Asthi, Ashthi, Aṣṭhi: 28 definitions

Introduction:

Asthi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Aṣṭhi can be transliterated into English as Asthi or Ashthi, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Asthi (अस्थि):—Sanskrit word for ‘bones’. It is associated with Dhvaja, which is the fifth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Asthi (अस्थि) refers to “bones”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra.—(Cf. pañcāmṛtākarṣaṇa—“extraction of the five nectars”).—The extraction of the five nectars (pañcāmṛtākarṣaṇa), as well as other, Kāpālika-type cremation ground practices, also figure in the Brahmayāmala, as Hatley (2007, 143ff.) points out. [...] Now in chapter 46 of the Brahmayāmala, much like the Kāpālikas, the practitioner makes ritual use of human flesh, hair (keśa), bones (asthi), body fluids (picu), particularly blood (rakta), and intestines (antra); moreover, he offers and drinks alcohol (madirā).

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Asthi (अस्थि, “bones”) like hear-wood for tree sustain (support) the human body. The bones have several joints and the human skeleton is bound by hundrerds of ligaments.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Asthi (अस्थि):—Bone specialised form of dense connective tissue consisting of bone cells embedded in a matrix made of calcified intercellular substance.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Asthi (अस्थि) refers to “bones”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “May they, whom I have recollected and are satisfied, accept the vessel of the bali. [...] O god! the bali has been offered to (them to chastise) those who despise the heroes, Siddhas and yogis on the surface of the earth here in the gathering of the practice of the Rule. May they destroy the hearing, memory, mind, sight, fat, flesh, bones [i.e., asthi] and life of the wicked in the great gathering of the Rule!”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Asthi (अस्थि) or Asthiketu refers to a particular type of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Vasā Ketu is a comet which lies with its head towards the north; it is of large size, glossy and appears in the west. When it appears there will be immediate deaths in the land but prosperity in the end. Asthi Ketu resembles the Vasā Ketu; but if it appears of sharp rays, there will be fear in the land. Śastra Ketu also resembles the Vasā Ketu but is glossy and appears in the west; and when it appears, there will be wars and deaths in the land”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Prem Pahlajrai: Pañcadaśī Chapter 7: Tṛptidīpa Prakaraṇam

Asthi (अस्थि) refers to the “bones”, according to the Pañcadaśī verse 7.140-141.—Accordingly: “What is there attractive in the cage‐like body, ever restless like a machine, of a woman who is but a doll made of flesh and consisting of nerves, bones and joints [i.e., snāyu-asthi-granthi]? Such are the defects of worldly pleasures, elaborately pointed out by the scriptures. No wise man, aware of these defects, will allow himself to be drowned in afflictions caused by them. [...]”.

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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Asthi (अस्थि) refers to a “bone” (of an animal), according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a cat [intrudes into the site] stepping over [a cord] while a cord is being cast, it should be understood that there is the bone of an ass (rāsabha-asthi) beneath that spot of the site. If a dog steps over a cord, [the officiant] should prognosticate the bone of a dog (śvāna-asthi) [beneath] the [spot of the site]. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Asthi (अस्थि) refers to “bones” (i.e., Asthimālā—‘a garland of bones’), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.30 (“The Celebration of Pārvatī’s Return”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Pārvatī became unconscious. She saw Śiva’s handsome form, bearing trident and other symbols before her vision. He had smeared the ashes all over His body. He was wearing a garland of bones (asthi-mālā). His face was beaming with his shining three eyes. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Asthi (bones) is a medical term used in Ayurveda.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Asthi (अस्थि, “bone”) (Pali, Aṭṭhi) refers to one of the thirty-substances of the human body according to the Visuddhimagga, as mentioned in an appendix of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32-34. The Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra mentions thirty-six substances [viz., asthi]; the Sanskrit sources of both the Lesser and the Greater Vehicles, physical substances are 26 in number while the Pāli suttas list thirty-once substances.

2) Asthi (अस्थि, “bone”) or Asthisaṃjñā refers to the “corpse reduced to bones” and represents the eighth of the “nine horrible notions” (aśubhasaṃjñā), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 35. These nine notions of the horrible eliminate the seven types of lust (saptavidha-rāga) in people. By means of the meditation on the nine notions [viz., Asthi], the minds of lust (rāga) are eliminated, but hatred (dveṣa) and delusion (moha) are also decreased. These nine notions eventually lead to the enjoyment of the eternal bliss of Nirvāṇa.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Asthi (अस्थि) refers to “bones”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Nāga kings said to the Bhagavān], “[...] Our bodies crumble to small pieces until the skeleton (asthi-saṃkala) remains. Then, O Bhagavān, we all release rain showers quickly and speedily. If we do not release rain showers rapidly, then, O Bhagavān, all [of us] shall be subject to death. We will die with our children and grand-children”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Asthi (अस्थि) (Cf. Kīkasa) refers to the “bone” (of a specific kind of creature), according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If a cord is stepped over by a specific kind of creature, then there must be a bone (asthi) of that creature beneath the site on which the cord is being cast. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Asthi (अस्थि) refers to “bones”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Where is the body, which is filled with blood, flesh and fat, has a skeleton of slender bones [com.asthi-samūha—‘having an assemblage of bones’], is bound with tendons and is of bad odour, praised? Continually pouring forth putrid smells through [its] nine orifices, the human body is ever perishable [and] dependent on other [things]”.

Synonyms: Kīkasa.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Asthi (“elephant”) is one of the exogamous septs (divisions) among the Komatis (a trading caste of the Madras Presidency). The Komatis are said to have originally lived, and still live in large numbers on the banks of the Godavari river. One of the local names thereof is Gomati or Gomti, and the Sanskrit Gomati would, in Telugu, become corrupted into Komati. The sub-divisions are split up into septs (viz., Asthi), which are of a strictly exogamous character.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

asthi (अस्थि).—f n (S) A bone. Ex. of comp. kapālāsthi, tarūṇāṃsthi or nalakāsthi, dantāsthi or rūcakāsthi, vala- yāsthi.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

asthi (अस्थि).—f A bone. asthipañjara m The skele- ton or compages of bones.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Aṣṭhi (अष्ठि).—f.

1) A stone or kernel.

2) Seed.

Derivable forms: aṣṭhiḥ (अष्ठिः).

--- OR ---

Asthi (अस्थि).—n. [asyate as-kathin Uṇādi-sūtra 3.154]

1) A bone (changed to astha at the end of certain compounds; cf. anastha, puruṣāstha).

2) The kernel or stone of a fruit; जम्बूफलानामत्युच्चनिपातविशीर्णानामनस्थिप्रायाणाम् (jambūphalānāmatyuccanipātaviśīrṇānāmanasthiprāyāṇām) Bhāgavata 5.16. 19; न कार्पासास्थि न तुषान् (na kārpāsāsthi na tuṣān) Manusmṛti 4.78. [cf. L. os; Gr. osteon; Zend. asta; Pers. astah]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aṣṭhi (अष्ठि).—f.

(-ṣṭhiḥ) A kernel, a stone. E. a neg. sthā to remain, in aff.

--- OR ---

Asthi (अस्थि).—n. (-sthi) A bone. E. asa to throw, &c. and kthin aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Asthi (अस्थि).—asthi; several cases have asthan as their base, n. 1. A bone, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 9. 2. A kernel, seed, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 78.

— Cf. [Latin] os, gen. ossis, for ostis.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Asthi (अस्थि).—[neuter] bone; poss. asthimant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Aṣṭhi (अष्ठि):—[from aṣṭi] f. idem, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] the bone of the knee or elbow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Asthi (अस्थि):—n. (See asthan), a bone, [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc.

4) the kernel of a fruit, [Suśruta] (cf. 3. aṣṭi);

5) [Latin] os, ossis assimilated [from] ostis; [Greek] ὀστέον

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Aṣṭhi (अष्ठि):—(ṣṭhiḥ) 2. f. A kernel or stone.

2) Asthi (अस्थि):—(sthi) 2. n. Bone.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Asthi (अस्थि) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Aṃṭhi, Aṭṭhi, Aṭṭhiga, Aṭṭhiya, Aṭṭhillaya, Atthi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Asthi in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Asthi (अस्थि):—(nf) a bone; -[paṃjara] a skeleton; ~[śeṣa] reduced to a skeleton, skeletonised.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Aṣṭhi (ಅಷ್ಠಿ):—[noun] a seed pod; the stone of a fruit (as of mango).

--- OR ---

Asthi (ಅಸ್ಥಿ):—[noun] any of the separate parts of the hard connective tissue forming the skeleton of most full-grown vertebrate animals; a bone.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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