Shosha, Sosa, Śoṣa: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Shosha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śoṣa can be transliterated into English as Sosa or Shosha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Śoṣa (शोष) refers to “xerostomia” or “desiccation”, mentioned in verse 4.11-15 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Xerostomia [viz., śoṣa], flaccidity of limbs, deafness, stupor, giddiness, and heart-disease (result) from the restraint of thirst. In this ease every cold application (is) wholesome. [...] From the stoppage of cough (result) its increase, dyspnea, anorexia, heart-disease, desiccation [viz., śoṣa], and hiccup. In this case a still more cough-destroying application (is) to be made”.

Note: Śoṣa (verse 11) denotes any kind of desiccation and is not specified in the commentaries, has been paraphrased by kha (b)skams (“one’s mouth is dry”) and hence may be understood as xerostomia.—Śoṣa (“desiccation”) [in verse 15] has been rendered skem(s)-byed—(“making dry”) which, properly speaking, is the epithet of a demon that causes drought in general and desiccation of the body in particular. In Mahāvyutpatti 4761 it is equated to Skanda (“Attacker”), a name of Kārttikeya, who, among other things, is leader of the demons of children’s diseases (cf. VI.3.11). The word may also be used in the metonymical sense of drought and desiccation as such.

Śoṣa (“xerostomia”) is sometimes synonymous to śopha, according to verse 3.29 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā.—The copulative compound śopha-śaithilya-dāha-moha (“cutaneous swellings, flaccidity, heat, and stupor”) has been resolved into a series of predicatively used adjectives: kha bskams lhod thsa daṅ rmoṅs-pa (“dry in the mouth, flaccid, hot, and stuporous”). For śopha (“cutaneous swelling”) the translators read apparently śoṣa (“xerostomia”, given as a variant in the Kottayam edition); CD write kha skom instead of kha bskams, which would mean “thirsty in the mouth”.

Śoṣa is also used as a synonym of Rājayakṣman (“consumption”).—Śośin (“suffering from desiccation”) has been paraphrased by lus skyem gyur, lit. “having become thirsty as to the body”. Śoṣa serves as a synonym of rājayakṣman (“consumption”) which is called “desiccation” on the ground that it desiccates the elements (rasādiśoṣaṇac choṣaḥ III.5.3). Hemādri offers mukhaśoṣa (“xerostomia”) as an alternative interpretation, quoting Suśrutasaṃhitā IV.24.24:—“(Betel is) not good for those affected with hemorrhage, pulmonary rupture and consumption, thirst, and stupor, for those who are rough, weak, and drunk, (and) for those suffering from xerostomia”.

Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)

Śoṣa (शोष) refers to “destroying disease”. Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Śoṣa (शोष) refers to “emaciation” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning śoṣa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Śoṣa (शोष, “drying”) or Śoṣaṇa refers to one of the “seven means” (saptopāya) to be performed when a mantra does not manifest its effect, as explained in the 10th-century Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.104-105. Śoṣa, which aims to dry up the mantra, should be performed. The practitioner attaches the bījas of Vāyu, the god of Wind, to it, and keeps the written mantra around his neck. The last resort is the dahanīya, which aims to burn the mantra at the stake.

Accordingly, “if the nourished [mantra] does not have an effect, one should perform the śoṣaṇa (drying up). One should [attach] the mantra to double bījas [of Vāyu (i.e. yaṃ)], in the vidarbhaṇa manner. The vidyā written with the ashes of the vaṭa (banyan) should be kept around his neck. If the dried [mantra] does not have an effect, one should perform the dahanīya (burning) with Agni’s bīja (i.e., raṃ)”.

Note on śoṣa-poṣaṇa: the Tattvacintāmaṇi (20.94) and Bṛhattantrasāra (4.47) support poṣa-soṣaṇa and the Dīkṣāprakāśa supports poṣaṇa-śoṣaṇa. They are explained in order of poṣaṇa and śoṣaṇa, as we see below. Note on vidarbhaṇa: it is the method of arranging an alternating bīja and an akṣara of the mantra. Note on vaṭabhasma: the Tattvacintāmaṇi (20.105) and Bṛhattantrasāra (4.54) support varabhasma (ashes of turmeric?).

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Śoṣa (शोष) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Śoṣa).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sosa : (m.) drying up; consumption.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sosa, (fr. śuṣ) drying up, consumption Vin. I, 71; Vism. 345. (Page 726)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śōṣa (शोष).—m (S) Drying up; drawing forth the moisture of: also drawing in or sucking up of moisture or liquor, absorbing. 2 Absorbedness, drawn and desiccated state. 3 Absorbing or sucking quality; dryness and eagerness after moisture (as of ashes, lime &c.) 4 Drought or great dryness (of weather, wells, rivers--pāṇyācā śōṣa). 5 Inordinate and raging thirst. 6 Pulmonary consumption.

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sōśā (सोशा).—a (Imit. sōṃ! sōṃ! the sound fancied.) That comes in sudden puffs and gusts, or that comes in a puff--wind.

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sōsa (सोस).—m (sōsaṇēṃ) Holding in; restraining one's self; enduring or bearing. v dhara. 2 Suffering or bearing generally. v kara.

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sōsa (सोस).—m (śōṣa S) Strong longing or desire. In good or bad sense. v ghē. 2 In its other senses the word is viewed rather as corrupted than as derived from śōṣa, which see throughout. sōsā sōsānēṃ or sōsēṃ sōsēṃ Eagerly, cravingly, with impatient or earnest desire.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śōṣa (शोष).—m Drying up. Absorbedness. Inor- dinate and raging thirst.

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sōsa (सोस).—m Strong longing or desire; enduring.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śoṣa (शोष).—[śuṣ-ghañ]

1) Drying up, dryness; ह्रदशोषविक्लवाम् (hradaśoṣaviklavām) Ku.4.39; so आस्यशोषः, कण्ठशोषः (āsyaśoṣaḥ, kaṇṭhaśoṣaḥ) &c.

2) Emaciation, withering up; शरीरशोषः, कुसुमशोषः (śarīraśoṣaḥ, kusumaśoṣaḥ) &c.; पुनः शोषं गमिष्यामि निरम्बुर्निरवग्रहः (punaḥ śoṣaṃ gamiṣyāmi niramburniravagrahaḥ) Mb.3.7.5.

3) Pulmonary consumption or consumption in general; संशोषणाद् रसादीनां शोष इत्यभिधीयते (saṃśoṣaṇād rasādīnāṃ śoṣa ityabhidhīyate) Suśr.; शोषोत्सर्गे कर्मभिर्देहमोक्षे सरस्वत्यः श्रेयसे संप्रवृत्ताः (śoṣotsarge karmabhirdehamokṣe sarasvatyaḥ śreyase saṃpravṛttāḥ) Mb.13. 76.12.

Derivable forms: śoṣaḥ (शोषः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śoṣa (शोष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. Pulmonary consumption. 2. Drying up, dryness. 3. Intumescence, swelling. 4. Emaciation, withering. E. śuṣ to dry, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śoṣa (शोष).—i. e. śuṣ + a, m. 1. Drying up, [Pañcatantra] 51, 5; 159, 15. 2. Exsiccation, ib. 76, 11. 3. Pulmonary consumption.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śoṣa (शोष).—1. [adjective] drying up, parching, removing, destroying; [masculine] exsiccation, drought, consumption.

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Śoṣa (शोष).—2. [masculine] breath, vital energy.

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Soṣa (सोष).—[adjective] mixed with alkaline earth.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śoṣa (शोष):—[from śuṣ] a etc. See 1. śoṣa, p. 1092, col. 2.

2) [from śuṣ] b See 2. śoṣa, p. 1092, col. 2.

3) 1. śoṣa mfn. ([from] √1. śuṣ) drying up, desiccating (also [figuratively] = ‘removing, destroying’), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) m. the act of drying up, desiccation, dryness, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

5) pulmonary consumption (also personified as an evil demon), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

6) (also [wrong reading] for śotha or śopha.)

7) 2. śoṣa m. ([from] √śū = śvi; cf. śūṣa) breath, vital energy, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] ([Mahīdhara])

8) Soṣa (सोष):—mfn. mixed with salt earth (See ūṣa), [Yājñavalkya]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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