride or conceit. v mōḍa, jirava. 6 n A boil. 7 An affix expressive of disgust or contempt attached to the designations of certain orders; as to tēlī, vāṇī, māḷī, jōśī, forming tēlagaṇḍa, vāṇagaṇḍa, māḷagaṇḍa, jōsagaṇḍa, and to the proper names of Kun̤bis gen.

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gaṇḍā (गंडा).—m An aggregate of four (cowries or pice). 2 The string which teachers of particular arts and crafts (singers, dancers, charmers, conjurers) bind round a finger or the wrist of the right arm of their pupils. v ghāla, kara, bāndha. 3 An ornamental cord of black thread bound round the neck of a horse. 4 A charmed cord bound round the wrist or ankle to avert or remove demoniac influence. gaṇḍā ghālaṇēṃ or caḍhaviṇēṃ To bewitch, wheedle, cajole, beguile: also to cheat or trick gen.

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gāṇḍa (गांड).—f (guda S) The posteriors. 2 The anus. 3 fig. The hinder or lower side; the back or bottom of a thing gen.) gāṃ0 jaḍa hōṇēṃ g. of s. To become disdainful or elated with pride. gāṃ0 tōṇḍa hātīṃ dharaṇēṃ To take to lechery and gluttony. gāṃ0 phāṭaṇēṃ g. of s. To be overcome with terror or fear, to funk. gāṃ0 māraṇēṃ To abuse a tergo. gāṇḍīnta suṇṭha phuṅkaṇēṃ g. of o. To put up to; to set on; to incite or instigate. gāṇḍīvara ghāva ghēṇēṃ To be repulsed with dishonor; to fail shamefully in an undertaking. gāṇḍīvara rēgha ōḍhaṇēṃ To draw back, decline, recede meanly. Note. Phrases in use--in use with the vulgar and the polished, with the illiterate and the learned, with males and females, with the man of hoary head and the yet lisping child, and in ordinary, familiar, accepted, and most approved use--amount to hundreds. They are heard in the market and on the road, in the field and in the house, in the discussion of matters of sober business and in angry altercations or fightings. They form an important constituent of many causes and cases which ultimately appear in the halls of the Collector and in the courts of the Judge. This reason for inserting them--and this has been our reason for inserting others of the gross and coarse phrases and terms of the nation's vocabulary--has, however, been deemed insufficient, and all but the above few are omitted. This observation and this notice apply also to the compounds occurring below.

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gāṇḍā (गांडा).—m ( H) A sugarcane.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gaṇḍa (गंड).—m A cheek; an elephant's temple. n A boil.

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gaṇḍā (गंडा).—m Aggregate of four (cowries). A charmed cord bound round the wrist or ankle to avert or remove demoniac influence. gaṇḍā ghālaṇēṃ Cajole, beguile, bewitch; also to cheat or trick.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड).—1 The cheek, the whole side of the face including the temples; गण्डाभोगे पुलकपटलम् (gaṇḍābhoge pulakapaṭalam) Māl.2.5; तदीष- दार्द्रारुणगण्डलेखम् (tadīṣa- dārdrāruṇagaṇḍalekham) Ku.7.82; Me.26,93; Amaru.83; Ṛs.4.6;6.1; Ś.6.18; Śi.12.54.

2) An elephant's temple; गण्डोड्डीनालिमाला° (gaṇḍoḍḍīnālimālā°) Māl.1.1.

3) A bubble.

4) A boil, tumour, swelling, pimple; अयमपरो गण्डस्योपरि विस्फोटः (ayamaparo gaṇḍasyopari visphoṭaḥ) Mu.5; तदा गण्डस्योपरि पिटिका संवृत्ता (tadā gaṇḍasyopari piṭikā saṃvṛttā) Ś.2.

5) Goitre and other excrescences of the neck.

6) A joint, knot.

7) A mark, spot; गण्डोज्ज्वलामुज्ज्वलनाभिचक्रया (gaṇḍojjvalāmujjvalanābhicakrayā) Śi.12.8.

8) A rhinoceros.

9) The bladder.

1) A hero, warrior.

11) Part of a horse's trappings, a stud or button fixed as an ornament upon the harness.

12) An unexpected combination of words consisting in putting one speech immediately after another, so as to be syntactically connected; see वीथि (vīthi); e. g. राक्षसः- अपि नाम दुरात्मा चाणक्यबटुः । दौवारिकः -जयतु । -रा° -अति- संधातुं शक्यः स्यात् । --दौ° -अमात्यः (rākṣasaḥ- api nāma durātmā cāṇakyabaṭuḥ | dauvārikaḥ -jayatu | -rā° -ati- saṃdhātuṃ śakyaḥ syāt | --dau° -amātyaḥ) | Mu.4; so किमस्या न प्रेयो यदि पुनरसह्यस्तु विरहः (kimasyā na preyo yadi punarasahyastu virahaḥ). --दौ° -देव उपस्थितः (dau° -deva upasthitaḥ) U.1.

13) The tenth yoga or one of the twenty-seven portions of a circle on the plane of the ecliptic.

14) An astronomical period.

Derivable forms: gaṇḍaḥ (गण्डः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड).—m. (nt. ? compare also gaṇḍikā and gaṇḍaka), (1) stalk of a plant (in this sense, somewhat doubtfully, in Pali, see [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary]): ikṣu-gaṇḍā, acc. pl., Mahāvastu i.21.9; nā- ḍāṅkura-gaṇḍa- Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 18.4; aṅkura-gaṇḍa-pattra- Bodhisattvabhūmi 99.24; especially as possessing medicinal properties, gaṇḍa- bhaiṣajyam Mahāvyutpatti 5839; mūla-bhaiṣajyaṃ gaṇḍa-bhai° Bhikṣuṇī-karmavācanā 23b.1; mūla-gaṇḍa-pattra-puṣpa-phala-bhaiṣajya Divyāvadāna 100.16; 109.25; 347.6; 486.16 (om. puṣpa); Avadāna-śataka ii.133.12; bhaiṣajya-vṛkṣasya mūlato vā…gaṇḍataḥ śākhātaḥ tvaktaḥ…Śikṣāsamuccaya 21.17; (2) piece, part, portion (compare gaṇḍa Kathās. 94.66 ‘fehlerhaft für khaṇḍa’, [Boehtlingk], but?): madhyamako gaṇḍaḥ Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.104.19; gaṇḍa-gaṇḍaṃ, adv., in pieces, Divyāvadāna 155.13 (see s.v. gaṇḍaka, 3); kati-gaṇḍā, of how many parts ? (sāvitrī) Divyāvadāna 638.2, sāvitrī tri-gaṇḍā 3; pañca-gaṇḍa-gati-cakra, Gaṇḍavyūha 484.9 (verse), the wheel of the five-partite (five-fold) states of existence, = saṃsāra-cakra, see s.v. (pañca-) gaṇḍaka 1; (3) rhinoceros (so Sanskrit Lex.; also gaṇḍaka 2, q.v.): Mahāvyutpatti 4793 = Tibetan bse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड).—m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. A cheek, the whole side of the face including the temple. 2. An elephant’s temple or cheek. 3. A boil, a pimple. 4. A mark, a spot. 5. A bubble. 6. A knot. 7. A rhinoceros: (see gaṇḍaka) 8. Part of a horse’s trappings, a stud or button fixed as an ornament upon the harness. 9. A hero. 10. The abrupt interchange of question and answer, as one of the characteristics of the dramatic composition called Vithi. 11. The tenth Yoga, or one of the twenty-seven portions of a circle on the plane of the ecliptic: see yoga. 12. An astronomical period. E. gaḍi to affect the cheek, ac affix, or gam to go, ḍa Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaṇḍa (गण्ड).—[masculine] cheek, side of the face (adj. —° [feminine] ā & ī), side i.[grammar]; boil, pimple, crop, (pledge*).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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