Gulma: 31 definitions


Gulma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Gulm.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Gulma (गुल्म) refers to a “tumor”, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and Suśruta-saṃhitā.

2) Gulma is a Sanskrit medical term used in Ayurveda meaning “abdominal glands”.

3) Gulma (गुल्म, “bush, shrub”).—One the classifications of plants according to their stature. Gulmas are succelent scrubs of various types (like Bhāṭhā). The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Gulma is listed as a classification for plants in the following sources:

The Manusmṛti 1.46-48 by Manu (also known as the Manusaṃhitā and Mānavadharmaśāstra).
The Kiraṇāvalī by Udayanācārya, which is a commentary on the Praśastapādabhāṣya.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to a tree (mahīja) without a trunk, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Gulma] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Note: from root to stem (where from branching starts) the position is known as ‘Prakāṇḍa’, therefore a Gulma is that tree, which starts branching from the very ground. This is more indicative of a shrub.

Source: Google Books: Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam: Essentials of Ayurveda

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “abdominal mass”.—Gulma is a disorder characterized by tumour-like hard (round) mass unstable in size and consistency, moving or immobile, situated in bowel and caused predominantly by vāta. The symptoms of the disease are as follows—loss of digestion, anorexia, difficulty in excretion of urine, faeces and flatus; hard flatulence, upward movement of wind and gurgling sound.

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “visceral induration”, mentioned in verse 4.15-17 and 5.13-14 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Visceral induration [viz., gulma], heart-disease, and stupor (result) from suppressed panting with fatigue. In this case relaxation (is) wholesome and the wind-destroying method of treatment. [...] catarrh, pain in the eyes, the head, and the heart, stiffness of the neck, anorexia, and giddiness—along with visceral induration [viz., gulma]— (result) from (suppressed) tears. In this case sleep, liquor, (and) cheerful words (are wholesome) ”.

Note (verse 15): The dvandva compound gulmahṛdrogasaṃmoha—“visceral induration, heartdisease, and stupor” has been represented somewhat incongruously by skran daṅ sñiṅ nad myos-par ’gyur, lit. “one gets sick with visceral induration and in the heart (as well as) stuporous”. Were it not for the terminative myos-par, one would rather translate: “visceral induration, heart-disease, (and) stupor are caused”.

Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “abdominal lump”. Medicinal formulations in the management of this condition include 22 references of Vatsanābha usages. Guṭikā is maximum (16) dosage form in the management of Gulma. Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “phantom tumours”, and is dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha (chapter 6) written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs during that time, disease (viz., gulma) manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “chlorosis” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning gulma] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Gulma (गुल्म):—Plants with multiple stems arising from one root & with a drooping canopy; Shrubs

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “branchless shrubs”. These plants are used to mark the boundary between two villages. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.247)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Gulma (गुल्म).—See under Akṣauhiṇī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Gulma (गुल्म).—A son of Sārāṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 165.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Gulma (गुल्म) is the name of a son of Somaśarman, a Brāhman from Supratiṣṭhita, whose storiers are related in the ‘story of Guṇāḍhya’, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara chapter 6. Somaśarman had 2 sons named Vatsa and Gulma, and he also had a daughter named Śrutārthā.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Gulma, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to a “kind of tumour in the belly” according to the fifth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 11). Accordingly, “Gulmas are a kind of tumour growing in the belly. They are due to an abnormal excess of the three doshas, caused, of course, by unhealthy food and deeds. Those tumours may grow within the space between the heart and the lower extremity of the abdomen. Some of them are movable and some immovable. They are capable of increasing or decreasing in size, and are generally globular or semi-globular in shape. They grow in five different places, viz. the sides, the heart, the navel, and the intestines”.

Gulmas are of five different kinds, according as they are caused by an abnormal excess of each of the three doshas, separately, and of all the three combined, and by the condensation of the mense-blood of women in the uterous. Both men and women may be affected by the first four, but the fifth, which is called rakta-gulma, is a disease peculiar to women only.

Source: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Gulma refers to a “tumour in abdomen”. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “flowers” [=“shrubs”?], according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.— Accordingly, “[...] According to the Kula teaching (these) are the most excellent Kula trees that give accomplishments and liberation. [...] One should keep the residue of their worship (nirmālya) on one's head and eat (their) fruits. Propitiated, they destroy death and so are said to bestow the accomplishments of the divine Command which gives one the right to have all worldly enjoyments. Indeed, all other trees, flowers [i.e., gulmavṛkṣagulmāni], creepers, vines, and grasses should not be damaged, cut, broken or disturbed”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “clusters (of bamboo canes)”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The comets that resemble clusters of stars are named Gaṇakā Ketus; they are 8 in number and are the sons of Prajāpati. Those that are oblongular in shape, are 204 in number and are the sons of Brahmā. The comets that resemble clusters of bamboo canes [i.e., vaṃśa-gulma] and that are as bright as the moon are named Kaṅkā Ketus; they are the sons of Varuṇa and are 32 in number. When they appear mankind will suffer miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Gulma (गुल्म) or Gulmasaṃdhāraṇī refers to the “(protection of) bushes” as occurring in the Heart-mantra (hṛdayamantra) taught to Vajrapāṇi, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Gulma.—(EI 8, 12), a battalion, squadron or outpost. Cf. Gaulmika. (IE 8-5), a bush; cf. sa-gulma-latāka as an epithet of a gift village. Note: gulma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gulma (गुल्म).—n S A disease, any glandular enlargement, as variously situated, in the abdomen. 2 The spleen. 3 A division of an army of a particular amount and composition. 4 A knot. 5 A bump or tumor. 6 A tangled and dense or a spreading bush. The classification of the four great forms of the vegetable kingdom is tṛṇa, vṛkṣa, gulma, latā Grass or herb, tree, spreading bush, scandent shrub.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gulma (गुल्म).—n Any glandular enlargement in the abdomen. The spleen. A bump or tumour. A division of an army of a particular amount and composition. A tangled and dense bush.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gulma (गुल्म).—[guḍ mak ḍasya laḥ Tv.]

1) A clump or cluster of trees, a thicket, wood, bush; विशालगुल्मं प्ररुज- न्वनस्पतीन् (viśālagulmaṃ praruja- nvanaspatīn) Bhāgavata 8.2.2; Manusmṛti 1.48;7.192;12.58; Y.2.229.

2) A troop of soldiers; i. e. three सेनामुख (senāmukha)s; cf. Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.2.2; a division of an army, consisting of 45 foot, 27 horse, 9 chariots and 9 elephants (according to rājadharmakāṇḍa of kṛtyakalpataru of lakṣmīdhara; cf. also daṇḍaviveka, G. O. S.52, p.31).

3) A fort, entrenchment; मध्यमेन च गुल्मेन रक्षिभिः सा सुरक्षिता (madhyamena ca gulmena rakṣibhiḥ sā surakṣitā), Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.15.11.

4) The spleen.

5) A chronic enlargement of the spleen.

6) A village police-station.

7) A wharf of stairs (Mar. ghāṭa).

8) Disciplining an army, keeping it in a posture of defence.

9) War-camp; तथैव गुल्मे संप्रेक्ष्य शयानान्मध्यगौल्मिकान् (tathaiva gulme saṃprekṣya śayānānmadhyagaulmikān) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.8.41.

1) A tent; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.86.54.

-lmī 1 A cluster or clump of trees.

2) Jujube.

3) Small cardamoms.

4) A tent.

Derivable forms: gulmaḥ (गुल्मः), gulmam (गुल्मम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gulma (गुल्म).—m.

(-lmaḥ) 1. The division of an army, a body of troops, consisting of nine platoons, or nine elephants, nine chariots, twenty-seven horse, and forty-five foot. 2. The spleen. 3. A shrub, a bush. 4. A clump of grass, &c. 5. A fort, an intrenchment. 6. Disciplining an army, keeping it in a posture of defence. 7. A wharf or stairs, a Ghat. 8. A disease; according to some, a chronic enlargement of the spleen, but as variously situated, it is any glandular enlargement in the abdomen, as that of the mesenteric gland, &c. so as to be perceived externally. f. (-lmī) 1. A tent. 2. Emblic myrobalan also āmalakī. 3. Small cardamoms: see elā. 4. A cluster or clump of trees, a muititude of thickets. 5. A kind of plant, commonly Kurkavali. E. guḍa to surround, mak affix, ḍa changed to la.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gulma (गुल्म).—m. and n. 1. A shrub, Mahābhārata 13, 2992. 2. A body of troops, consisting of 9 elephants, 9 chariots, 27 horses, and 45 foot, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 266. 3. A morbose swelling in the belly, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 15, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gulma (गुल्म).—[masculine] ([neuter]) shrub, bush, thicket; a troop or guard of soldiers.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gulma (गुल्म):—m. (rarely n., [Mahābhārata x; Bhāgavata-purāṇa viii, x]) a cluster or clump of trees, thicket, bush, shrub, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxv, 8; Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc.

2) a troop or guard of soldiers, body of troops, division of an army (consisting of 45 foot, 27 horse, 9 chariots, and 9 elephants, [Mahābhārata i, 290]; or of 135 foot, 81 horse, 27 chariots, and 27 elephants, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; cf. [Mahābhārata v, 5270]), [Manu-smṛti vii, ix; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) a fort, entrenchment, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) disciplining an army, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) a chronic enlargement of the spleen or any glandular enlargement in the abdomen (as that of the mesenteric gland etc.), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka xxi, 8; Kathāsaritsāgara xv]

6) m. the spleen, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) ‘a wharf or stairs, [Ghaṭakarpara]’ See -tara-paṇya

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gulma (गुल्म):—(lmaḥ) 1. m. The division of an army, 9 elephants, 9 chariots, 27 horse, and 45 foot; a shrub; a fort; the spleen; a disease; discipline; a ghāt. (lmī) f. A tent; a thicket.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gulma (गुल्म) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Gumma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gulma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Gulma (गुल्म) [Also spelled gulm]:—(nm) a cluster of plants; a kind of shrub; (in olden times) division of an army.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gulma (ಗುಲ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] a cluster of shrubs, underbush or small trees; a thicket.

2) [noun] a unit or subdivision of an army consisting of nine elephants, nine chariots, twenty-seven horses and fortyfive foot soldiers.

3) [noun] a large, vascular, lymphatic organ in the upper left part of the abdominal cavity of vertebrates, near the stomach, that has various functions in modifying the structure of the blood and forms part of the immune system; the spleen.

4) [noun] a particular disease of the spleen.

5) [noun] a kind of tropical tree.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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