Tilaka, Tilakā: 26 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Tilaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Tilaka (तिलक) refers to a type of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the foreherad (lalāṭa) to be worn by females, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23.

Tilaka (तिलक) also refers to an ornament for the cheeks (gaṇḍa or kapola) to be worn by females. Such ornaments for females should be used in cases of human females and celestial beings (gods and goddesses).

Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., tilaka) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Tilaka is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Tilaka (तिलक).—The tilaka on the forehead should be produced by many artistic touches, and by group of designs above the eyebrows should imitate flowers.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Natyashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Tilaka (तिलक) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Miśraka, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56. The Miśraka group contains nine out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under four groups in this chapter. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Vastushastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Tilaka (तिलक).—Sacred clay markings placed on the forehead and other parts of the body to designate one as a follower of Viṣṇu, Rāma, Śiva, Vedic culture, etc.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Tilaka (तिलक) refers to:—Clay markings worn on the forehead and other parts of the body by Vaiṣṇavas, signifying their devotion to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, or Śrī Viṣṇu, and consecrating the body as the Lord’s temple. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Tilaka (तिलक) refers to a “clay markings worn on the forehead and other parts of the body by Vaiṣṇavas” (signifying their devotion to Śrī kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu and consecrating their body as the Lord’s temple), according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Accordingly, while explaining the traditional procedure for applying tilaka:—[...] Use this water [from the pañcapātra] and gopī-candana to form a paste in the left hand, or [if candana is not available], use tulasī soil taken from the base of the plant. Then, with the twelve mantras beginning with oṃ keśavāya namaḥ, apply tilaka to the twelve different parts of the body, beginning with the forehead, by drawing the ūrdhva-puṇḍra (two vertical lines) representing the temple of Śrī hari. Starting from the centre of the eyebrows, form two vertical lines on the forehead that reach up to the beginning of the hairline.

The mantra to invoke remembrance of the twelve names of the Lord [is called] dvādaśa-nāma-smaraṇa-mantra.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Vaishnavism from relevant books on Exotic India

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Tilakā (तिलका) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., tilakā) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Tilaka (तिलक) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Tilaka has 17 mātrās in each of its four lines, divided into the groups of 4, 5, [ISI] and [SS] mātrās.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Chandas from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Tilaka (तिलक) refers to the “small circular mark on the forehead”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.18. Accordingly, “[...] the Tripuṇḍraka (the three parallel lines of ash marks over the forehead) is the essence of Trinity: Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra. Similarly Maheśvara has retained the esence of everything in the form of Tilaka (the small circular mark) on the forehead”.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Tilaka (तिलक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. ) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Tilaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Tilaka (तिलक) refers to “non-elevated mole” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning tilaka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Tilaka (तिलक) is the name of the caitya-tree under which the parents of Kunthu are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Kunthu is the seventeenth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Sūra according to Śvetāmbara or Sūryasena according to Digambara and his mother is Śrī, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Tilaka (तिलक) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the 1st century Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Tilaka tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Tilaka (तिलक) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Tilaka] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Tilaka, (tila+ka, from its resemblance to a sesame seed) 1. a spot, stain, mole, freckle M. I, 88; S. I, 170; VvA. 253; DhA. IV, 172 (°ṃ vā kālakaṃ vā adisvā).—2. a kind of tree Vv 67 (=bandhu-jīvaka-puppha-sadisa-pupphā ekā rukkha-jāti). (Page 304)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṭiḷaka (टिळक).—m (tilaka S) The spot or line made with colored earths or unguents upon the forehead. It is considered either as an ornament or as a sectarial distinction. 2 fig. A term for any leading or eminent member of a family or community viewed as the grace or ornament of it. Ex. śiṣya ṭiḷakā sāṅgījati || tī āikā yēkāgra tū ||.

--- OR ---

ṭiḷakā (टिळका).—m (ṭiḷaka) A drop (of oil, ghee, milk, water); a glossy globule like a ṭiḷaka.

--- OR ---

tilaka (तिलक).—m (S) A mark made with colored earths or unguents upon the forehead; either as an ornament or as a sectarial distinction.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ṭiḷaka (टिळक).—m The spot or line made with coloured earths or unguents upon the forehead. A term for any leading or eminent member of a family or com- munity.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tilaka (तिलक).—[til-kvun, tila ivārthe svalpe vā kan vā]

1) A species of tree with beautiful flowers; Rām.2.94.9; आक्रान्ता तिलकक्रियापि तिलकैर्लीनद्विरेफाञ्जनैः (ākrāntā tilakakriyāpi tilakairlīnadvirephāñjanaiḥ) M.3,5; न खलु शोभयति स्म वनस्थलीं न तिलकस्तिलकः प्रमदामिव (na khalu śobhayati sma vanasthalīṃ na tilakastilakaḥ pramadāmiva) R.9.41. Kālidāsa describes the beauty of this tree as being akin to that of the saffron-mark on the forehead of a woman. The name suggests a relation to tila. the sesame plant, Sesamum indicum Linn. Now this plant has got flowers that have got a very pretty appearance. It is a shrub and not a tree. It grows four to five feet in height. Its flower has five petals. The lower petal is the longest. In wild variety there is a promiment spot on the longest petal which is highly suggestive of the saffron-mark on the forehead of a woman.

2) A freckle or natural mark under the skin.

3) The sesamum tree.

-kaḥ, -kam 1 A mark made with sandalwood or unguents &c.; मुखे मधुश्री- स्तिलकं प्रकाश्य (mukhe madhuśrī- stilakaṃ prakāśya) Ku.3.3; कस्तूरिकातिलकमालि विधाय सायम् (kastūrikātilakamāli vidhāya sāyam) Bv.2.4;1.121.

2) The ornament of anything (used at the end of comp. in the sense of 'best', 'chief' or 'distinguished'); कुल° (kula°); जीवलोक° (jīvaloka°) Māl.9.21; यस्य न विपदि विषादः संपदि हर्षो रणे न भीरुत्वम् । तं भुवनत्रयतिलकं जनयति जननी सुतं विरलम् (yasya na vipadi viṣādaḥ saṃpadi harṣo raṇe na bhīrutvam | taṃ bhuvanatrayatilakaṃ janayati jananī sutaṃ viralam) || Pt.1.15.

3) The burden of a song (dhruvaka).

-kā A kind of necklace.

-kam 1 The bladder.

2) The right lung.

3) A kind of salt.

4) A kind of disease, the appearance of dark spots on the skin without any inflammation.

5) Alliteration.

Derivable forms: tilakaḥ (तिलकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tilaka (तिलक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. Spotted, freckled, a person having moles or spots. 2. Chief, principal. mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) A mark or marks made with coloured earths or unguents upon the forehead, and between the eye-brows, either as an ornament or a sectarial distinction. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A freckle, a natural mark on the person. 2. A kind of tree, commonly Tila. 3. A sort of horse. 4. A title, especially in composition, implying pre-eminence, as raghuvaṃśatilakaḥ the Tilaka of the race of Raghu, a name of Rama. n.

(-kaṃ) 1. The bladder. 2. Black Sochal salt, a factitious salt, containing sulphur and iron, &c. 3. A disease, the appearance of dark spots on the skin, unattended with inflammation. f.

(-kā) A kind of necklace. E. tila sesamum, &c. kan added, or til to go or be unctuous, and kvun aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tilaka (तिलक).—[tila + ka], m. (and n.). 1. The name of a tree, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 91, 48. 2. A freckle, a mole, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 5, 32. 3. A mark made on the forehead and between the eyebrows, either as an ornament or as a sectarial distinction, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 22, 8. 4. Ornament, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 1, 47.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tilaka (तिलक).—[masculine] [Name] of a tree; freckle, mole, spot under the skin; coloured mark, [especially] on the forehead either as an ornament or a sectarian distinction (also [neuter]); the ornament or pride of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Tilaka (तिलक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a family name among the Mahraṭṭas. Hall. p. 94.

2) Tilaka (तिलक):—Kāvyaprakāśaṭīkā.

3) Tilaka (तिलक):—Yogabhāṣyaṭīkā by Vācaspatimiśra. Bik. 569.

4) Tilaka (तिलक):—Rāmāyaṇaṭīkā by Rāma. Oppert. Ii, 4886.

5) Tilaka (तिलक):—father of Rucaka: Udbhaṭaviveka q. v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tilaka (तिलक):—[from til] m. ([gana] sthūlādi) Clerodendrum phlomoides (Symplocos racemosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a freckle (compared to a sesamum-seed), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā l, 9; lii, 10; Kathāsaritsāgara]

3) [v.s. ...] a kind of skin-eruption, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] (in music) Name of a Dhruvaka

5) [v.s. ...] a kind of horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a prince of Kampanā, [Rājataraṅgiṇī viii, 577 ff]

7) [v.s. ...] m. (n., [Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha ii, 57]) a mark on the forehead (made with coloured earths, sandal-wood, or unguents, either as an ornament or a sectarial distinction), [Yājñavalkya i, 293; Mahābhārata iii, 11591; Rāmāyaṇa] (ifc. f(ā). , [iii]) etc.

8) [v.s. ...] m. the ornament of anything (in [compound]), [Pañcatantra i, 1, 92; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Rājataraṅgiṇī iii, 375])

9) [v.s. ...] n. idem, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] the right lung, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] black sochal salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] alliteration, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

13) [v.s. ...] a metre of 4 x 6 syllables

14) [v.s. ...] = tri-ślokī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] a kind of observance, [Kālanirṇaya [Introduction] 12]

16) Tilakā (तिलका):—[from tilaka > til] f. a kind of necklace, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] cf. eṇa-, kha-, vasanta-

18) [v.s. ...] ūrdhva-tilakin.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of tilaka in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: