Vigraha: 27 definitions


Vigraha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama

vigraha–Sanskrit term meaning 'extension', 'expansion' or 'form' and used in hindu iconology (e.g. the Āgamas).

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Pancaratra from relevant books on Exotic India

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Vigraha (विग्रह) is a Sanskrit word translating to “extension”, “expansion” or “form”. It is used throughout texts and practice of Hindu iconology.

There are two types of icons (vigraha):

  1. mūlavigraha (main deity),
  2. utsavavigraha (proxy icon).
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Shilpashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to “twofold war”. Vigraha is considered to be one of the six constituents of state-craft that the King shall constantly ponder over. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Nītiprakāśikā 8.81 and the Manubhāṣya 7.160)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Vigraha, War, is that by which the enemy is pressed and subdued. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 7.160 et. seq.)

War is of two kinds—

  1. declared by one’s self against an enemy,
  2. and undertaken for helping an ally attacked by an enemy.
Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Dharmashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vigraha (विग्रह).—Lit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word; it is described to be of two kinds: (a) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ (śāstrīyavigrahṛ) or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुषः (rājapuruṣaḥ) into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु (rājan ṅas puruṣa su) and (2) लौकिकविग्रह (laukikavigraha) or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूषः (rājapurūṣaḥ) into राज्ञः पुरुषः (rājñaḥ puruṣaḥ). It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह (svapadāvigraha) separation by means of the constituent words, e.g. राजहितम् (rājahitam) into राज्ञे हृितम् (rājñe hṛिtam);(b) अस्वपदविग्रह (asvapadavigraha), e. g. राजार्थम् (rājārtham) into राज्ञे इदम् (rājñe idam) ;or e.g. सुमुखीं (sumukhīṃ) into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः (śobhanaṃ mukhaṃ asyāḥ) cf. M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamasa. The term नित्यसमास (nityasamāsa) is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः । यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । (nityaḥ samāso nityasamāsaḥ | yasya vigraho nāsti |) M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamasa is described as नित्यसमास (nityasamāsa). Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words e.g. the words द्यावा (dyāvā) and क्षामा (kṣāmā) of the compound द्यावाक्षामा (dyāvākṣāmā). The word विग्रह (vigraha) is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf. अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति (accheti vigrahe plutaṃ bhavati) R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ (vigrahṛ) is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः (vṛtyarthāvabodhakaṃ vākyaṃ vigrahaḥ) in the Siddhantakaumudi.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to the “physical body” (of Śiva), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.19. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] thus commanded by Śiva in the presence of all, Viṣṇu spoke thus propitiating the great lord:—‘[...] Who are you? Who am I? Who is Brahmā? Your own three parts—you being the supreme soul. They are different only as the cause of creation, sustenance and dissolution. You shall think of yourself through your own self. O divine one, taking up a physical body (vigraha) by your own sports (svalīlā), you are the sole Brahman, while we three in attributive forms are your very parts’”.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Vigraha (विग्रह).—One of the two attendants given to Subrahmaṇya by the ocean. The other one was Saṅgraha. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 50). (See full article at Story of Vigraha from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Vigraha (विग्रह).—One of the six attributes of Kings. (See under Ṣaḍguṇa).

3) Vigraha (विग्रह).—(Image). General information. God, who is not discernible to the outward senses, is given embodiment and consecrated in places of worship by people. These figures are called Vigrahas (idols or images). People worship Śālagrāma, (a kind of ammonite found in the river Gaṇḍakī), Bāṇaliṅga (Phallus), mystical diagrams, animals, birds, trees, rivers, lakes, places of death etc. and so many other things.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Vigraha (विग्रह) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.46) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vigraha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to “strife”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(The Śāmbhava yogi) has the authority (to perform the rites), knows the scripture and has a consort. He practices secretly and is always a renouncer. (Being) a householder, he observes the Rule. Solitary, he has a wife and, well hidden, he eats the sacrificial pap. One who has abandoned strife [i.e., saṃtyakta-vigraha], (being) tranquil and austere, he attains (the liberated state of) the Skyfarer. He has obtained initiation and, consecrated, he desires success in mantra. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to the “body”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I worship the three-eyed sharp-natured Kṣetreśa. His body is black (kṛṣṇa-vigraha), he has destroyed his adversaries, he carries a skull-bowl and a spear, [but] he is compassionate. I resort to Śaṅkhanidhi and Padmanidhi, who who sit upon a conch and lotus [respectively] as their seats. They are patient, bear the gestures of generosity and protection in their hands, and bring about everyone’s dreams. [...]

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to “one’s form”, according to the Mahānayaprakāśa by Arṇasiṃha (Cf. verse 182-197).—Accordingly, “He whose form (vigraha) is the (one) supreme and non-dual (reality) that is the supreme Void free of alterations and who makes all these modalities (of consciousness) one in his own essential nature through the process of reversal, is famed as (the teacher) called Mīnanātha”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to the “body” (of Parameśvara), according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—In a hidden sanctuary, the mantra master should sit on a soft cushion and should visualise himself as having the body (vigraha) of Parameśvara, as if [he were transformed into] Kāmeśvara, having no beginning and no end, shining like millions of suns. [...] ”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to an “individual body”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.2-5]—“O Deva, if [mantras] consist of the nature of Śiva, [which is] ubiquitous , formless, and [if he] does not perform action , how can [mantras] be agents of action? And how do they create a state [in which one] performs them [when they are] formless? Who does [that performance] without an individual body (vigrahavigraheṇa vinā kāryaṃ)? Speak, O Lord. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Vigraha (विग्रह) refers to the “body”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...] [He should meditate on] moistures of pleasure of wisdom and means in all junctures throughout the body (vigraha). He should visualize [himself (Heruka)] being splendorous with fires, [which assume the shape of] various [forms of] Heruka. The vow-observer should give turbans to the heads of all [Herukas] . [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Vigraha (विग्रह, “with bend”).—according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.28, “the movement of the transmigrating souls (saṃsārī) is with bend (vigraha) also prior to the fourth instant”. How many types of movement with bend in transitory state are here? It is of three types namely parimuktā, lādagalikā and gomūtrikā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vigraha (विग्रह).—m S Battle, fighting, quarreling. 2 The body. 3 A term of grammar. Explication of a compounded or derived word; exhibition of its component parts or of its stock, and of the mode of composition or derivation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vigraha (विग्रह).—m Battle, fighting. The body. A term of grammar. Dissolution or ex- plication of a compound word.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vigraha (विग्रह).—

1) Stretching out, extension, expansion.

2) Form, figure, shape; यथा लोहस्य निःस्यन्दो निषिक्तो बिम्ब- विग्रहम् (yathā lohasya niḥsyando niṣikto bimba- vigraham) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.18.9.

3) The body; त्रयी विग्रहवत्येव सम- मध्यात्मविद्यया (trayī vigrahavatyeva sama- madhyātmavidyayā) M.1.14; गूढविग्रहः (gūḍhavigrahaḥ) R.3.39;9.52; Kirātārjunīya 4.11; 12.43.

4) Resolution, dissolution, analysis, separation (as of a compound word into its component parts); वृत्त्यर्थ (vṛttyartha)- (samāsārtha) -बोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः (bodhakaṃ vākyaṃ vigrahaḥ).

5) Quarrel, strife (often, love-quarrel or praṇayakalaha); विग्रहाच्च शयने पराङ्मुखीर्नानुनेतु- मवलाः स तत्वरे (vigrahācca śayane parāṅmukhīrnānunetu- mavalāḥ sa tatvare) R.19.38;9.47; Śiśupālavadha 11.35; शत्रौ मित्रे पुत्रे बन्धौ मा कुरु यत्नं विग्रहसन्धौ (śatrau mitre putre bandhau mā kuru yatnaṃ vigrahasandhau) Śaṃkarāchārya.

6) War, hostilities, fighting, battle (opp. saṃdhi); उग्राय विग्रहायास्मै त्वया प्रेषयता ह्यमुम् (ugrāya vigrahāyāsmai tvayā preṣayatā hyamum) Śiva B.17.35; one of the six Guṇas or modes of policy; Manusmṛti 7.16; see गुण (guṇa).

7) Disfavour; अनुग्रहं विग्रहं वा मन्यसे तद्विधेहि नः (anugrahaṃ vigrahaṃ vā manyase tadvidhehi naḥ) Bhāgavata 1.16.59.

8) A part, portion, division; परिमाणं च कालस्य कल्पलक्षणविग्रहम् (parimāṇaṃ ca kālasya kalpalakṣaṇavigraham).

Derivable forms: vigrahaḥ (विग्रहः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vigraha (विग्रह).—m.

(-haḥ) 1. The body. 2. Extension, expansion, diffusion. 3. A portion, a part. 4. Shape, form, figure. 5. (A grammatical term,) The proper application or sene of a compound word, resolution, analysis, separation. mn.

(-haḥ-haṃ) 1. War, battle, hostility, (considered as one of the six modes of foreign policy.) 2. Quarrel. 3. Disfavour. 4. Opposition, encounter. E. vi various, (happiness, &c.) grah to take, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vigraha (विग्रह).—[vi-grah + a], I. m. and n. 1. War, battle, [Pañcatantra] 149, 14; [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 9, M.M. 2. Opposition, encounter, quarrel, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 42. 3. Disfavour, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 247. Ii. m. 1. Extension. 2. Shape, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 43. 3. The body, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 2, 15. 4. A portion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vigraha (विग्रह).—[masculine] separation, division; isolation, analysis (g); discord, contest, quarrel, war with ([instrumental] ±saha, sākam, or sārdham, [locative], [genetive] [with] upari, or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vigraha (विग्रह):—[=vi-graha] [from vi] 1. vi-graha mfn. (for 2. See vi-√grah) freed from ‘the Seizer’ id est. Rāhu (said of the moon), [Rāmāyaṇa]

2) [=vi-graha] [from vi-grah] 2. vi-graha m. (for 1. See p.950.[column]2) keeping apart or asunder, isolation, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] division, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] distribution ([especially] of fluids cf. vi-√grah), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

5) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) independence (of a word, as opp. to composition), [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya]

6) [v.s. ...] separation, resolution, analysis, resolution of a compound word into its constituent parts, the separation or analysis of any word capable of separation (such words are Kṛdantas, Taddhitas, all Samāsas or compound words, Ekaśeṣas, and all derivative verbs like desideratives etc.; the only words incapable of resolution being the simple verb, the singular of the noun, and a few indeclinables not derived from roots; all compounds being called nitya or ‘fixed’, when their meaning cannot be ascertained through an analysis of their component parts; cf. jamad-agni), [Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]; Śaṃkarācārya] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] discord, quarrel, contest, strife, war with ([instrumental case] with or without saha, sārdham or sākam [locative case] [genitive case] with upari, or [compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] (one of the 6 Guṇas or measures of policy, [Manu-smṛti vii, 160] cf. under guṇa, also applied to the conflict of hostile planets, in this sense also n., [Sūryasiddhānta; Rāmāyaṇa]; [accusative] with √kṛ, to make or wage war)

9) [v.s. ...] separate id est. individual form or shape, form, figure, the body, [Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc. (also applied to the shape of a rainbow; [accusative] with √grah, pari-√grah, √kṛ, upā-√dā, to assume a form)

10) [v.s. ...] an ornament, decoration, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] (in Sāṃkhya) an element

12) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

13) [v.s. ...] of one of Skanda’s attendants, [ib.]

14) Vigrāha (विग्राह):—[=vi-grāha] [from vi-grah] m. a [particular] kind of recitation, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vigraha (विग्रह):—[vi-graha] (haḥ) 1. m. The body; extension; a part; shape. m. n. War, battle, encounter.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vigraha (विग्रह) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Viggaha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vigraha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vigraha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vigraha (विग्रह) [Also spelled vigrah]:—(nm) a strife, quarrel; form, idol (e.g. [devavigraha]); (in Grammar) resolution (of a compound word) into constituent pats, separation or analysis of a compound word; ~[] bellicose; pugnacious, quarrelsome.

context information


Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vigraha (ವಿಗ್ರಹ):—

1) [noun] the act of expanding, spreading (of something) over a wide area.

2) [noun] the form, shape (distinguished from colour, material, etc.).

3) [noun] the physical body (of a human).

4) [noun] an image of god; an idol.

5) [noun] a quarrel; a fight.

6) [noun] an open armed fight; a war.

7) [noun] a part or portion of a whole.

8) [noun] the sky.

9) [noun] the quality of being generous; generosity; magnanimity; nobility.

10) [noun] an analysis of a sentence into its basic grammatical elements.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of vigraha in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Related products

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: