Gulma: 26 definitions
Gulma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Gulm.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Gulma (गुल्म) refers to a “tumor”, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and Suśruta-saṃhitā.
2) Gulma is a Sanskrit medical term used in Ayurveda meaning “abdominal glands”.
3) Gulma (गुल्म, “bush, shrub”).—One the classifications of plants according to their stature. Gulmas are succelent scrubs of various types (like Bhāṭhā). The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.
Gulma is listed as a classification for plants in the following sources:
The Manusmṛti 1.46-48 by Manu (also known as the Manusaṃhitā and Mānavadharmaśāstra).
The Kiraṇāvalī by Udayanācārya, which is a commentary on the Praśastapādabhāṣya.
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to a tree (mahīja) without a trunk, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Gulma] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.
Note: from root to stem (where from branching starts) the position is known as ‘Prakāṇḍa’, therefore a Gulma is that tree, which starts branching from the very ground. This is more indicative of a shrub.Source: Google Books: Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam: Essentials of Ayurveda
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “abdominal mass”.—Gulma is a disorder characterized by tumour-like hard (round) mass unstable in size and consistency, moving or immobile, situated in bowel and caused predominantly by vāta. The symptoms of the disease are as follows—loss of digestion, anorexia, difficulty in excretion of urine, faeces and flatus; hard flatulence, upward movement of wind and gurgling sound.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “visceral induration”, mentioned in verse 4.15-17 and 5.13-14 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Visceral induration [viz., gulma], heart-disease, and stupor (result) from suppressed panting with fatigue. In this case relaxation (is) wholesome and the wind-destroying method of treatment. [...] catarrh, pain in the eyes, the head, and the heart, stiffness of the neck, anorexia, and giddiness—along with visceral induration [viz., gulma]— (result) from (suppressed) tears. In this case sleep, liquor, (and) cheerful words (are wholesome) ”.
Note (verse 15): The dvandva compound gulmahṛdrogasaṃmoha—“visceral induration, heartdisease, and stupor” has been represented somewhat incongruously by skran daṅ sñiṅ nad myos-par ’gyur, lit. “one gets sick with visceral induration and in the heart (as well as) stuporous”. Were it not for the terminative myos-par, one would rather translate: “visceral induration, heart-disease, (and) stupor are caused”.Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “abdominal lump”. Medicinal formulations in the management of this condition include 22 references of Vatsanābha usages. Guṭikā is maximum (16) dosage form in the management of Gulma. Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “phantom tumours”, and is dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha (chapter 6) written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs during that time, disease (viz., gulma) manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “chlorosis” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning gulma] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Gulma (गुल्म):—Plants with multiple stems arising from one root & with a drooping canopy; Shrubs
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to “branchless shrubs”. These plants are used to mark the boundary between two villages. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.247)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Gulma (गुल्म).—See under Akṣauhiṇī.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Gulma (गुल्म).—A son of Sārāṇa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 165.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Gulma (गुल्म) is the name of a son of Somaśarman, a Brāhman from Supratiṣṭhita, whose storiers are related in the ‘story of Guṇāḍhya’, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara chapter 6. Somaśarman had 2 sons named Vatsa and Gulma, and he also had a daughter named Śrutārthā.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Gulma, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Gulma (गुल्म) refers to a “kind of tumour in the belly” according to the fifth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 11). Accordingly, “Gulmas are a kind of tumour growing in the belly. They are due to an abnormal excess of the three doshas, caused, of course, by unhealthy food and deeds. Those tumours may grow within the space between the heart and the lower extremity of the abdomen. Some of them are movable and some immovable. They are capable of increasing or decreasing in size, and are generally globular or semi-globular in shape. They grow in five different places, viz. the sides, the heart, the navel, and the intestines”.
Gulmas are of five different kinds, according as they are caused by an abnormal excess of each of the three doshas, separately, and of all the three combined, and by the condensation of the mense-blood of women in the uterous. Both men and women may be affected by the first four, but the fifth, which is called rakta-gulma, is a disease peculiar to women only.Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy
Gulma refers to a “tumour in abdomen”. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Gulma.—(EI 8, 12), a battalion, squadron or outpost. Cf. Gaulmika. (IE 8-5), a bush; cf. sa-gulma-latāka as an epithet of a gift village. Note: gulma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
gulma (गुल्म).—n S A disease, any glandular enlargement, as variously situated, in the abdomen. 2 The spleen. 3 A division of an army of a particular amount and composition. 4 A knot. 5 A bump or tumor. 6 A tangled and dense or a spreading bush. The classification of the four great forms of the vegetable kingdom is tṛṇa, vṛkṣa, gulma, latā Grass or herb, tree, spreading bush, scandent shrub.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
gulma (गुल्म).—n Any glandular enlargement in the abdomen. The spleen. A bump or tumour. A division of an army of a particular amount and composition. A tangled and dense bush.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Gulma (गुल्म).—[guḍ mak ḍasya laḥ Tv.]
1) A clump or cluster of trees, a thicket, wood, bush; विशालगुल्मं प्ररुज- न्वनस्पतीन् (viśālagulmaṃ praruja- nvanaspatīn) Bhāg.8.2.2; Ms.1.48;7.192;12.58; Y.2.229.
2) A troop of soldiers; i. e. three सेनामुख (senāmukha)s; cf. Mb.1.2.2; a division of an army, consisting of 45 foot, 27 horse, 9 chariots and 9 elephants (according to rājadharmakāṇḍa of kṛtyakalpataru of lakṣmīdhara; cf. also daṇḍaviveka, G. O. S.52, p.31).
3) A fort, entrenchment; मध्यमेन च गुल्मेन रक्षिभिः सा सुरक्षिता (madhyamena ca gulmena rakṣibhiḥ sā surakṣitā), Mb.3.15.11.
4) The spleen.
5) A chronic enlargement of the spleen.
6) A village police-station.
7) A wharf of stairs (Mar. ghāṭa).
8) Disciplining an army, keeping it in a posture of defence.
9) War-camp; तथैव गुल्मे संप्रेक्ष्य शयानान्मध्यगौल्मिकान् (tathaiva gulme saṃprekṣya śayānānmadhyagaulmikān) Mb. 1.8.41.
1) A tent; Mb.6.86.54.
-lmī 1 A cluster or clump of trees.
3) Small cardamoms.
4) A tent.
Derivable forms: gulmaḥ (गुल्मः), gulmam (गुल्मम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-lmaḥ) 1. The division of an army, a body of troops, consisting of nine platoons, or nine elephants, nine chariots, twenty-seven horse, and forty-five foot. 2. The spleen. 3. A shrub, a bush. 4. A clump of grass, &c. 5. A fort, an intrenchment. 6. Disciplining an army, keeping it in a posture of defence. 7. A wharf or stairs, a Ghat. 8. A disease; according to some, a chronic enlargement of the spleen, but as variously situated, it is any glandular enlargement in the abdomen, as that of the mesenteric gland, &c. so as to be perceived externally. f. (-lmī) 1. A tent. 2. Emblic myrobalan also āmalakī. 3. Small cardamoms: see elā. 4. A cluster or clump of trees, a muititude of thickets. 5. A kind of plant, commonly Kurkavali. E. guḍa to surround, mak affix, ḍa changed to la.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gulma (गुल्म).—m. and n. 1. A shrub, Mahābhārata 13, 2992. 2. A body of troops, consisting of 9 elephants, 9 chariots, 27 horses, and 45 foot, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 266. 3. A morbose swelling in the belly, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 15, 14.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gulma (गुल्म).—[masculine] ([neuter]) shrub, bush, thicket; a troop or guard of soldiers.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Gulma (गुल्म):—m. (rarely n., [Mahābhārata x; Bhāgavata-purāṇa viii, x]) a cluster or clump of trees, thicket, bush, shrub, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxv, 8; Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc.
2) a troop or guard of soldiers, body of troops, division of an army (consisting of 45 foot, 27 horse, 9 chariots, and 9 elephants, [Mahābhārata i, 290]; or of 135 foot, 81 horse, 27 chariots, and 27 elephants, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; cf. [Mahābhārata v, 5270]), [Manu-smṛti vii, ix; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) a fort, entrenchment, [Horace H. Wilson]
4) disciplining an army, [Horace H. Wilson]
5) a chronic enlargement of the spleen or any glandular enlargement in the abdomen (as that of the mesenteric gland etc.), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka xxi, 8; Kathāsaritsāgara xv]
6) m. the spleen, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) ‘a wharf or stairs, [Ghaṭakarpara]’ See -tara-paṇyaSource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Gulma (गुल्म):—(lmaḥ) 1. m. The division of an army, 9 elephants, 9 chariots, 27 horse, and 45 foot; a shrub; a fort; the spleen; a disease; discipline; a ghāt. (lmī) f. A tent; a thicket.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
1) m. n. (das letztere selten, aber [SIDDH. 249,a,3] als allein gültig aufgeführt) a) Strauch, Busch [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 1, 9. 3, 2, 1. 3, 4, 23, 144.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 296.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1120.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 322] (lies: stamba st. stambha) [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 11.] [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 25, 8.] gucchagulmam (vgl. [Kullūka] u. guccha) [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 1, 48.] vṛkṣagulmāvṛta [7, 192.] kubjakagulmān [8, 247. 330. 11, 142. 12, 58.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 229. 3, 276.] [Hiḍimbavadha 1, 12. 18.] [Nalopākhyāna 11, 9.] sthāvarāṇāṃ ca bhūtānāṃ jātayaḥ ṣaṭprakīrtitāḥ . vṛkṣagulmalatāvallyastvaksārāstṛṇajātayaḥ .. [Mahābhārata 13, 2992. 6, 171.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 9, 12. 3, 21, 16. 35, 42.] parṇagulmavṛtāṃ śākhām [5, 20, 37.] [Suśruta 2, 451, 2.] vanagulma [Nalopākhyāna 13, 10.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 3, 67,] [Scholiast] tarugulmāni [Śākuntala 179, v. l.] śara [Mahābhārata 13, 4204.] vetrakīcakaveṇūnāṃ gulmāni [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8, 4, 17.] Am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā [Mahābhārata 1, 5320.] gulmakeśa dessen Haupthaare einem Busche gleichen [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 206.] — b) ein Trupp Soldaten, Piquet, Soldatenposten [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 23, 144.] dvayostrayāṇāṃ pañcānāṃ madhye gulmamadhiṣṭhitam . tathā grāmaśatānāṃ ca kuryādrāṣṭrasya saṃgraham .. [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 114.] gulmāṃśca sthāpayet [190.] gulmaiḥ sthāvarajaṅgamaiḥ [?9, 226. Mahābhārata 10, 419 (Nalopākhyāna). 12, 2601. Rāmāyaṇa 6, 31, 3.] utkṣiptagulmaiḥ [Mahābhārata 3, 646.] madhyama ebend. [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 9, 18. 12, 20.] Im System: 45 Fusssoldaten, 27 Reiter, 9 Wagen und 9 Elephanten [Mahābhārata 1, 290.] [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 2, 49.] 135 Fusss., 81 Reiter, 27 Wagen und 27 Eleph. [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 748.] narāṇāṃ pañcapañcāśadeṣā pattirvidhīyate . senāmukhaṃ ca tisrastā gulma ityabhiśabditam .. [Mahābhārata 5, 5270.] = sainyabheda und sainyoparakṣaṇa [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] = senābhid und sainyarakṣaṇa [Medinīkoṣa] — c) Milz [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 2, 17.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 605.] — d) krankhafte Anschwellungen verschiedener Art im Unterleibe [Hindu System of Medicine 337. fgg.] [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 23, 144.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 469.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] Eingetheilt in pittagulma, kapha, vāta, śleṣma, rakta und saṃnipātotthita [Suśruta 2, 451. fgg.] hṛdvastyorantare ([Śabdakalpadruma]: hṛnnābhyora) granthiḥ saṃcārī yadi vācalaḥ . cayāpacayavānvṛttaḥ sa gulma iti kīrtitaḥ .. [450, 19. 1, 53, 8. 111, 5. 162, 21.] tenaiva cāsya gulmo ntaḥśokena hyudapadyata [Kathāsaritsāgara 15, 14.] — e) eine Art Landungsplatz am Flussufer, = ghaṭṭabheda [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 296.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —
2) f. ī a) Gebüsch, Gehölz. — b) Myrobalanenbaum (s. āmalakī) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] (lies: elā vanī). — c) Judendorn [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] — d) Kardamomen. — e) Zelt [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa]
--- OR ---
1) b) n. [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 10, 80, 16.] [Z. 4 lies 9, 266 Stenzler 9, 226.] — d) [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 23 (21), 8.] — Vgl. jala, nirgulma, mahāgulmā, vātagulma, vāyu .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) m. n. (selten) — a) Strauch , Busch. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — b) ein Trupp Soldaten , Piquet , Soldatenposten. Im System 45 (*135) Fusssoldaten , 27 (*81) Reiter , 9(*27) Wagen und 9 (*27) Elephanten. —
2) m. — a) krankhafte Anschwellungen verschiedener Art im Unterleibe. — b) *Milz. — c) *eine Art Landungsplatz an einem Flussufer. —
3) *f. ī — a) Gebüsch , Gehölz. — b) Myrobalanenbaum. — c) Judendorn. — d) Kardamomen. — e) Zelt.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Gulma (गुल्म) [Also spelled gulm]:—(nm) a cluster of plants; a kind of shrub; (in olden times) division of an army.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+6): Gulma-deya, Gulmagandhika, Gulmaghna, Gulmaka, Gulmakalanala, Gulmakalananarasa, Gulmakesha, Gulmaketu, Gulmakushtha, Gulmala, Gulmamula, Gulmanashana, Gulmanisudani, Gulmanivarana, Gulmanivasina, Gulmapati, Gulmaroga, Gulmarsha, Gulmashardula, Gulmatarapanya.
Ends with (+9): Agulma, Atigulma, Cakragulma, Garbhagulma, Gucchagulma, Jalagulma, Kaphagulma, Krishnagulma, Kubjakagulma, Kupyakagulma, Mahagulma, Nalinagulma, Nalinigulma, Nicayagulma, Nirgulma, Padmagulma, Pittagulma, Raktagulma, Sharagulma, Shleshmagulma.
Full-text (+105): Vayugulma, Gaulmika, Gulmamula, Vatagulma, Gulmaketu, Gulmin, Raktagulma, Jalagulma, Gulmakushtha, Gulmakesha, Gulmavata, Nirgulma, Gulmodara, Gulmini, Vanagulma, Vrikshagulma, Pittagulma, Gulmaka, Ganam, Gulmavat.
Search found 28 books and stories containing Gulma; (plurals include: Gulmas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter XLII - Symptoms and Treatment of Abdominal Tumors (Gulma) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter LVII - Symptoms and Treatment of aversion to food (Arochaka) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter LXII - Symptoms and Treatment of Insanity (Unmada) < [Canto IV - Bhuta-vidya-tantra (psychology and psychiatry)]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CLX - The Nidanam of abscesses etc. < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CCXV - Various Recipes < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CLVI - The Nidanam of Hæmorrhoids < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 5: Treatment of various afflictions (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CLVI < [Bhagavat-Yana Parva]
Section IV < [Jambukhanda Nirmana Parva]
Section II < [Sangraha Parva]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 5 - Taking of tin < [Chapter VI - Metals (6): Vanga (tin)]
Part 2 - Semi-poison (2): Arka < [Chapter XXXI - Upavisha (semi-poisons)]
Part 1 - Semi-poison (1): Snuhi < [Chapter XXXI - Upavisha (semi-poisons)]
Sushruta Samhita, volume 2: Nidanasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)