Vigraha; 11 Definition(s)


Vigraha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

vigraha–Sanskrit term meaning 'extension', 'expansion' or 'form' and used in hindu iconology (eg. the Āgamas).

Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Vigraha (विग्रह) is a Sanskrit word translating to “extension”, “expansion” or “form”. It is used throughout texts and practice of Hindu iconology.

There are two types of icons (vigraha):

  1. mūlavigraha (main deity),
  2. utsavavigraha (proxy icon).
Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to “twofold war”. Vigraha is considered to be one of the six constituents of state-craft that the King shall constantly ponder over. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Nītiprakāśikā 8.81 and the Manubhāṣya 7.160)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Vigraha, War, is that by which the enemy is pressed and subdued. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 7.160 et. seq.)

War is of two kinds—

  1. declared by one’s self against an enemy,
  2. and undertaken for helping an ally attacked by an enemy.
Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Vigraha (विग्रह).—Lit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word; it is described to be of two kinds: (a) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ (śāstrīyavigrahṛ) or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुषः (rājapuruṣaḥ) into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु (rājan ṅas puruṣa su) and (2) लौकिकविग्रह (laukikavigraha) or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूषः (rājapurūṣaḥ) into राज्ञः पुरुषः (rājñaḥ puruṣaḥ). It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह (svapadāvigraha) separation by means of the constituent words, e.g. राजहितम् (rājahitam) into राज्ञे हृितम् (rājñe hṛिtam);(b) अस्वपदविग्रह (asvapadavigraha), e. g. राजार्थम् (rājārtham) into राज्ञे इदम् (rājñe idam) ;or e.g. सुमुखीं (sumukhīṃ) into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः (śobhanaṃ mukhaṃ asyāḥ) cf. M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamasa. The term नित्यसमास (nityasamāsa) is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः । यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । (nityaḥ samāso nityasamāsaḥ | yasya vigraho nāsti |) M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamasa is described as नित्यसमास (nityasamāsa). Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words e.g. the words द्यावा (dyāvā) and क्षामा (kṣāmā) of the compound द्यावाक्षामा (dyāvākṣāmā). The word विग्रह (vigraha) is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf. अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति (accheti vigrahe plutaṃ bhavati) R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ (vigrahṛ) is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः (vṛtyarthāvabodhakaṃ vākyaṃ vigrahaḥ) in the Siddhantakaumudi.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Vigraha in Purana glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

1) Vigraha (विग्रह).—One of the two attendants given to Subrahmaṇya by the ocean. The other one was Saṅgraha. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 50). (See full article at Story of Vigraha from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Vigraha (विग्रह).—One of the six attributes of Kings. (See under Ṣaḍguṇa).

3) Vigraha (विग्रह).—(Image). General information. God, who is not discernible to the outward senses, is given embodiment and consecrated in places of worship by people. These figures are called Vigrahas (idols or images). People worship Śālagrāma, (a kind of ammonite found in the river Gaṇḍakī), Bāṇaliṅga (Phallus), mystical diagrams, animals, birds, trees, rivers, lakes, places of death etc. and so many other things.

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Vigraha (विग्रह) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.46) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vigraha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Vigraha in Jainism glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

Vigraha (विग्रह, “with bend”).—according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.28, “the movement of the transmigrating souls (saṃsārī) is with bend (vigraha) also prior to the fourth instant”. How many types of movement with bend in transitory state are here? It is of three types namely parimuktā, lādagalikā and gomūtrikā.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Vigraha in Marathi glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

vigraha (विग्रह).—m S Battle, fighting, quarreling. 2 The body. 3 A term of grammar. Explication of a compounded or derived word; exhibition of its component parts or of its stock, and of the mode of composition or derivation.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vigraha (विग्रह).—m Battle, fighting. The body. A term of grammar. Dissolution or ex- plication of a compound word.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vigraha (विग्रह).—

1) Stretching out, extension, expansion.

2) Form, figure, shape; यथा लोहस्य निःस्यन्दो निषिक्तो बिम्ब- विग्रहम् (yathā lohasya niḥsyando niṣikto bimba- vigraham) Mb.14.18.9.

3) The body; त्रयी विग्रहवत्येव सम- मध्यात्मविद्यया (trayī vigrahavatyeva sama- madhyātmavidyayā) M.1.14; गूढविग्रहः (gūḍhavigrahaḥ) R.3.39;9.52; Ki.4.11; 12.43.

4) Resolution, dissolution, analysis, separation (as of a compound word into its component parts); वृत्त्यर्थ (vṛttyartha)- (samāsārtha) -बोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः (bodhakaṃ vākyaṃ vigrahaḥ).

5) Quarrel, strife (often, love-quarrel or praṇayakalaha); विग्रहाच्च शयने पराङ्मुखीर्नानुनेतु- मवलाः स तत्वरे (vigrahācca śayane parāṅmukhīrnānunetu- mavalāḥ sa tatvare) R.19.38;9.47; Śi.11.35; शत्रौ मित्रे पुत्रे बन्धौ मा कुरु यत्नं विग्रहसन्धौ (śatrau mitre putre bandhau mā kuru yatnaṃ vigrahasandhau) Śaṃkarāchārya.

6) War, hostilities, fighting, battle (opp. saṃdhi); उग्राय विग्रहायास्मै त्वया प्रेषयता ह्यमुम् (ugrāya vigrahāyāsmai tvayā preṣayatā hyamum) Śiva B.17.35; one of the six Guṇas or modes of policy; Ms.7.16; see गुण (guṇa).

7) Disfavour; अनुग्रहं विग्रहं वा मन्यसे तद्विधेहि नः (anugrahaṃ vigrahaṃ vā manyase tadvidhehi naḥ) Bhāg.1.16.59.

8) A part, portion, division; परिमाणं च कालस्य कल्पलक्षणविग्रहम् (parimāṇaṃ ca kālasya kalpalakṣaṇavigraham).

Derivable forms: vigrahaḥ (विग्रहः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 77 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Utsavavigraha (उत्सवविग्रह).—Image for procession (Kondividu Inscription of Kriṣṇarāya). Deriva...
Khaṇḍitavigraha (खण्डितविग्रह).—mfn. (-haḥ-hā-haṃ) Maimed, mutilated. E. khaṇḍita, and vigraha ...
Bhīmavigraha (भीमविग्रह).—mfn. (-haḥ-hā-haṃ) Gigantic, terrific in appearance. E. bhīma, and vi...
Suvigraha (सुविग्रह) is an ambassador (dūta) of Mṛgāṅkadatta, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara...
Vigraha-dramma-visvovaka.—‘(1/20) of the vigraha-dramma’; see dramma and viṃśopaka. Note: vigra...
Ghoṭaka-vigraha.—(CII 4; BL), ‘a battle of horses’; probably, an encounter of horsemen; cf. cat...
Tantuvigrahā (तन्तुविग्रहा).—a plantain. Tantuvigrahā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the ...
Sandhi-vigraha-karaṇa.—cf. karaṇa (LP); department of foreign affairs. Note: sandhi-vigraha-kar...
Mūlavigraha (मूलविग्रह) refers to the icon (vigraha) of the main deity of a temple. It is us...
Pārṣṇivigraha (पार्ष्णिविग्रह).—an attack by an enmy in the rear; मा विधान्मुधा कृतानुतापस्त्वय...
Sarvavigraha (सर्वविग्रह).—Name of Śiva. Derivable forms: sarvavigrahaḥ (सर्वविग्रहः).Sarvavigr...
Vigrahecchu (विग्रहेच्छु).—a. eager for combat. Vigrahecchu is a Sanskrit compound consisting o...
Asthivigraha (अस्थिविग्रह).—a. reduced to a skeleton. -haḥ Name of भृङ्गिन् (bhṛṅgin) Śiva's at...
Svavigraha (स्वविग्रह).—one's own body. Derivable forms: svavigrahaḥ (स्वविग्रहः).Svavigraha is...
Vigraheśvara (विग्रहेश्वर) refers to the “eight lords of divisions”, according to a copper-plat...

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